# Michael Strickland - Kent State

## Contact Details

NameMichael Strickland |
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AffiliationKent State |
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CityKent |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (49) Nuclear Theory (48) High Energy Physics - Lattice (4) Nuclear Experiment (4) High Energy Physics - Theory (3) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (2) Physics - Computational Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Michael Strickland

We present the first comparisons of experimental data with phenomenological results from 3+1d quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydroQP). We compare charged-hadron multiplicity, identified-particle spectra, identified-particle average transverse momentum, charged-particle elliptic flow, and identified-particle elliptic flow produced in LHC 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions. Read More

The polarization of direct photons produced in an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision reflects the momentum anisotropy of the quark-gluon plasma created in the collision. This paper presents a general framework, based on the photon spectral functions in the plasma, for analyzing the angular distribution and thus the polarization of dileptons in terms of the plasma momentum anisotropies. The rates of dilepton production depend, in general, on four independent spectral functions, corresponding to two transverse polarizations, one longitudinal polarization, and -- in plasmas in which the momentum anisotropy is not invariant under parity in the local rest frame of the matter -- a new spectral function, $\rho_n$, related to the anisotropy direction in the collision. Read More

Non-equilibrium corrections to the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in a hot and dense QCD medium modify the "hard thermal loops" (HTL). The HTLs determine the retarded, advanced, and symmetric (time-ordered) propagators for gluons with soft momenta as well as the Debye screening and Landau damping mass scales. We compute such corrections to a thermal as well as to a non-thermal fixed point. Read More

The quark-gluon plasma created in a relativistic heavy-ion collisions
possesses a sizable pressure anisotropy in the local rest frame at very early
times after the initial nuclear impact and this anisotropy only slowly relaxes
as the system evolves. In a kinetic theory picture, this translates into the
existence of sizable momentum-space anisotropies in the underlying partonic
distribution functions,

We make phenomenological predictions for particle spectra and elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions using 3+1d anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. The dynamical equations necessary are derived by taking moments of the Boltzmann equation allowing for three distinct (diagonal) momentum-space anisotropy parameters. The formulation is based on relaxation-time approximation for the collisional kernel and a lattice-QCD-based equation of state. Read More

We study an azimuthally-symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. We compare results obtained using the quasiparticle method with the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. We consider the predictions of the three methods for the differential particle spectra and mean transverse momentum. Read More

The one-dimensional non-boost-invariant evolution of the quark-gluon plasma, presumably produced during the early stages of heavy-ion collisions, is analyzed within the frameworks of viscous and anisotropic hydrodynamics. We neglect transverse dynamics and assume homogeneous conditions in the transverse plane but, differently from Bjorken expansion, we relax longitudinal boost invariance in order to study the rapidity dependence of various hydrodynamical observables. We compare the results obtained using several formulations of second-order viscous hydrodynamics with a recent approach to anisotropic hydrodynamics, which treats the large initial pressure anisotropy in a non-perturbative fashion. Read More

Relativistic fluid dynamics is a major component in dynamical simulations of the quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Simulations of the full three-dimensional dissipative dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma with fluctuating initial conditions are computationally expensive and typically require some degree of parallelization. In this paper, we present a GPU implementation of the Kurganov-Tadmor algorithm which solves the 3+1d relativistic viscous hydrodynamics equations including the effects of both bulk and shear viscosities. Read More

We calculate the quark self-energy in a quark-gluon plasma that possesses an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy in the local rest frame. By introducing additional transverse momentum anisotropy parameters into the parton distribution functions, we generalize previous results which were obtained for the case of a spheroidal anisotropy. Our results demonstrate that the presence of anisotropies in the transverse directions affects the real and imaginary parts of quark self-energy and, consequently, the self-energy depends on both the polar and azimuthal angles in the local rest frame of the matter. Read More

We compute the suppression of the bottomonia states Upsilon(1S), Upsilon(2S), Upsilon(3S), chi_b(1P), chi_b(2P), and chi_b(3P) states in Large Hadron Collider (LHC) sqrt(s_NN)) = 5.023 TeV Pb-Pb collisions. For the background evolution we use 3+1d anisotropic hydrodynamics with conditions extrapolated from sqrt(s_NN) = 2. Read More

We use quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics to study an azimuthally-symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. In quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics, a single finite-temperature quasiparticle mass is introduced and fit to the lattice data in order to implement a realistic equation of state. We compare results obtained using the quasiparticle method with the standard method of imposing the equation of state in anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. Read More

When the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) - a system of deconfined quarks and gluons - is in a nonequilibrium state, it is usually unstable with respect to color collective modes. The instabilities, which are expected to strongly influence dynamics of the QGP produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, are extensively discussed under the assumption that the plasma is weakly coupled. We begin by presenting the theoretical approaches to study the QGP, which include: field theory methods based on the Keldysh-Schwinger formalism, classical and kinetic theories, and fluid techniques. Read More

In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3)_q symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. Read More

In a previous paper (JHEP {\bf 05} (2014) 27), we calculated the three-loop thermodynamic potential of QCD at finite temperature $T$ and quark chemical potentials $\mu_q$ using the hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) reorganization of finite temperature and density QCD. The result allows us to study the thermodynamics of QCD at finite temperature and isospin chemical potential $\mu_I$. We calculate the pressure, energy density, and entropy density, the trace anomaly, and the speed of sound at zero and nonzero $\mu_I$. Read More

We calculate leading-order medium photon and dilepton yields from a quark-gluon plasma using (3+1)-dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics. In the case of dileptons, at leading-order it is sufficient to take into account non-equilibrium corrections to the rate through the use of anisotropic distribution functions. In the case of photons, non-equilibrium corrections to the rate are taken into account using a self-consistent modification of the distribution functions and the corresponding anisotropic hard-loop quark self-energies. Read More

We present a new method for imposing a realistic equation of state in anisotropic hydrodynamics. The method relies on the introduction of a single finite-temperature quasiparticle mass which is fit to lattice data. By taking moments of the Boltzmann equation, we obtain a set of coupled partial differential equations which can be used to describe the 3+1d spacetime evolution of an anisotropic relativistic system. Read More

We use a recently obtained resummed quark propagator at finite temperature which takes into account both the chromoelectric scale gT and the chromomagnetic scale g^2T through the Gribov action. The electric scale generates two massive modes whereas the magnetic scale produces a new massless spacelike mode in the medium. Moreover, the non-perturbative quark propagator is found to contain no discontinuity in contrast to the standard perturbative hard thermal loop approach. Read More

In this proceedings we present a state-of-the-art method of calculating thermodynamic potential at finite temperature and finite chemical potential, using Hard Thermal Loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) up to next-to-next-leading-order (NNLO). The resulting thermodynamic potential enables us to evaluate different thermodynamic quantities including pressure and various quark number susceptibilities (QNS). Comparison between our analytic results for those thermodynamic quantities with the available lattice data shows a good agreement. Read More

We calculate leading-order medium photon yields from a quark-gluon plasma using (3+1)-dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics. Non-equilibrium corrections to the photon rate are taken into account using a self-consistent modification of the particle distribution functions and the corresponding anisotropic hard-loop fermionic self-energies. We present predictions for the high-energy photon spectrum and photon elliptic flow as a function of transverse momentum, shear viscosity, and initial momentum-space anisotropy. Read More

We compute the QGP suppression of Upsilon(1s), Upsilon(2s), Upsilon(3s), chi_b1, and chi_b2 states in sqrt(s_NN)=2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions. Using the suppression of each of these states, we estimate the inclusive R_AA for the Upsilon(1s) and Upsilon(2s) states as a function of N_part, y, and p_T including the effect of excited state feed down. Read More

We use leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics to study an azimuthally-symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma. We impose a realistic lattice-based equation of state and perform self-consistent anisotropic freeze-out to hadronic degrees of freedom. We then compare our results for the full spatiotemporal evolution of the quark-gluon plasma and its subsequent freeze-out to results obtained using 1+1d Israel-Stewart second-order viscous hydrodynamics. Read More

A recently obtained set of the equations for leading-order (3+1)D anisotropic hydrodynamics is tested against exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation with the collisional kernel treated in the relaxation time approximation. In order to perform the detailed comparisons, the new anisotropic hydrodynamics equations are reduced to the boost-invariant and transversally homogeneous case. The agreement with the exact solutions found using the new anisotropic hydrodynamics equations is similar to that found using previous, less general, formulations of anisotropic hydrodynamics. Read More

Dilepton production from the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions is computed using the leading-order (3+1)-dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics. It is shown that high-energy dilepton spectrum is sensitive to the initial local-rest-frame momentum-space anisotropy of the QGP. Our findings suggest that it may be possible to constrain the early-time momentum-space anisotropy in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using high-energy dilepton yields. Read More

We express the transport coefficients appearing in the second-order evolution equations for bulk viscous pressure and shear stress tensor using Bose-Einstein, Boltzmann, and Fermi-Dirac statistics for the equilibrium distribution function and Grad's 14-moment approximation as well as the method of Chapman-Enskog expansion for the non-equilibrium part. Specializing to the case of transversally homogeneous and boost-invariant longitudinal expansion of the viscous medium, we compare the results obtained using the above methods with those obtained from the exact solution of the massive 0+1d relativistic Boltzmann equation in the relaxation-time approximation. We show that compared to the 14-moment approximation, the hydrodynamic transport coefficients obtained by employing the Chapman-Enskog method leads to better agreement with the exact solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation. Read More

We compute dilepton production from the deconfined phase of the quark-gluon plasma using leading-order (3+1)-dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics. The anisotropic hydrodynamics equa- tions employed describe the full spatiotemporal evolution of the transverse temperature, spheroidal momentum-space anisotropy parameter, and the associated three-dimensional collective flow of the matter. The momentum-space anisotropy is also taken into account in the computation of the dilepton production rate, allowing for a self-consistent description of dilepton production from the quark-gluon plasma. Read More

The perturbative series for finite-temperature field theories has very poor convergence properties and one needs a way to reorganize it. In this talk, I review two ways of reorganizing the perturbative series for field theories at finite temperature and chemical potential, namely hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) and dimensional reduction (DR). I will present results for the pressure, trace anomaly, speed of sound and the quark susceptibilities from a 3-loop HTLpt calculation and for the quark susceptibilities using DR at four loops. Read More

We derive the equations of motion for a system undergoing boost-invariant longitudinal and azimuthally-symmetric transverse "Gubser flow" using leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics. This is accomplished by assuming that the one-particle distribution function is ellipsoidally-symmetric in the momenta conjugate to the de Sitter coordinates used to parameterize the Gubser flow. We then demonstrate that the SO(3)_q symmetry in de Sitter space further constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form. Read More

Anisotropic hydrodynamics is a non-perturbative reorganization of relativistic hydrodynamics that takes into account the large momentum-space anisotropies generated in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. As a result, it allows one to extend the regime of applicability of hydrodynamic treatments to situations that can be quite far from isotropic thermal equilibrium. In this paper, I review the material presented in a series of three introductory lectures. Read More

**Authors:**Gabriel S. Denicol

^{1}, Ulrich W. Heinz

^{2}, Mauricio Martinez

^{3}, Jorge Noronha

^{4}, Michael Strickland

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}McGill,

^{2}Ohio State,

^{3}Ohio State,

^{4}Univ. Sao Paulo,

^{5}Kent State

We present an exact solution to the Boltzmann equation which describes a system undergoing boost-invariant longitudinal and azimuthally symmetric radial expansion for arbitrary shear viscosity to entropy density ratio. This new solution is constructed by considering the conformal map between Minkowski space and the direct product of three dimensional de Sitter space with a line. The resulting solution respects SO(3)_q x SO(1,1) x Z_2 symmetry. Read More

**Authors:**Gabriel S. Denicol

^{1}, Ulrich W. Heinz

^{2}, Mauricio Martinez

^{3}, Jorge Noronha

^{4}, Michael Strickland

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}McGill,

^{2}Ohio State,

^{3}Ohio State,

^{4}Univ. Sao Paulo,

^{5}Kent State

We present an exact solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation for a system undergoing boost-invariant longitudinal and azimuthally symmetric transverse flow ("Gubser flow"). The resulting exact non-equilibrium dynamics is compared to 1st- and 2nd-order relativistic hydrodynamic approximations for various shear viscosity to entropy density ratios. This novel solution can be used to test the validity and accuracy of different hydrodynamic approximations in conditions similar to those generated in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Ohio State Univ.,

^{2}Ohio State Univ.,

^{3}Kent State Univ.

A new formulation of second-order viscous hydrodynamics, based on an expansion around a locally anisotropic momentum distribution, is presented. It generalizes the previously developed formalism of anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) to include a complete set of dissipative currents for which equations of motion are derived by solving the Boltzmann equation in the 14-moment approximation. By solving the vaHydro equations for a transversally homogeneous, longitudinally boost-invariant system ((0+1)-dimensional expansion) and comparing with the exact solution of the Boltzmann equation in relaxation-time approximation we show that vaHydro performs much better than all other known second-order viscous hydrodynamic approximations. Read More

We derive the form of the viscous corrections to the phase-space distribution function due to the bulk viscous pressure and shear stress tensor using the iterative Chapman-Enskog method. We then calculate the transport coefficients necessary for the second-order hydrodynamic evolution of the bulk viscous pressure and the shear stress tensor. We demonstrate that the transport coefficients obtained using the Chapman-Enskog method are different than those obtained previously using the 14-moment approximation for a finite particle mass. Read More

We compute the temporal evolution of the pressure anisotropy and bulk pressure of a massive gas using second-order viscous hydrodynamics and anisotropic hydrodynamics. We then compare our results with an exact solution of the Boltzmann equation for a massive gas in the relaxation time approximation. We demonstrate that, within second-order viscous hydrodynamics, the inclusion of the full set of kinetic coefficients, particularly the shear-bulk couplings, is necessary to properly describe the time evolution of the bulk pressure. Read More

In this proceedings contribution we present a recent three-loop hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the thermodynamic potential for a finite temperature and chemical potential system of quarks and gluons. We compare the resulting pressure, trace anomaly, and diagonal/off-diagonal quark susceptibilities with lattice data. We show that there is good agreement between the three-loop HTLpt analytic result and available lattice data. Read More

We derive a system of moment-based dynamical equations that describe the 1+1d space-time evolution of a cylindrically symmetric massive gas undergoing boost-invariant longitudinal expansion. Extending previous work, we introduce an explicit degree of freedom associated with the bulk pressure of the system. The resulting form generalizes the ellipsoidal one-particle distribution function appropriate for massless particles to massive particles. Read More

The framework of anisotropic hydrodynamics is generalized to include finite particle masses. Two schemes are introduced and their predictions compared with exact solutions of the kinetic equation in the relaxation time approximation. The first formulation uses the zeroth and first moments of the kinetic equation, whereas the second formulation uses the first and second moments. Read More

We solve the one-dimensional boost-invariant kinetic equation for a relativistic massive system with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. The result is an exact integral equation which can be solved numerically by the method of iteration to arbitrary precision. We compare predictions for the shear and bulk viscosities of a massive system with those obtained from the exact solution. Read More

We calculate the three-loop thermodynamic potential of QCD at finite temperature and chemical potential(s) using the hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) reorganization of finite temperature and density QCD. The resulting analytic thermodynamic potential allows us to compute the pressure, energy density, and entropy density of the quark-gluon plasma. Using these we calculate the trace anomaly, speed of sound, and second-, fourth-, and sixth-order quark number susceptibilities. Read More

In this proceedings contribution I review recent progress in our understanding of the bulk dynamics of relativistic systems that possess potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies. In order to deal with these momentum-space anisotropies, a reorganization of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics can been made around an anisotropic background, and the resulting dynamical framework has been dubbed "anisotropic hydrodynamics." I also discuss expectations for the degree of momentum-space anisotropy of the quark gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC from second-order viscous hydrodynamics, strong-coupling approaches, and weak-coupling approaches. Read More

I review our current understanding of the processes driving the thermalization and isotropization of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) created in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions (URHICs). I begin by discussing the phenomenological evidence in favor of the creation of a thermal but momentum-space anisotropic QGP in URHICs. I then discuss the degree of isotropization using viscous (dissipative) hydrodynamics, weak-coupling approaches to QGP dynamics, and strong-coupling approaches to QGP dynamics. Read More

We present a complete formulation of second-order (2+1)-dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics. The resulting framework generalizes leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics by allowing for deviations of the one-particle distribution function from the spheroidal form assumed at leading order. We derive complete second-order equations of motion for the additional terms in the macroscopic currents generated by these deviations from their kinetic definition using a Grad-Israel-Stewart 14-moment ansatz. Read More

We present results of a three-loop hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory calculation of the thermodynamical potential of a finite temperature and baryon chemical potential system of quarks and gluons. We compare the resulting pressure and diagonal quark susceptibilities with available lattice data. We find reasonable agreement between our analytic results and lattice data at both zero and finite chemical potential. Read More

We study the effect of a static homogeneous external magnetic field on charmonium and bottomonium states. In an external magnetic field, quarkonium states do not have a conserved center-of-mass momentum. Instead there is a new conserved quantity called the pseudomomentum which takes into account the Lorentz force on the particles in the system. Read More

We perform a detailed analysis of the predictions of resummed perturbation theory for the pressure and the second-, fourth-, and sixth-order diagonal quark number susceptibilities in a hot and dense quark-gluon plasma. First, we present an exact one-loop calculation of the equation of state within hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) and compare it to a previous one-loop HTLpt calculation that employed an expansion in the ratios of thermal masses and the temperature. We find that this expansion converges reasonably fast. Read More

We exactly solve the one-dimensional boost-invariant Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation for arbitrary shear viscosity. The results are compared with the predictions of viscous and anisotropic hydrodynamics. Studying different non-equilibrium cases and comparing the exact kinetic-theory results to the second-order viscous hydrodynamics results we find that recent formulations of second-order viscous hydrodynamics agree better with the exact solution than the standard Israel-Stewart approach. Read More

We exactly solve the relaxation-time approximation Boltzmann equation for a system which is transversely homogeneous and undergoing boost-invariant longitudinal expansion. We compare the resulting exact numerical solution with approximate solutions available in the anisotropic hydrodynamics and second order viscous hydrodynamics frameworks. In all cases studied, we find that the anisotropic hydrodynamics framework is a better approximation to the exact solution than traditional viscous hydrodynamical approaches. Read More

In this proceedings contribution we review recent calculations of the dynamics of the chromo-Weibel instability in the quark gluon plasma. This instability is present in gauge theories with a one-particle distribution function which is momentum-space anisotropic in the local rest frame. The conditions necessary for triggering this instability can be present already in the color-glass-condensate initial state or dynamically generated by the rapid longitudinal expansion of the matter created in a heavy-ion collision. Read More

We use the recently obtained two-loop hard thermal loop perturbation theory thermodynamics functions of a plasma of quarks and gluons to compute the diagonal second- and fourth-order quark number susceptibilities. The two-loop hard thermal loop perturbation theory thermodynamic functions used are reliable in the limit that the ratio of the quark chemical potential to temperature is small. Using this result, we are able to obtain (semi-)analytic expressions for the quark number susceptibilities at leading- and next-to-leading-order in hard thermal loop perturbation theory. Read More

In this paper we review recent progress towards understanding the nature of quarkonia in the quark-gluon plasma. We review the theory necessary to understand the melting of bound states due to color-screening, including lattice results for the heavy quark potential, lattice results on the correlation functions related to the relevant spectral functions, and the emergence of a complex-valued potential in high-temperature quantum chromodynamics. We close with a brief survey of phenomenological models of quarkonium suppression in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Read More

Non-Abelian plasma instabilities play an important role in the non-equilibrium dynamics of a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma. Using the discretized hard loop framework we calculate the time evolution of soft gluonic fields in a longitudinally free streaming background. Extrapolating our results to energies probed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions we find a pressure anisotropy that persists for a few fm/c. Read More