Mikhail Shaposhnikov - CERN

Mikhail Shaposhnikov
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Mikhail Shaposhnikov

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (42)
High Energy Physics - Theory (27)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (13)
Astrophysics (10)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (6)
Physics - Superconductivity (3)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (3)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (2)
High Energy Physics - Lattice (1)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (1)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (1)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (1)

Publications Authored By Mikhail Shaposhnikov

The existence of baryon asymmetry and dark matter in the Universe may be related to CP-violating reactions of three heavy neutral leptons (HNLs) with masses well below the Fermi scale. The dynamical description of the lepton asymmetry generation, which is the key ingredient of baryogenesis and of dark matter production, is quite complicated due to the presence of many different relaxation time scales and the necessity to include quantum-mechanical coherent effects in HNL oscillations. We derive kinetic equations accounting for fermion number violating effects missed so far and identify one of the domains of HNL masses that can potentially lead to large lepton asymmetry generation boosting the sterile neutrino dark matter production. Read More

We propose an interpretation of the gauge coupling unification scale which is not related to any new particle threshold. We revisit Grand Unified Theories and show that it is possible to completely eliminate the scalar as well as vector leptoquarks from the particle physics spectrum. As a consequence, in our approach the gauge hierarchy problem is put on different grounds, and the proton may be absolutely stable. Read More

We argue that electromagnetic decays of energetic unflavoured neutral mesons, notably $\eta$, mis-identified as single photons due to granularity of the electromagnetic calorimeter might create bump-like features in the diphoton invariant mass spectrum at different energies, including 750 GeV. We discuss what kind of additional analysis can exclude or confirm this hypothesis. Read More

In the present paper, we revisit gravitational theories which are invariant under TDiffs -- transverse (volume preserving) diffeomorphisms and global scale transformations. It is known that these theories can be rewritten in an equivalent diffeomorphism-invariant form with an action including an integration constant (cosmological constant for the particular case of non-scale-invariant unimodular gravity). The presence of this integration constant, in general, breaks explicitly scale invariance and induces a runaway potential for the (otherwise massless) dilaton, associated with the determinant of the metric tensor. Read More

We construct a 2+1 dimensional model that sustains superconductivity at all temperatures. This is achieved by introducing a Chern Simons mixing term between two Abelian gauge fields A and Z. The superfluid is described by a complex scalar charged under Z, whereas a sufficiently strong magnetic field of A forces the superconducting condensate to form at all temperatures. Read More

We find a new type of topological vortex solution in the $U(1)_Z \times U(1)_A$ Chern Simons gauge theory in the presence of a $U(1)_A$ magnetic field background. In this theory $U(1)_Z$ is broken spontaneously by the $U(1)_A$ magnetic field. These vortices exhibit long range interactions as they are charged under the unbroken $U(1)_A$. Read More

We report on a new topological vortex solution in U(1)$\times$U(1) Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory. The existence of the vortex is envisaged by analytical means, and a numerical solution is obtained by integrating the equations of motion. These vortices have a long-range force because one of the U(1)s remains unbroken in the infrared, which is guarded by the Coleman-Hill theorem. Read More


This paper describes the physics case for a new fixed target facility at CERN SPS. The SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) experiment is intended to hunt for new physics in the largely unexplored domain of very weakly interacting particles with masses below the Fermi scale, inaccessible to the LHC experiments, and to study tau neutrino physics. The same proton beam setup can be used later to look for decays of tau-leptons with lepton flavour number non-conservation, $\tau\to 3\mu$ and to search for weakly-interacting sub-GeV dark matter candidates. Read More

The measurements of the Higgs mass and top Yukawa coupling indicate that we live in a very special Universe, at the edge of the absolute stability of the electroweak vacuum. If fully stable, the Standard Model (SM) can be extended all the way up to the inflationary scale and the Higgs field, non-minimally coupled to gravity with strength $\xi$, can be responsible for inflation. We show that the successful Higgs inflation scenario can also take place if the SM vacuum is not absolutely stable. Read More

In the cosmological context, for the Standard Model to be valid up to the scale of inflation, the top quark Yukawa coupling $y_t$ should not exceed the critical value $y_t^{crit}$, coinciding with good precision (about 0.02%) with the requirement of the stability of the electroweak vacuum. So, the exact measurements of $y_t$ may give an insight on the possible existence and the energy scale of new physics above 100 GeV, which is extremely sensitive to $y_t$. Read More

The Higgs-Dilaton model is able to produce an early inflationary expansion followed by a dark energy dominated era responsible for the late time acceleration of the Universe. At tree level, the model predicts a small tensor-to-scalar ratio ($0.0021\leq r \leq 0. Read More

Higgs inflation can occur if the Standard Model (SM) is a self-consistent effective field theory up to inflationary scale. This leads to a lower bound on the Higgs boson mass, $M_h \geq M_{\text{crit}}$. If $M_h$ is more than a few hundreds of MeV above the critical value, the Higgs inflation predicts the universal values of inflationary indexes, $r\simeq 0. Read More

The discovery of 126 GeV Higgs boson and observations of no signs of new physics at the LHC implies that the Standard Model of elementary particles is a self-consistent weakly-coupled effective field theory all the way up to the Planck scale without the addition of any new particles. I will discuss possible consequences of these findings for cosmology. Read More

The diversity of structures in the Universe (from the smallest galaxies to the largest superclusters) has formed under the pull of gravity from the tiny primordial perturbations that we see imprinted in the cosmic microwave background. A quantitative description of this process would require description of motion of zillions of dark matter particles. This impossible task is usually circumvented by coarse-graining the problem: one either considers a Newtonian dynamics of "particles" with macroscopically large masses or approximates the dark matter distribution with a continuous density field. Read More

The majority of renormalizable field theories possessing the scale invariance at the classical level exhibits the trace anomaly once quantum corrections are taken into account. This leads to the breaking of scale and conformal invariance. At the same time any realistic theory must contain gravity and is thus non-renormalizable. Read More

The Higgs-Dilaton cosmological model is able to describe simultaneously an inflationary expansion in the early Universe and a dark energy dominated stage responsible for the present day acceleration. It also leads to a non-trivial relation between the spectral tilt of scalar perturbations n_s and the dark energy equation of state \omega. We study the self-consistency of this model from an effective field theory point of view. Read More

In this note we show that in a scale invariant relativistic field theory fields of canonical dimensionality are not necessarily free provided the scale invariance is spontaneously broken. Read More

Recent analyses of cosmological data suggest the presence of an extra relativistic component beyond the Standard Model content. The Higgs-Dilaton cosmological model predicts the existence of a massless particle -the dilaton- associated with the spontaneous symmetry breaking of scale invariance and undetectable by any accelerator experiment. Its ultrarelativistic character makes it a suitable candidate for contributing to the effective number of light degrees of freedom in the Universe. Read More

We show that, leaving aside accelerated cosmic expansion, all experimental data in high energy physics that are commonly agreed to require physics beyond the Standard Model can be explained when completing it by three right handed neutrinos that can be searched for using current day experimental techniques. The model that realises this scenario is known as Neutrino Minimal Standard Model (\nu MSM). In this article we give a comprehensive summary of all known constraints in the \nu MSM, along with a pedagogical introduction to the model. Read More

We discuss the lower Higgs boson mass bounds which come from the absolute stability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum and from the Higgs inflation, as well as the prediction of the Higgs boson mass coming from asymptotic safety of the SM. We account for the 3-loop renormalization group evolution of the couplings of the Standard Model and for a part of two-loop corrections that involve the QCD coupling alpha_s to initial conditions for their running. This is one step above the current state of the art procedure ("one-loop matching--two-loop running"). Read More

We review observational evidence for a matter-antimatter asymmetry in the early universe, which leads to the remnant matter density we observe today. We also discuss observational bounds on the presence of antimatter in the present day universe, including the possibility of a large lepton asymmetry in the cosmic neutrino background. We briefly review the theoretical framework within which baryogenesis, the dynamical generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry, can occur. Read More

We demonstrate for the first time that three sterile neutrinos alone can simultaneously explain neutrino oscillations, the observed dark matter and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe without new physics above the Fermi scale. The key new point of our analysis is leptogenesis after sphaleron freeze-out, which leads to resonant dark matter production, evading thus the constraints on sterile neutrino dark matter from structure formation and x-ray searches. We identify the range of sterile neutrino properties that is consistent with all known constraints. Read More

In thermal equilibrium the ground state of the plasma of Standard Model particles is determined by temperature and exactly conserved combinations of baryon and lepton numbers. We show that at non-zero values of the global charges a translation invariant and homogeneous state of the plasma becomes unstable and the system transits into a new state, containing a large-scale magnetic field. The origin of this effect is the parity-breaking character of weak interactions and chiral anomaly. Read More

We consider a minimal scale-invariant extension of the Standard Model of particle physics combined with Unimodular Gravity formulated in \cite{Shaposhnikov:2008xb}. This theory is able to describe not only an inflationary stage, related to the Standard Model Higgs field, but also a late period of Dark Energy domination, associated with an almost massless dilaton. A number of parameters can be fixed by inflationary physics, allowing to make specific predictions for any subsequent period. Read More

We study the general class of gravitational field theories constructed on the basis of scale invariance (and therefore absence of any mass parameters) and invariance under transverse diffeomorphisms (TDiff), which are the 4-volume conserving coordinate transformations. We show that these theories are equivalent to a specific type of scalar-tensor theories of gravity (invariant under all diffeomorphisms) with a number of properties, making them phenomenologically interesting. They contain, in addition to the dimensionless coupling constants of the original theory, an arbitrary dimensionful parameter $\Lambda_0$. Read More

The generation of lepton asymmetry below the electroweak scale has a considerable impact on production of dark matter sterile neutrinos. Oscillations or decays of the heavier sterile neutrinos in the neutrino minimal standard model can give rise to the requisite lepton asymmetry, provided the masses of the heavier neutrinos are sufficiently degenerate. We study the renormalization group evolution of the mass difference of these singlet fermions to understand the degree of necessary fine-tuning. Read More

We perform a detailed analysis of baryon asymmetry generation in the NuMSM (an extension of the Standard Model by three singlet Majorana fermions with masses below the Fermi scale). Fixing a number of parameters of the NuMSM by the neutrino oscillation data, we determine the remaining domain of the parameter space from the requirement of successful baryogenesis. We derive, in particular, the constraints on the mass splitting of a pair of singlet fermions, and on the strength of their coupling to ordinary leptons, essential for searches of these particles in rare decays of mesons and in beam-dump experiments with intensive proton beams. Read More

There are indications that gravity is asymptotically safe. The Standard Model (SM) plus gravity could be valid up to arbitrarily high energies. Supposing that this is indeed the case and assuming that there are no intermediate energy scales between the Fermi and Planck scales we address the question of whether the mass of the Higgs boson $m_H$ can be predicted. Read More

We present a comprehensive overview of an extension of the Standard Model that contains three right-handed (sterile) neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale [the Neutrino Minimal Standard Model, (nuMSM)]. We consider the history of the Universe from the inflationary era through today and demonstrate that most of the observed phenomena beyond the Standard Model can be explained within the framework of this model. We review the mechanism of baryon asymmetry of the Universe in the nuMSM and discuss a dark matter candidate that can be warm or cold and satisfies all existing constraints. Read More

We analyse one-loop radiative corrections to the inflationary potential in the theory, where inflation is driven by the Standard Model Higgs field. We show that inflation is possible provided the Higgs mass m_H lies in the interval m_minRead More

We propose a scheme leading to a non-perturbative definition of lattice field theories which are scale-invariant on the quantum level. A key idea of the construction is the replacement of the lattice spacing by a propagating dynamical field -- the dilaton. We describe how to select non-perturbatively the phenomenologically viable theories where the scale invariance is broken spontaneously. Read More

We construct a class of theories which are scale invariant on quantum level in all orders of perturbation theory. In a subclass of these models scale invariance is spontaneously broken, leading to the existence of a massless dilaton. The applications of these results to the problem of stability of the electroweak scale against quantum corrections, to the cosmological constant problem and to dark energy are discussed. Read More

We demonstrate that the combination of the ideas of unimodular gravity, scale invariance, and the existence of an exactly massless dilaton leads to the evolution of the universe supported by present observations: inflation in the past, followed by the radiation and matter dominated stages and accelerated expansion at present. All mass scales in this type of theories come from one and the same source. Read More

A number of observed phenomena in high energy physics and cosmology lack their resolution within the Standard Model of particle physics. These puzzles include neutrino oscillations, baryon asymmetry of the universe and existence of dark matter. We discuss the suggestion that all these problems can be solved by new physics which exists only below the electroweak scale. Read More

We study in detail the mechanism of baryon and lepton asymmetry generation in the framework of the $\nu$MSM (an extension of the Standard Model by three singlet fermions with masses smaller than the electroweak scale). We elucidate the issue of CP-violation in the model and define the phase relevant for baryogenesis. We clarify the question of quantum-mechanical coherence, essential for the lepton asymmetry generation in singlet fermion oscillations and compute the relevant damping rates. Read More

We argue that there may be no intermediate particle physics energy scale between the Planck mass $M_{Pl}\sim 10^{19}$ GeV and the electroweak scale $M_W \sim 100$ GeV. At the same time, the number of problems of the Standard Model (neutrino masses and oscillations, dark matter, baryon asymmetry of the Universe, strong CP-problem, gauge coupling unification, inflation) could find their solution at $M_{Pl}$ or $M_W$. The crucial experimental predictions of this point of view are outlined. Read More

We describe an extention of the Standard Model (the $\nu$MSM) by three light singlet Majorana fermions -- sterile neutrinos, which allows to address simultaneously the problem of neutrino oscillations and the problems of dark matter and baryon asymmetry of the Universe. We discuss the ways these new particles can be searched for in astrophysical, laboratory, and accelerator experiments. Read More

An extension of the Standard Model by three singlet fermions with masses smaller than the electroweak scale allows to explain simultaneously neutrino oscillations, dark matter and baryon asymmetry of the Universe. We discuss the properties of neutral leptons in this model and the ways they can be searched for in particle physics experiments. We establish, in particular, a lower and an upper bound on the strength of interaction of neutral leptons coming from cosmological considerations and from the data on neutrino oscillations. Read More

An extension of the Standard Model by three right-handed neutrinos with masses smaller than the electroweak scale (the $\nu$MSM) can explain simultaneously dark matter and baryon asymmetry of the Universe, being consistent with the data on neutrino oscillations. A dark matter candidate in this theory is the sterile neutrino with the mass in keV range. We discuss the constraints on the properties of this particle and mechanisms of their cosmological production. Read More

The chiral Abelian Higgs model contains an interesting class of solitons found by Rubakov and Tavkhelidze. These objects carry non-zero fermion number $N_F$ (or Chern-Simons number $N_{CS}$, what is the same because of the chiral anomaly) and are stable for sufficiently large $N_F$. In this paper we study the properties of these anomalous solitons. Read More

We determine the abundance of the lightest (dark matter) sterile neutrinos created in the Early Universe due to active-sterile neutrino transitions from the thermal plasma. Our starting point is the field-theoretic formula for the sterile neutrino production rate, derived in our previous work [JHEP 06(2006)053], which allows to systematically incorporate all relevant effects, and also to analyse various hadronic uncertainties. Our numerical results differ moderately from previous computations in the literature, and lead to an absolute upper bound on the mixing angles of the dark matter sterile neutrino. Read More

If the dark matter of the Universe is made of sterile neutrinos with the mass in keV region they can be searched for with the help of X-ray satellites. We discuss the prospects of laboratory experiments that can be competitive and complimentary to Space missions. We argue that the detailed study of beta decays of tritium and other nuclei with the help of Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) can potentially enter into interesting parameter range and even supersede the current astronomical bounds on the properties of dark matter sterile neutrino. Read More

Sterile neutrinos with masses in the keV range are considered to be a viable candidate for warm dark matter. The rate of their production through active-sterile neutrino transitions peaks, however, at temperatures of the order of the QCD scale, which makes it difficult to estimate their relic abundance quantitatively, even if the mass of the sterile neutrino and its mixing angle were known. We derive here a relation, valid to all orders in the strong coupling constant, which expresses the production rate in terms of the spectral function associated with active neutrinos. Read More

To explain the dark matter and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, the parameters of the $\nu$MSM (an extension of the Minimal Standard Model by three singlet neutrinos with masses smaller than the electroweak scale) must be fine-tuned: one of the masses should be in the ${\cal O} (10)$ keV region to provide a candidate for the dark-matter particle, while two other masses must be almost the same to enhance the CP-violating effects in the sterile neutrino oscillations leading to the baryon asymmetry. We show that a specifically defined global lepton-number symmetry, broken on the level of ${\cal O} (10^{-4})$ leads to the required pattern of sterile neutrino masses being consistent with the data on neutrino oscillations. Moreover, the existence of this symmetry allows to fix the flavour structure of couplings of singlet fermions to the particles of the Standard Model and indicates that their masses are likely to be smaller than ${\cal O} (1)$ GeV, opening a possibility of their search in decays of charmed, beauty and even $K$ or $\pi$-mesons. Read More

We show how to enlarge the $\nu$MSM (the minimal extension of the standard model by three right-handed neutrinos) to incorporate inflation and provide a common source for electroweak symmetry breaking and for right-handed neutrino masses. In addition to inflation, the resulting theory can explain simultaneously dark matter and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe; it is consistent with experiments on neutrino oscillations and with all astrophysical and cosmological constraints on sterile neutrino as a dark matter candidate. The mass of inflaton can be much smaller than the electroweak scale. Read More

We find restrictions on the mass and mixing angle of the dark matter sterile neutrinos using X-ray observations of Coma and Virgo galaxy clusters. Read More

We explore the range of parameters for dark-matter sterile neutrinos in an extention of the Minimal Standard Model by three singlet fermions with masses below the electroweak scale (the $\nu$MSM). This simple model can explain a wide range of phenomena, including neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, the pulsar velocities, and the early reionization. The presence of two heavier sterile neutrinos and the possibility of entropy production in their decays broadens the allowed range of parameters for the dark-matter sterile neutrinos (or other types of dark matter, for example, the gravitino). Read More

The anomaly cancellation condition of the Standard Model may be unnatural in theories with extra dimensions as an anomaly of a low-energy 4-dimensional theory can be canceled by an inflow from a bulk. This inflow may give rise to an observable effect at low energies. We analyze several physical models in which this effect exists and estimate constraints on its value, imposed by the modern experimental data. Read More

In theories with chiral couplings, one of the important consistency requirements is that of the cancellation of a gauge anomaly. In particular, this is one of the conditions imposed on the hypercharges in the Standard Model. However, anomaly cancellation condition of the Standard Model looks unnatural from the perspective of a theory with extra dimensions. Read More

Stable baryonic Q-balls, which appear in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, could form at the end of cosmological inflation from fragmentation of the Affleck -- Dine condensate. We reconsider astrophysical constraints on such Q-balls as dark matter candidates. Baryonic Q-balls interact with matter by absorbing the baryon number and, effectively, leading to a rapid baryon number non-conservation. Read More