N. Barnea - Hebrew University

N. Barnea
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N. Barnea
Hebrew University

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Nuclear Theory (41)
Nuclear Experiment (18)
Physics - Atomic Physics (10)
Mathematical Physics (4)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (4)
Physics - Computational Physics (4)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (4)
High Energy Physics - Lattice (3)
Mathematics - Representation Theory (2)
Physics - Superconductivity (1)
Quantum Physics (1)

Publications Authored By N. Barnea

The contact formalism, a useful tool for analyzing short-range correlations, is generalized here for systems with coupled channels, such as in nuclear physics. The relevant asymptotic form is presented and contact matrices are defined. Generally, for the case of two coupled channels, two two-body functions are included in the asymptotic form, resulting a 2 x 2 contact matrix. Read More

$\eta NNN$ and $\eta NNNN$ bound states are explored in stochastic variational method (SVM) calculations within a pionless effective field theory (EFT) approach at leading order. The theoretical input consists of regulated $NN$ and $NNN$ contact terms, and a regulated energy dependent $\eta N$ contact term derived from coupled-channel models of the $N^{\ast}(1535)$ nucleon resonance. A self consistency procedure is applied to deal with the energy dependence of the $\eta N$ subthreshold input, resulting in a weak dependence of the calculated $\eta$-nuclear binding energies on the EFT regulator. Read More

We analyze the quark-mass dependence of electromagnetic properties of two and three-nucleon states. To that end, we apply the pionless effective field theory to experimental data and numerical lattice calculations which simulate QCD at pion masses of 450~MeV and 806~MeV. At the physical pion mass, we postdict the magnetic moment of helium-3, $\mu_{^3He}=-2. Read More

The Non-Symmetrized Hyperspherical Harmonics method (NSHH) is introduced in the hypernuclear sector and benchmarked with three different ab-initio methods, namely the Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo method, the Faddeev-Yakubovsky approach and the Gaussian Expansion Method. Binding energies and hyperon separation energies of three- to five-body hypernuclei are calculated by employing the two-body $\Lambda$N component of the phenomenological Bodmer-Usmani potential, and a hyperon-nucleon interaction simulating the scattering phase shifts given by NSC97f. The range of applicability of the NSHH method is briefly discussed. Read More

For many-body systems with short range interaction a series of relations were derived connecting many properties of the system to the dynamics of a closely packed few-body subsystems. Some of these relations were experimentally verified in ultra cold atomic gases. Here we shall review the implications of these developments on our understanding of nuclear one and two-body momentum distributions, and on the electron scattering Coulomb sum rule. Read More

Atomic nuclei are complex strongly interacting systems and their exact theoretical description is a long-standing challenge. An approximate description of nuclei can be achieved by separating its short and long range structure. This separation of scales stands at the heart of the nuclear shell model and effective field theories that describe the long-range structure of the nucleus using a single-body mean field approximation. Read More

We present calculations of the nuclear structure corrections to the Lamb shift in light muonic atoms, using state-of-the-art nuclear potentials. We outline updated results on finite nucleon size contributions. Read More

The electric dipole polarizability quantifies the low-energy behaviour of the dipole strength and is related to critical observables such as the radii of the proton and neutron distributions. Its computation is challenging because most of the dipole strength lies in the scattering continuum. In this paper we combine integral transforms with the coupled-cluster method and compute the dipole polarizability using bound-state techniques. Read More

The Fock expansion [1] describes the $S$-state wave function of the two-electron atomic system in the vicinity of the triple coalescence point. The present work constitutes the additional appendix to our paper [2] devoted to refinement and further development of calculation of the angular Fock coefficients of the Fock expansion. We derive the explicit analytic expressions for the complicated subcomponents $\psi_{4,1}^{(2d)}$ and $\psi_{3,0}^{(2c)}$ of the angular Fock coefficients. Read More

Let $B$ be a Borel subgroup of a semisimple algebraic group $G$ and let $\mathfrak m$ be an abelian nilradical in $\mathfrak b={\rm Lie} (B)$. Using subsets of strongly orthogonal roots in the subset of positive roots corresponding to $\mathfrak m$, D. Panyushev \cite{Pan} gives in particular classification of $B-$orbits in $\mathfrak m$ and ${\mathfrak m}^*$ and states general conjectures on the closure and dimensions of the $B-$orbits in both $\mathfrak m$ and ${\mathfrak m}^*$ in terms of involutions of the Weyl group. Read More

Measuring the 2S-2P Lamb shift in a hydrogen-like muonic atom allows one to extract its nuclear charge radius with a high precision that is limited by the uncertainty in the nuclear structure corrections. The charge radius of the proton thus extracted was found to be 7-sigma away from the CODATA value, in what has become the yet unsolved "proton radius puzzle". Further experiments currently aim at the isotopes of hydrogen and helium: the precise extraction of their radii may provide a hint at the solution of the puzzle. Read More

Using the zero-range model, it was demonstrated recently that Levinger's quasi-deuteron model can be utilized to extract the nuclear neutron-proton contact. Going beyond the zero-range approximation and considering the full nuclear contact formalism, we rederive here the quasi-deuteron model for the nuclear photoabsorption cross-section and utilize it to establish relations and constrains for the general contact matrix. We also define and demonstrate the importance of the diagonalized nuclear contacts, which can be also relevant to further applications of the nuclear contacts. Read More

In this contribution we review and clarify the arguments which might allow the interpretation of the isoscalar monopole resonance of $^4$He as a collective breathing mode. Read More

What is the size of the atomic nucleus? This deceivably simple question is difficult to answer. While the electric charge distributions in atomic nuclei were measured accurately already half a century ago, our knowledge of the distribution of neutrons is still deficient. In addition to constraining the size of atomic nuclei, the neutron distribution also impacts the number of nuclei that can exist and the size of neutron stars. Read More

Let $SP_n(\mathbb{C})$ be the symplectic group and $\mathfrak{sp}_n(\mathbb{C})$ its Lie algebra. Let $B$ be a Borel subgroup of $SP_n(\mathbb{C} )$, $\mathfrak{b}={\rm Lie}(B)$ and $\mathfrak n$ its nilradical. Let $\mathcal X$ be a subvariety of elements of square 0 in $\mathfrak n. Read More

We present calculations of nuclear structure effects to the Lamb shift in light muonic atoms. We adopt a modern ab-initio approach by combining state-of-the-art nuclear potentials with the hyperspherical harmonics method. Our calculations are instrumental to the determination of nuclear charge radii in the Lamb shift measurements, which will shed light on the proton radius puzzle. Read More

We review the Lorentz integral transform coupled-cluster method for the calculation of the electric dipole polarizability. We benchmark our results with exact hyperspherical harmonics calculations for 4He and then we move to a heavier nucleus studying 16O. We observe that the implemented chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order underestimates the electric dipole polarizability. Read More

The large nucleon-nucleon scattering length, and the isospin approximate symmetry, are low energy properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). These entail correlations in the binding energies of light nuclei, e.g. Read More

An effective field theory is used to describe light nuclei, calculated from quantum chromodynamics on a lattice at unphysically large pion masses. The theory is calibrated at leading order to two available data sets on two- and three-body nuclei for two pion masses. At those pion masses we predict the quartet and doublet neutron-deuteron scattering lengths, and the alpha-particle binding energy. Read More

We report on precise hyperspherical-basis calculations of $\eta NN$ and $\eta NNN$ quasibound states, using energy dependent $\eta N$ interaction potentials derived from coupled-channel models of the $S_{11}$ $N^{\ast}(1535)$ nucleon resonance. The $\eta N$ attraction generated in these models is too weak to generate a two-body bound state. No $\eta NN$ bound-state solution was found in our calculations in models where Re $a_{\eta N}\lesssim 1$ fm, with $a_{\eta N}$ the $\eta N$ scattering length, covering thereby the majority of $N^{\ast}(1535)$ resonance models. Read More

The angular coefficients $\psi_{k,p}(\alpha,\theta)$ of the Fock expansion characterizing the S-state wave function of the two-electron atomic system, are calculated in hyperspherical angular coordinates $\alpha$ and $\theta$. To solve the problem the Fock recurrence relations separated into the independent individual equations associated with definite power $j$ of the nucleus charge $Z$, are applied. The "pure" $j$-components of the angular Fock coefficients, orthogonal to of the hyperspherical harmonics $Y_{kl}$, are found for even values of $k$. Read More

The general nuclear contact matrices are defined, taking into consideration all partial waves and finite-range interactions, extending Tan's work for the zero range model. The properties of these matrices are discussed and the relations between the contacts and the one-nucleon and two-nucleon momentum distributions are derived. Using these relations, a new asymptotic connection between the one-nucleon and two-nucleon momentum distributions, describing the two-body short-range correlations in nuclei, is obtained. Read More

In view of recent experiments in ultracold atomic systems, the photoassociation of Efimov trimers, composed of three identical bosons, is studied utilizing the multipole expansion. We study both the normal hierarchy case, where one-body current is dominant, and the strong hierarchy case, relevant for photoassociation in ultracold atoms, where two-body current is dominant. For identical particles in the normal hierarchy case, the leading contribution comes from the r^2 s-mode operator and from the quadrupole d-mode operator. Read More

Correct treatment of subthreshold Kbar-N dynamics is mandatory in kaonic-atom and Kbar-nuclear bound-state calculations, as demonstrated by using in-medium chirally-based models of Kbar-N interactions. Recent studies of kaonic-atom data reveal appreciable multi-nucleon contributions. Kbar-nuclear widths larger than 50 MeV are anticipated. Read More

We combine the coupled-cluster method and the Lorentz integral transform for the computation of inelastic reactions into the continuum. We show that the bound-state-like equation characterizing the Lorentz integral transform method can be reformulated based on extensions of the coupled-cluster equation-of-motion method, and we discuss strategies for viable numerical solutions. Starting from a chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order, we compute the giant dipole resonances of 4He, 16,22O and 40Ca, truncating the coupled-cluster equation-of-motion method at the two-particle-two-hole excitation level. Read More

We calculate the nuclear structure corrections to the Lamb shift in muonic deuterium by using state-of-the-art nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from chiral effective field theory. Our calculations complement previous theoretical work obtained from phenomenological potentials and the zero range approximation. The study of the chiral convergence order-by-order and the dependence on cutoff variations allows us to improve the estimates on the nuclear structure corrections and the theoretical uncertainty coming from nuclear potentials. Read More

The nuclear neutron-proton contact is introduced, generalizing Tan's work, and evaluated from medium energy nuclear photodisintegration experiments. To this end we reformulate the quasi-deuteron model of nuclear photodisintegration and establish the bridge between the Levinger constant and the contact. Using experimental evaluations of Levinger's constant we extract the value of the neutron-proton contact in finite nuclei and in symmetric nuclear matter. Read More

Energy-dependent sum rules are useful tools in many fields of physics. In nuclear physics, they typically involve an integration of the response function over the nuclear spectrum with a weight function composed of integer powers of the energy. More complicated weight functions are also encountered, e. Read More

The isoscalar monopole excitation of 4He is studied within a few-body ab initio approach. We consider the transition density to the low-lying and narrow 0+ resonance, as well as various sum rules and the strength energy distribution itself at different momentum transfers q. Realistic nuclear forces of chiral and phenomenological nature are employed. Read More

The role played by subthreshold meson-baryon dynamics is demonstrated in kaonic-atom, Kbar-nuclear and eta-nuclear bound-state calculations within in-medium models of Kbar-N and eta-N interactions. New analyses of kaonic atom data reveal appreciable multi-nucleon contributions. Calculations of eta-nuclear bound states show, in particular, that the eta-N scattering length is not a useful indicator of whether or not eta mesons bind in nuclei nor of the widths anticipated for such states. Read More

The two-electron problem for the helium-like atom/ions in $S$-state is considered. The basis containing the integer powers of $\ln r$, where $r$ is a radial variable of the Fock expansion, is studied. In this basis, the analytic expressions for the matrix elements of the corresponding Hamiltonian are presented. Read More

We show how nuclear effective field theory (EFT) and ab initio nuclear-structure methods can turn input from lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) into predictions for the properties of nuclei. We argue that pionless EFT is the appropriate theory to describe the light nuclei obtained in recent LQCD simulations carried out at pion masses much heavier than the physical pion mass. We solve the EFT using the effective-interaction hyperspherical harmonics and auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo methods. Read More

Here we summarize how the LIT and CC methods can be coupled, in order to allow for ab initio calculations of reactions in medium mass nuclei. Results on 16O are reviewed and preliminary calculations on 40Ca are presented. Read More

We illustrate how nuclear polarization corrections in muonic atoms can be formally connected to inelastic response functions of a nucleus. We first discuss the point-nucleon approximation and then include finite-nucleon-size corrections. As an example, we compare our ab-initio calculation of the third Zemach moment in the muonic Helium-4 ion to previous phenomenological results. Read More

The photoassociation of Efimov trimer, composed of three identical bosons, is studied utilizing the multipole expansion. For identical particles the leading contribution comes from the r^2 s-mode operator and from the quadrupole d-mode operator. Log-periodic oscillations are found in the photoassociation response function, both near the energy threshold for the leading s-wave reaction, and in the high frequency tail for all partial waves. Read More

{\it Ab initio} calculation of the total cross section for the reactions $^{4}\rm{He}(\gamma,p)^3\rm{H}$ and $^{4}\rm{He}(\gamma,n)^3\rm{He}$ is presented, using state-of-the-art nuclear forces. The Lorentz integral transform (LIT) method is applied, which allows exact treatment of the final state interaction (FSI). The dynamic equations are solved using the effective interaction hyperspherical harmonics (EIHH) method. Read More

Stimulated by the proton radius conundrum, measurements of the Lamb shift in various light muonic atoms are planned at PSI. The aim is to extract the rms charge radius with high precision, limited by the uncertainty in the nuclear polarization corrections. We present an ab-initio calculation of the nuclear polarization for mu-4He+ leading to an energy correction in the 2S-2P transitions of $\delta_{pol}=-2. Read More

Considering one-body and two-body currents, we study the photoassociation and photodissociation of universal bosonic trimers. Analyzing the relative importance of these currents we identify two physical scenarios (i) Normal hierarchy, where naive power counting holds and the one-body current dominates, and (ii) Strong hierarchy, where the one-body current is suppressed. For both scenarios we observe that at the high frequency tail, the response function exhibits log periodic oscillations in transition to or from any continuum state regardless of the reaction partial wave channel. Read More

We present an ab-initio calculation of the giant dipole resonance in 16O based on a nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction from chiral effective field theory that reproduces NN scattering data with high accuracy. By merging the Lorentz integral transform and the coupled-cluster methods, we extend the previous theoretical limits for break-up observables in light nuclei with mass numbers (A<=7), and address the collective giant dipole resonance of 16O. We successfully benchmark the new approach against virtually exact results from the hyper-spherical harmonics method in 4He. Read More

The Schroedinger equation is solved for an A-nucleon system using an expansion of the wave function in nonsymmetrized hyperspherical harmonics. Our approach is both an extension and a modification of the formalism developed by Gattobigio et al.. Read More

We present an ab-initio study of the isoscalar monopole excitations of 4He using different realistic nuclear interactions, including modern effective field theory potentials. In particular we concentrate on the transition form factor $F_{\cal M}$ to the narrow $0^+$ resonance close to threshold. F_M exhibits a strong potential model dependence, and can serve as a kind of prism to distinguish among different nuclear force models. Read More

We present an estimate of the nuclear electric polarizability of the 6He halo nucleus based on six-body microscopic calculations. Wave functions are obtained from semi-realistic two-body interactions using the hyperspherical harmonics expansion method. The polarizability is calculated as a sum rule of the dipole response function using the Lanczos algorithm and also by integrating the photo-absorption cross section calculated via the Lorentz integral transform method. Read More

Using the multipole expansion we analyze photo induced reactions in an ultra-cold atomic gas composed of identical neutral bosons. While the Frank-Condon factor dominates the photo induced spin-flip reactions, we have found that for frozen-spin process where the atomic spins are conserved the reaction rate is governed by the monopole $r^2$ and the quadrupole terms. Consequently, the dependence of the frozen-spin reaction rate on the photon wave number $k$ acquires an extra $k^4$ factor in comparison to the spin-flip process. Read More

Binding energies and widths of three-body KbarNN, and of four-body KbarNNN and KbarKbarNN nuclear quasibound states are calculated in the hyperspherical basis, using realistic NN potentials and subthreshold energy dependent chiral KbarN interactions. Results of previous K^-pp calculations are reproduced and an upper bound is placed on the binding energy of a K^-d quasibound state. A self consistent handling of energy dependence is found to restrain binding, keeping the calculated four-body ground-state binding energies to relatively low values of about 30 MeV. Read More

We present ab-initio calculations of the binding energy and radii of the two-neutron halo nucleus 6He using two-body low-momentum interactions based on chiral effective field theory potentials. Calculations are performed via a hyperspherical harmonics expansion where the convergence is sped up introducing an effective interaction for non-local potentials. The latter is essential to reach a satisfactory convergence of the extended matter radius and of the point-proton radius. Read More

Transition states or quantum states of zero energy appear at the boundary between the discrete part of the spectrum of negative energies and the continuum part of positive energy states. As such, transition states can be regarded as a limiting case of a bound state with vanishing binding energy, emerging for a particular set of critical potential parameters. In this work we study the properties of these critical parameters for short range central potentials. Read More

We investigate the generalized Hubbard model of $(2n+1)$ Fermion species interacting via a symmetric contact attraction potential. We prove that the ground state of such system is a gapless superfluid, where a full Fermi surface coexists with a superfluid. Moreover, doing so we prove the existence of a free mode in a strongly interacting system, regardless of the potential strength. Read More

A different formulation of the effective interaction hyperspherical harmonics (EIHH) method, suitable for non-local potentials, is presented. The EIHH method for local interactions is first shortly reviewed to point out the problems of an extension to non-local potentials. A viable solution is proposed and, as an application, results on the ground-state properties of 4- and 6-nucleon systems are presented. Read More

This work is concerned with multi-dimensional integrals, which are making their appearance in few-body atomic and nuclear physics. It is shown that the relevant two- and three-dimensional integrals can be reduced to one-dimensional form. This implies that the internal one- and two-dimensional integrals can be evaluated in explicit analytic form in term of the familiar generalized hypergeometric functions. Read More

Integral transform approaches are numerous in many fields of physics, but in most cases limited to the use of the Laplace kernel. However, it is well known that the inversion of the Laplace transform is very problematic, so that the function related to the physical observable is in most cases unaccessible. The great advantage of kernels of bell-shaped form has been demonstrated in few-body nuclear systems. Read More