Michael P. Rupen - NRAO

Michael P. Rupen
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Michael P. Rupen

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (22)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (18)
Astrophysics (16)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (7)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (6)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2)
Physics - Plasma Physics (1)
Physics - Space Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Michael P. Rupen

It has recently been discovered that some, if not all, classical novae emit GeV gamma-rays during outburst, but the mechanics of this gamma-ray emission are still not well understood. We present here a comprehensive, multi-wavelength dataset---from radio to X-rays---for the most gamma-ray luminous classical nova to-date, V1324 Sco. Using this dataset, we show that V1324 Sco is a canonical dusty Fe-II type nova, with a bulk ejecta velocity of $1150 \pm 40~\rm km~s^{-1}$ and an ejecta mass of $2. Read More

Observational constraints of relativistic jets from black holes has largely come from the most powerful and extended jets\cite{Jorstad05,Asada14}, leaving the nature of the low luminosity jets a mystery\cite{Falcke04}. M81* is one of the nearest low-luminosity jets, which underwent an extremely large radio flare in 2011, allowing us to study compact core emission with unprecedented sensitivity and linear resolution. Utilizing a multi-wavelength campaign, we were able to track the flare as it re-brightened and became optically thick. Read More

We present 8--12\,GHz radio light curves of five dwarf nova (DN) type Cataclysmic Variable stars (CVs) in outburst (RX And, U Gem and Z Cam), or superoutburst (SU UMa and YZ Cnc), increasing the number of radio-detected DN by a factor of two. The observed radio emission was variable on time-scales of minutes to days, and we argue that it is likely to be synchrotron emission. This sample shows no correlation between the radio luminosity and optical luminosity, orbital period, CV class, or outburst type; however higher-cadence observations are necessary to test this, as the measured luminosity is dependent on the timing of the observations in these variable objects. Read More

Searches for circumstellar material around Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are one of the most powerful tests of the nature of SN Ia progenitors, and radio observations provide a particularly sensitive probe of this material. Here we report radio observations for SNe Ia and their lower-luminosity thermonuclear cousins. We present the largest, most sensitive, and spectroscopically diverse study of prompt (delta t <~ 1 yr) radio observations of 85 thermonuclear SNe, including 25 obtained by our team with the unprecedented depth of the Karl G. Read More

Since the Fermi discovery of $\gamma$-rays from novae, one of the biggest questions in the field has been how novae generate such high-energy emission. Shocks must be a fundamental ingredient. Six months of radio observations of the 2012 nova V5589 Sgr with the VLA and 15 weeks of X-ray observations with Swift/XRT show that the radio emission consisted of: 1) a shock-powered, non-thermal flare; and 2) weak thermal emission from $10^{-5}$ M$_\odot$ of freely expanding, photoionized ejecta. Read More

We report here on key science topics for the Next Generation Very Large Array in the areas of time domain, fundamental physics, and cosmology. Key science cases considered are pulsars in orbit around the Galactic Center massive black hole, Sagittarius A*, electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves, and astrometric cosmology. These areas all have the potential for ground-breaking and transformative discovery. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Tasmania, Australia, 2National Radio Astronomy Observatory, USA, 3University of Tasmania, Australia, 4National Radio Astronomy Observatory, USA

A set of diffuse interstellar clouds in the inner Galaxy within a few hundred pc of the Galactic plane has been observed at an angular resolution of ~1 arcmin combining data from the NRAO Green Bank Telescope and the Very Large Array. At the distance of the clouds the linear resolution ranges from ~1.9 pc to ~2. Read More

Radio emission from non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs, accreting white dwarfs) could allow detailed studies of outflows and possibly accretion flows in these nearby, numerous and non-relativistic compact accretors. Up to now, however, very few CVs have been detected in the radio. We have conducted a VLA pilot survey of four close and optically-bright novalike CVs at 6 GHz, detecting three, and thereby doubling the number of radio detections of these systems. Read More

The importance of shocks in nova explosions has been highlighted by Fermi's discovery of \gamma-ray producing novae. Over three years of multi-band VLA radio observations of the 2010 nova V1723 Aql show that shocks between fast and slow flows within the ejecta led to the acceleration of particles and the production of synchrotron radiation. Soon after the start of the eruption, shocks in the ejecta produced an unexpected radio flare, resulting in a multi-peaked radio light curve. Read More

The thermal radio emission of novae during outburst enables us to derive fundamental quantities such as the ejected mass, kinetic energy, and density profile of the ejecta. Recent observations with newly-upgraded facilities such as the VLA and e-MERLIN are just beginning to reveal the incredibly complex processes of mass ejection in novae (ejections appear to often proceed in multiple phases and over prolonged timescales). Symbiotic stars can also exhibit outbursts, which are sometimes accompanied by the expulsion of material in jets. Read More

We present high-resolution rotation curves and mass models of 26 dwarf galaxies from LITTLE THINGS. LITTLE THINGS is a high-resolution Very Large Array HI survey for nearby dwarf galaxies in the local volume within 11 Mpc. The rotation curves of the sample galaxies derived in a homogeneous and consistent manner are combined with Spitzer archival 3. Read More

We report on the first millisecond timescale radio interferometric search for the new class of transient known as fast radio bursts (FRBs). We used the Very Large Array (VLA) for a 166-hour, millisecond imaging campaign to detect and precisely localize an FRB. We observed at 1. Read More

Accreting black holes are observed to launch relativistic, collimated jets of matter and radiation. In some sources, discrete ejections have been detected with highly relativistic velocities. These particular sources typically have very high mass accretion rates, while sources lower knot velocities are predominantly associated with black holes with relatively low mass accretion rates. Read More

Affiliations: 1Southampton, 2Hertfordshire, 3Excellence Cluster Universe, 4Hertfordshire, 5NRAO, 6NRAO, 7Lowell, 8Krakow, 9Hertfordshire

Superbubbles are crucial for stellar feedback, with supposedly high (of the order of 10 per cent) thermalization rates. We combined multiband radio continuum observations from the Very Large Array (VLA) with Effelsberg data to study the non-thermal superbubble (NSB) in IC 10, a starburst dwarf irregular galaxy in the Local Group. Thermal emission was subtracted using a combination of Balmer H$\alpha$ and VLA 32 GHz continuum maps. Read More

Classical novae are the most common astrophysical thermonuclear explosions, occurring on the surfaces of white dwarf stars accreting gas from companions in binary star systems. Novae typically expel ~10^(-4) solar masses of material at velocities exceeding 1,000 kilometres per second. However, the mechanism of mass ejection in novae is poorly understood, and could be dominated by the impulsive flash of thermonuclear energy, prolonged optically thick winds, or binary interaction with the nova envelope. Read More

We present the first detections of thermal radio emission from the atmospheres of solar-type stars {\tau} Cet, {\eta} Cas A, and 40 Eri A. These stars all resemble the Sun in age and level of magnetic activity, as indicated by X-ray luminosity and chromospheric emission in calcium-II H and K lines. We observed these stars with the Karl G. Read More

The recurrent nova T Pyx underwent its sixth historical outburst in 2011, and became the subject of an intensive multi-wavelength observational campaign. We analyze data from the Swift and Suzaku satellites to produce a detailed X-ray light curve augmented by epochs of spectral information. X-ray observations yield mostly non-detections in the first four months of outburst, but both a super-soft and hard X-ray component rise rapidly after Day 115. Read More

Affiliations: 1MIT Kavli Institute, 2MIT Kavli Institute, 3Valparaiso U, 4NRAO, 5NRAO, 6MIT Kavli Institute, 7MIT Kavli Institute, 8U. Wisconsin, Madison

We present observations of the SS 433 jets using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer with contemporaneous optical and VLBA observations. The X-ray and optical emission line regions are found to be related but not coincident as the optical line emission persists for days while the X-ray emission lines fade in less than 5000 s. The line Doppler shifts from the optical and X-ray lines match well, indicating that they are less than 3e14 cm apart. Read More

The radio light curves of novae rise and fall over the course of months to years, allowing for detailed observations of the evolution of the nova shell. However, the main parameter determined by radio models of nova explosions - the mass of the ejecta - often seems to exceed theoretical expectations by an order of magnitude. With the recent technological improvements on the Karl G. Read More

Novae, which are the sudden visual brightening triggered by runaway thermonuclear burning on the surface of an accreting white dwarf, are fairly common and bright events. Despite their astronomical significance as nearby laboratories for the study of nuclear burning and accretion phenomena, many aspects of these common stellar explosions are observationally not well-constrained and remain poorly understood. Radio observations, modeling and interpretation can potentially play a crucial role in addressing some of these puzzling issues. Read More

We report observations of type III radio bursts at decimeter wavelengths (type IIIdm bursts) -- signatures of suprathermal electron beams propagating in the low corona -- using the new technique of radio dynamic imaging spectroscopy provided by the recently upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). For the first time, type IIIdm bursts were imaged with high time and frequency resolution over a broad frequency band, allowing electron beam trajectories in the corona to be deduced. Read More

Despite being the prototype of its class, T Pyx is arguably the most unusual and poorly understood recurrent nova. Here, we use radio observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to trace the evolution of the ejecta over the course of the 2011 outburst of T Pyx. Read More

We present multi-frequency radio observations of the 2010 nova event in the symbiotic binary V407 Cygni, obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and spanning 1-45 GHz and 17-770 days following discovery. This nova---the first ever detected in gamma rays---shows a radio light curve dominated by the wind of the Mira giant companion, rather than the nova ejecta themselves. Read More

We present LITTLE THINGS (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey) that is aimed at determining what drives star formation in dwarf galaxies. This is a multi-wavelength survey of 37 Dwarf Irregular and 4 Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies that is centered around HI-line data obtained with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA). The HI-line data are characterized by high sensitivity (less than 1. Read More

We present the first blind interferometric detection and imaging of a millisecond radio transient with an observation of transient pulsar J0628+0909. We developed a special observing mode of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to produce correlated data products (i. Read More

We report unique EVLA observations of SN 2011fe representing the most sensitive radio study of a Type Ia supernova to date. Our data place direct constraints on the density of the surrounding medium at radii ~10^15-10^16 cm, implying an upper limit on the mass loss rate from the progenitor system of Mdot <~ 6 x 10^-10 Msol/yr (assuming a wind speed of 100 km/s), or expansion into a uniform medium with density n_CSM <~ 6 cm^-3. Drawing from the observed properties of non-conservative mass transfer among accreting white dwarfs, we use these limits on the density of the immediate environs to exclude a phase space of possible progenitors systems for SN 2011fe. Read More

{\it Chandra} spectroscopy of transient stellar-mass black holes in outburst has clearly revealed accretion disk winds in soft, disk--dominated states, in apparent anti-correlation with relativistic jets in low/hard states. These disk winds are observed to be highly ionized, dense, and to have typical velocities of $\sim$1000 km/s or less projected along our line of sight. Here, we present an analysis of two {\it Chandra} High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the Galactic black hole candidate IGR J17091$-$3624 and contemporaneous EVLA radio observations, obtained in 2011. Read More

We present the results of detailed monitoring of the radio emission from the Type Ic supernova SN 1994I from 3 days after optical discovery on 1994 March 31 until eight years later at age 2927 days on 2002 April 05. The data were mainly obtained using the Very Large Array at the five wavelengths, 1.3, 2. Read More


We exploit the vastly increased sensitivity of the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) to study the radio continuum and polarization properties of the post-starburst, dwarf irregular galaxy IC10 at 6 cm, at a linear resolution of ~50 pc. We find close agreement between radio continuum and Halpha emission, from the brightest HII regions to the weaker emission in the disk. A quantitative analysis shows a strictly linear correlation, where the thermal component contributes 50% to the total radio emission, the remainder being due to a non-thermal component with a surprisingly steep radio spectral index of between -0. Read More

We present radio light curves and spectra of the classical nova V1723 Aql obtained with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). This is the first paper to showcase results from the EVLA Nova Project, which comprises a team of observers and theorists utilizing the greatly enhanced sensitivity and frequency coverage of EVLA radio observations, along with observations at other wavelengths, to reach a deeper understanding of the energetics, morphology, and temporal characteristics of nova explosions. Our observations of V1723 Aql span 1-37 GHz in frequency, and we report on data from 14-175 days following the time of the nova explosion. Read More

We report on the results of a simultaneous monitoring campaign employing eight Chandra X-ray (0.5-10 keV) and six VLA/EVLA (8.4 GHz) radio observations of NGC 4051 over seven months. Read More

Affiliations: 1ICRAR/Curtin, 2U. Virginia, 3U. Amsterdam, 4U. Paris Diderot, 5NASA/GSFC, 6U. Michigan, 7MIT, 8U. Amsterdam, 9ASTRON, 10NRAO, 11U. Southampton, 12U. Wisconsin-Madison, 13U. Amsterdam, 14ESAC, 15NRAO, 16U. Virginia

Relationships between the X-ray and radio behavior of black hole X-ray binaries during outbursts have established a fundamental coupling between the accretion disks and radio jets in these systems. We begin by reviewing the prevailing paradigm for this disk-jet coupling, also highlighting what we know about similarities and differences with neutron star and white dwarf binaries. Until recently, this paradigm had not been directly tested with dedicated high-angular resolution radio imaging over entire outbursts. Read More

The low mass X-ray binary and Z source GX 17+2 undergoes infrared K-band brightening episodes of at least 3.5 magnitudes. The source of these episodes is not known. Read More

Affiliations: 1Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, 2National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 3National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Two compact HI clouds which seem to belong to the Ophiuchus superbubble were studied at ~30" resolution using the Very Large Array (VLA) in C and D configurations together with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) providing the short-spacing flux. Here we present preliminary results of the data analysis. Read More

Affiliations: 1NRAO, 2NRAO, 3Geneva Observatory, 4Tuorla Observatory, 5Oxford, 6Cavendish Laboratory
Category: Astrophysics

We present simultaneous dual-frequency radio observations of Cygnus X-3 during a phase of low-level activity. We constrain the minimum variability timescale to be 20 minutes at 43 GHz and 30 minutes at 15 GHz, implying source sizes of 2 to 4 AU. We detect polarized emission at a level of a few per cent at 43 GHz which varies with the total intensity. Read More

Affiliations: 1Southampton, 2NRAO, 3Southampton, 4Southampton, 5NRAO, 6AAVSO, 7Manchester
Category: Astrophysics

Astrophysical jets seem to occur in nearly all types of accreting objects: from supermassive black holes to young stellar objects. Based on X-ray binaries, a unified scenario describing the disc/jet coupling has evolved and extended to many accreting objects. The only major exceptions are thought to be cataclysmic variables: Dwarf novae, weakly accreting white dwarfs, show similar outburst behaviour as X-ray binaries but no jet has yet been detected. Read More

To continue the unparalleled success of the Very Large Array (VLA) for radio astronomy, the facility is currently being converted to become the 'Expanded VLA' (EVLA). The EVLA will radically improve the VLA in order to cover the full 0.93-50 GHz radio wavelength range without gaps, provide up to an order of magnitude better sensitivity, and to allow observations at much larger bandwidths and spectral resolution as currently possible. Read More


We report high-resolution radio imaging of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph) during the first month of the 2006 outburst, using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Observations made on days 20.8 and 26. Read More

The bright X-ray transient H 1743-322 was observed daily by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during most of its 8-month outburst in 2003. We present a detailed spectral analysis and a supporting timing analysis of all of these data, and we discuss the behavior and evolution of the source in terms of the three principal X-ray states defined by Remillard and McClintock. These X-ray results are complemented by Very Large Array (VLA) data obtained at six frequencies that provide quite complete coverage of the entire outburst cycle at 4. Read More

Affiliations: 1UCLA, 2INAF - Oss. Astr. Brera, Italy, 3NRAO, 4MIT, 5MIT, 6NRAO
Category: Astrophysics

We report strict upper limits to the radio luminosities of three neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries obtained with the Very Large Array while they were in hard X-ray states as observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer: 1E 1724-307, 4U 1812-12, and SLX 1735-269. We compare these upper limits to the radio luminosities of several black hole binaries in very similar hard states, and find that the neutron star systems are as faint as or fainter than all of the black hole candidates. The differences in luminosities can partly be attributed to the lower masses of the neutron star systems, which on theoretical and observational grounds are expected to decrease the radio luminosities as M^0. Read More


We present radio imaging observations of the 1998 outburst of the peculiar emission line star CI Cam, taken about 1, 4, 75, 82, 93, 163, and 306 days after the beginning of the 31.64 March 1998 X-ray flare. The first two epochs show a resolved but compact radio source which becomes optically thin at frequencies higher than 5 GHz. Read More

Affiliations: 1Sabanci Univ. Istanbul/Turkey, 2USRA, 3NSSTC, 4USRA, 5USRA, 6NRAO, 7NASA/GSFC, 8NASA/GSFC, 9UvA
Category: Astrophysics

We present the long term X-ray light curves, detailed spectral and timing analyses of XTE J1908+094 using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations covering two outbursts in 2002 and early 2003. At the onset of the first outburst, the source was found in a spectrally low/hard state lasting for ~40 days, followed by a three day long transition to the high/soft state. The source flux (in 2$-$10 keV) reached $\sim$100 mCrab on 2002 April 6, then decayed rapidly. Read More

Affiliations: 1UIUC, 2UIUC, 3Marquette U., 4NRAO, 5Univ of Oklahoma, 6New Mexico Tech
Category: Astrophysics

The nature of SN 1961V has been uncertain. Its peculiar optical light curve and slow expansion velocity are similar to those of super-outbursts of luminous blue variables (LBVs), but its nonthermal radio spectral index and declining radio luminosity are consistent with decades-old supernovae (SNe). We have obtained Hubble Space Telescope STIS images and spectra of the stars in the vicinity of SN 1961V, and find Object 7 identified by Filippenko et al. Read More

Multifrequency observations from the VLA, VLBA and OVRO Millimeter Array of a major radio outburst of Cygnus X-3 in 2001 September are presented, measuring the evolution of the spectrum of the source over three decades in frequency, over a period of six days. Following the peak of the flare, as the intensity declines the high-frequency spectrum at frequency nu steepens from nu^{-0.4} to nu^{-0. Read More

Affiliations: 1CASS/UCSD, 2Universite Paris VII and CEA Saclay, 3University of Amsterdam, 4Harvard-Smithsonian CfA and NSF Fellow, 5SDSU, 6NRAO, 7ATNF, 8University of St. Andrews, 9Harvard-Smithsonian CfA
Category: Astrophysics

Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have detected the black hole transients V4641 Sgr and XTE J1859+226 in their low luminosity, quiescent states. The 0.3-8 keV luminosities are (4. Read More

We present the results of two simultaneous X-ray/radio observations of the low-mass X-ray binary GX 13+1, performed in July/August 1999 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and the Very Large Array. In X-rays the source was observed in two distinct spectral states; a soft state, which had a corresponding 6 cm flux density of ~0.25 mJy, and a hard state, which was much brighter at 1. Read More

The origins of all extra-solar cosmic rays -- both the ultra high-energy and lower energy Galactic variety -- remain unclear. It has been argued that the large scale shocks and turbulence induced by the multiple interacting supersonic winds from the many hot stars in young stellar associations may play a role in accelerating Galactic cosmic rays -- with or without the associated multiple supernova remnants (eg. Cesarsky & Montmerle, 1983; Bykov 2001). Read More

Affiliations: 1Univ. of Amsterdam, 2Univ. of Amsterdam, 3NRAO, 4Inst. of Astronomy, Cambridge, 5Univ. of Amsterdam, 6NRAO, 7Univ. of Amsterdam
Category: Astrophysics

We have analysed 12 simultaneous radio (VLA) and X-ray (RXTE) observations of the atoll-type X-ray binary 4U 1728-34, performed in two blocks in 2000 and 2001. We have found that the strongest and most variable emission seems to be associated with repeated transitions between hard (island) and softer (lower banana) X-ray states, while weaker, persistent radio emission is observed when the source is steadily in the hard X-ray state. There is a significant positive ranking correlation between the radio flux density at 8. Read More

The HEGRA Cherenkov telescope array group recently reported a steady and extended unidentified TeV gamma-ray source lying at the outskirts of Cygnus OB2. This is the most massive stellar association known in the Galaxy, estimated to contain ~2600 OB type members alone. It has been previously argued that the large scale shocks and turbulence induced by the multiple interacting supersonic winds from the many young stars in such associations may play a role in accelerating Galactic cosmic rays. Read More

Multifrequency VLA and OVRO observations of the radio outburst of Cygnus X-3 in September 2001 are presented, illustrating the evolution of the spectrum of the source over a period of six days. An estimate of the magnetic field in the emitting region is made from the spectral turnover and possible explanations for the spectral evolution are suggested. Read More