# Michal Horodecki

## Contact Details

NameMichal Horodecki |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (50) Mathematical Physics (11) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (11) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (6) Mathematics - Representation Theory (3) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (3) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (2) Computer Science - Information Theory (1) Mathematics - Information Theory (1) Mathematics - Operator Algebras (1) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1) High Energy Physics - Theory (1) Mathematics - Functional Analysis (1) |

## Publications Authored By Michal Horodecki

We study port-based teleportation protocols and fully characterize their performance for arbitrary dimensions and number of ports. We develop new mathematical tools to study the symmetries of the measurement operators that arise in these protocols and belong to the algebra of partially transposed operators. First, we introduce the theory of the partially reduced irreducible representations which provides an elegant way of understanding the properties of subsystems of a large system with general symmetries. Read More

We consider Bayesian estimate of static magnetic field, characterized by a prior Gaussian probability distribution, in systems of a few electron quantum dot spins interacting with infinite temperature spin environment via hyperfine interaction. Sudden transitions among optimal states and measurements are observed. Usefulness of measuring occupation levels is shown for all times of the evolution, together with the role of entanglement in the optimal scenario. Read More

Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g. in computation, communication and control. Read More

Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a trademark of quantum mechanics. In its original form it states that one cannot gain information about a system without disturbing it, which is a core of novel cryptographic techniques based on quantum effects. The principle can be derived from mathematical formalism of quantum theory. Read More

The problem of device-independent randomness amplification against no-signaling adversaries has so far been studied under the assumption that the weak source of randomness is uncorrelated with the (quantum) devices used in the amplification procedure. In this work, we relax this assumption, and reconsider the original protocol of Colbeck and Renner, Nature Physics 8, 450-454 (2012), on randomness amplification using a Santha-Vazirani (SV) source. To do so, we introduce an SV-like condition for devices, namely that any string of SV source bits remains weakly random conditioned upon any other bit string from the same SV source and the outputs obtained when this further string is input into the devices. Read More

Recent work using tools from quantum information theory has shown that at the nanoscale where quantum effects become prevalent, there is not one thermodynamical second law but many. Derivations of these laws assume that an experimenter has very precise control of the system and heat bath. Here we show that these multitude of laws can be saturated using two very simple operations: changing the energy levels of the system and thermalizing over any two system energy levels. Read More

We study the classical and quantum values of one- and two-party linear games, an important class of unique games that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. We introduce a ``constraint graph" associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the linear game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. Read More

The uncertainty principle, which states that certain sets of quantum-mechanical measurements have a minimal joint uncertainty, has many applications in quantum cryptography. But in such applications, it is important to consider the effect of a (sometimes adversarially controlled) memory that can be correlated with the system being measured: The information retained by such a memory can in fact diminish the uncertainty of measurements. Uncertainty conditioned on a memory was considered in the past by Berta et al. Read More

Of course not, but if one believes that information cannot be destroyed in a theory of quantum gravity, then we run into apparent contradictions with quantum theory when we consider evaporating black holes. Namely that the no-cloning theorem or the principle of entanglement monogamy is violated. Here, we show that neither violation need hold, since, in arguing that black holes lead to cloning or non-monogamy, one needs to assume a tensor product structure between two points in space-time that could instead be viewed as causally connected. Read More

The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work we systematically study the problem of creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. Read More

Recently, a physically realistic protocol amplifying the randomness of Santha-Vazirani sources producing cryptographically secure random bits was proposed; however for reasons of practical relevance, the crucial question remained open whether this can be accomplished under the minimal conditions necessary for the task. Namely, is it possible to achieve randomness amplification using only two no-signaling components and in a situation where the violation of a Bell inequality only guarantees that some outcomes of the device for specific inputs exhibit randomness? Here, we solve this question and present a device-independent protocol for randomness amplification of Santha-Vazirani sources using a device consisting of two non-signaling components. We show that the protocol can amplify any such source that is not fully deterministic into a fully random source while tolerating a constant noise rate and prove the composable security of the protocol against general no-signaling adversaries. Read More

We obtain a general connection between a quantum advantage in communication complexity and non-locality. We show that given any protocol offering a (sufficiently large) quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics which violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. Read More

The aim of this paper is to indicate possible applications of operator systems in qualitative description of varoius scenarios while studying non-locality. To this end we study in details the notion of generalized non-commuting cube. Following ideas of Fritz and Farenick-Kavruk-Paulsen-Todorov we show in systematic way that various classes of Tsirelson's correlation boxes as well as NPA hierarchies can be described by using various operator system tensor products of generalized non-commuting cubes. Read More

Pure states are very important in any theory since they represent states of maximal information about the system within the theory. Here, we show that no non-trivial (not local realistic) extremal states (boxes) of general no-signaling theories can be realized within quantum theory. We then explore three interesting consequences of this fact. Read More

We present a construction of quantum states in dimension $d$ that has at least 1 dit of ideal key, called private dits (pdits), which covers most of the known examples of private bits (pbits) $d=2$. We examine properties of this class of states, focusing mostly on its distance to the set of separable states $\mathcal{SEP}$, showing that for a fixed dimension of key part $d_k$ the distance increases with $d_s$. We provide explicit examples of PPT states (in $d$ dimensions) which are nearly as far from separable ones as possible. Read More

The second law of thermodynamics places a limitation into which states a system can evolve into. For systems in contact with a heat bath, it can be combined with the law of energy conservation, and it says that a system can only evolve into another if the free energy goes down. Recently, it's been shown that there are actually many second laws, and that it is only for large macroscopic systems that they all become equivalent to the ordinary one. Read More

Irreducible representations (irreps) of a finite group $G$ are equivalent if there exists a similarity transformation between them. In this paper, we describe an explicit algorithm for constructing this transformation between a pair of equivalent irreps, assuming we are given an algorithm to compute the matrix elements of these irreps. Along the way, we derive a generalization of the classical orthogonality relations for matrix elements of irreps of finite groups. Read More

In \cite{JP2011,JPPVW2010} the operator space theory was applied to study bipartite Bell inequalities. The aim of the paper is to follow this line of research and use the operator space technique to analyze the steering scenario. We obtain a bipartite steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality, as well as we can construct all ingredients explicitly. Read More

We present a scheme for encoding and decoding an unknown state for CSS codes, based on syndrome measurements. We illustrate our method by means of Kitaev toric code, defected-lattice code, topological subsystem code and Haah 3D code. The protocol is local whenever in a given code the crossings between the logical operators consist of next neighbour pairs, which holds for the above codes. Read More

A well known cryptographic primitive is so called random access code. Namely, Alice is to send to Bob one of two bits, so that Bob has the choice which bit he wants to learn about. However at any time Alice should not learn Bob's choice, and Bob should learn only the bit of his choice. Read More

In this work, we revisit the problem of finding an admissible region of fidelities obtained after an application of an arbitrary $1 \rightarrow N$ universal quantum cloner which has been recently solved in [A. Kay et al., Quant. Read More

Randomness amplification is the task of transforming a source of somewhat random bits into a source of fully random bits. Although it is impossible to amplify randomness from a single source by classical means, the situation is different considering non-local correlations allowed by quantum mechanics. Here we give the first device-independent protocol for randomness amplification using a constant number of devices. Read More

Following recent work of Beigi and Shor, we investigate PPT states that are "heavily entangled." We first exploit volumetric methods to show that in a randomly chosen direction, there are PPT states whose distance in trace norm from separable states is (asymptotically) at least 1/4. We then provide explicit examples of PPT states which are nearly as far from separable ones as possible. Read More

Area laws for entanglement in quantum many-body systems give useful information about their low-temperature behaviour and are tightly connected to the possibility of good numerical simulations. An intuition from quantum many-body physics suggests that an area law should hold whenever there is exponential decay of correlations in the system, a property found, for instance, in non-critical phases of matter. However, the existence of quantum data-hiding state--that is, states having very small correlations, yet a volume scaling of entanglement--was believed to be a serious obstruction to such an implication. Read More

In randomness amplification a slightly random source is used to produce an improved random source. Perhaps surprisingly, a single source of randomness cannot be amplified at all classically. However, the situation is different if one considers correlations allowed by quantum mechanics as an extra resource. Read More

We consider the structure of algebra of operators, acting in $n-$fold tensor product space, which are partially transposed on the last term. Using purely algebraical methods we show that this algebra is semi-simple and then, considering its regular representation, we derive basic properties of the algebra. In particular, we describe all irreducible representations of the algebra of partially transposed operators and derive expressions for matrix elements of the representations. Read More

We study a problem of interconvertibility of two supra-quantum resources: one is so called PR-box, which violates CHSH inequality up to maximal algebraic bound, and second is so called random access code (RAC). The latter is a functionality that enables Bob (receiver) to choose one of two bits of Alice. It has been known, that PR-box supplemented with one bit of communication can be used to simulate RAC. Read More

In this paper we have found irreducible representations (irreps) of the algebra of partially transposed permutation operators on last subsystem. We give here direct method of irreps construction for an arbitrary number of subsystems n and local dimension d. Our method is inspired by representation theory of symmetric group S(n), theory of Brauer Algebras and Walled Brauer Algebras. Read More

The second law of thermodynamics tells us which state transformations are so statistically unlikely that they are effectively forbidden. Its original formulation, due to Clausius, states that "Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body without some other change, connected therewith, occurring at the same time". The second law applies to systems composed of many particles interacting; however, we are seeing that one can make sense of thermodynamics in the regime where we only have a small number of particles interacting with a heat bath. Read More

A direct analysis of the protocol of randomness amplification using Bell inequality violation is performed in terms of the convex combination of no-signaling boxes required to simulate quantum violation of the inequality. The probability distributions of bits generated by a Santha-Vazirani source are shown to be mixtures of permutations of Bernoulli distributions with parameter defined by the source. An intuitive proof is provided for the range of partial randomness from which perfect randomness can be extracted using quantum correlations violating the chain inequalities. Read More

We numerically investigate the statement that local random quantum circuits acting on n qubits composed of polynomially many nearest neighbour two-qubit gates form an approximate unitary poly(n)-design [F.G.S. Read More

We conjecture new uncertainty relations which restrict correlations between results of measurements performed by two separated parties on a shared quantum state. The first uncertainty relation bounds the sum of two mutual informations when one party measures a single observable and the other party measures one of two observables. The uncertainty relation does not follow from Maassen-Uffink uncertainty relation and is much stronger than Hall uncertainty relation derived from the latter. Read More

We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group [Bennett, et al. Physical Review Letters, 70(13) 1895-1899] and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka [Physical Review Letters, 101(24) 240501], that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient condition for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. Read More

We review the basic idea behind resource theories, where we quantify quantum resources by specifying a restricted class of operations. This divides the state space into various sets, including states which are free (because they can be created under the class of operations), and those which are a resource (because they cannot be). One can quantify the worth of the resource by the relative entropy distance to the set of free states, and under certain conditions, this is a unique measure which quantifies the rate of state to state transitions. Read More

We prove that local random quantum circuits acting on n qubits composed of O(t^{10} n^2) many nearest neighbor two-qubit gates form an approximate unitary t-design. Previously it was unknown whether random quantum circuits were a t-design for any t > 3. The proof is based on an interplay of techniques from quantum many-body theory, representation theory, and the theory of Markov chains. Read More

We prove that a finite correlation length, i.e. exponential decay of correlations, implies an area law for the entanglement entropy of quantum states defined on a line. Read More

The problem of sharing entanglement over large distances is crucial for implementations of quantum cryptography. A possible scheme for long-distance entanglement sharing and quantum communication exploits networks whose nodes share Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. In Perseguers et al. Read More

We analyze a region of fidelities for qubit which is obtained after an application of a 1 -> N universal quantum cloner. We express the allowed region for fidelities in terms of overlaps of pure states with irreps of S(n) (n = N+1) showing that the pure states can be taken with real coefficients only. Subsequently, the case n = 4, corresponding to a 1 -> 3 cloner is studied in more detail as an illustrative example. Read More

The relationship between thermodynamics and statistical physics is valid in the thermodynamic limit - when the number of particles becomes very large. Here, we study thermodynamics in the opposite regime - at both the nano scale, and when quantum effects become important. Applying results from quantum information theory we construct a theory of thermodynamics in these limits. Read More

The ideas of thermodynamics have proved fruitful in the setting of quantum information theory, in particular the notion that when the allowed transformations of a system are restricted, certain states of the system become useful resources with which one can prepare previously inaccessible states. The theory of entanglement is perhaps the best-known and most well-understood resource theory in this sense. Here we return to the basic questions of thermodynamics using the formalism of resource theories developed in quantum information theory and show that the free energy of thermodynamics emerges naturally from the resource theory of energy-preserving transformations. Read More

We consider distillation of entanglement from two qubit states which are mixtures of three mutually orthogonal states: two pure entangled states and one pure product state. We distill entanglement from such states by projecting n copies of the state on permutationally invariant subspace and then applying one-way hashing protocol. We find analytical expressions for the rate of the protocol. Read More

It is known that from entangled states that have positive partial transpose it is not possible to distill maximally entangled states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A long-standing open question is whether maximally entangled states can be distilled from every state with a non-positive partial transpose. In this paper we study a possible approach to the question consisting of enlarging the class of operations allowed. Read More

We analyze equilibration times of subsystems of a larger system under a random total Hamiltonian, in which the basis of the Hamiltonian is drawn from the Haar measure. We obtain that the time of equilibration is of the order of the inverse of the arithmetic average of the Bohr frequencies. To compute the average over a random basis, we compute the inverse of a matrix of overlaps of operators which permute four systems. Read More

Entangled inputs can enhance the capacity of quantum channels, this being one of the consequences of the celebrated result showing the non-additivity of several quantities relevant for quantum information science. In this work, we answer the converse question (whether entangled inputs can ever render noisy quantum channels have maximum capacity) to the negative: No sophisticated entangled input of any quantum channel can ever enhance the capacity to the maximum possible value; a result that holds true for all channels both for the classical as well as the quantum capacity. This result can hence be seen as a bound as to how "non-additive quantum information can be". Read More

A central problem in quantum computation is to understand which quantum circuits are useful for exponential speed-ups over classical computation. We address this question in the setting of query complexity and show that for almost any sufficiently long quantum circuit one can construct a black-box problem which is solved by the circuit with a constant number of quantum queries, but which requires exponentially many classical queries, even if the classical machine has the ability to postselect. We prove the result in two steps. Read More

We provide a class of bound entangled states that have positive distillable secure key rate. The smallest state of this kind is 4 \bigotimes 4. Our class is a generalization of the class presented in [1] (IEEE Trans. Read More

The discovery of quantum key distribution by Bennett and Brassard (BB84) bases on the fundamental quantum feature: incompatibility of measurements of quantum non-commuting observables. In 1991 Ekert showed that cryptographic key can be generated at a distance with help of entangled (correlated) quantum particles. Recently Barrett, Hardy and Kent showed that the non-locality used by Ekert is itself a good resource of cryptographic key even beyond quantum mechanics. Read More

The discovery of quantum key distribution by Bennett and Brassard (BB84) bases on the fundamental quantum feature: incompatibility of measurements of quantum non-commuting observables. In 1991 Ekert showed that cryptographic key can be generated at a distance with help of entangled (correlated) quantum particles. Recently Barrett, Hardy and Kent showed that the non-locality used by Ekert is itself a good resource of cryptographic key even beyond quantum mechanics. Read More

We present a constructive example of violation of additivity of minimum output R\'enyi entropy for each p>2. The example is provided by antisymmetric subspace of a suitable dimension. We discuss possibility of extension of the result to go beyond p>2 and obtain additivity for p=0 for a class of entanglement breaking channels. Read More

Hastings recently reported a randomized construction of channels violating the minimum output entropy additivity conjecture. Here we revisit his argument, presenting a simplified proof. In particular, we do not resort to the exact probability distribution of the Schmidt coefficients of a random bipartite pure state, as in the original proof, but rather derive the necessary large deviation bounds by a concentration of measure argument. Read More