Maxim Pospelov

Maxim Pospelov
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Maxim Pospelov

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (50)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (24)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (13)
Nuclear Theory (8)
Nuclear Experiment (7)
Physics - Atomic Physics (4)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (3)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (3)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (3)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (1)
Physics - Accelerator Physics (1)
High Energy Physics - Lattice (1)
High Energy Physics - Theory (1)

Publications Authored By Maxim Pospelov

We derive new constraints on light vectors coupled to Standard Model (SM) fermions, when the corresponding SM current is broken by the chiral anomaly. Cancellation of the anomaly by heavy fermions results, in the low-energy theory, in Wess-Zumino type interactions between the new vector and the SM gauge bosons. These interactions are determined by the requirement that the heavy sector preserves the SM gauge groups, and lead to (energy / vector mass)^2 enhanced rates for processes involving the longitudinal mode of the new vector. Read More

Multiple cosmological observations indicate that dark matter (DM) constitutes 85% of all matter in the Universe [1]. All the current evidence for DM comes from galactic or larger scale observations through the gravitational pull of DM on ordinary matter [1], leaving the microscopic nature of DM a mystery. Ambitious programs in particle physics have mostly focused on searches for WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) as DM candidates [2]. Read More

A persistence of several anomalies in muon physics, such as the muon anomalous magnetic moment and the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift, hints at new light particles beyond the Standard Model. We address a subset of these models that have a new light scalar state with sizable couplings to muons and suppressed couplings to electrons. A novel way to search for such particles would be through muon beam-dump experiments by (1) missing momentum searches; (2) searches for decays with displaced vertices. Read More

We analyze the prospects for detection of light sub-GeV dark matter produced in experiments designed to study the properties of neutrinos, such as MiniBooNE, T2K, SHiP, DUNE etc. We present an improved production model, when dark matter couples to hadronic states via a dark photon or baryonic vector mediator, incorporating bremsstrahlung of the dark vector. In addition to elastic scattering, we also study signatures of light dark matter undergoing deep inelastic or quasi-elastic NC$\pi^0$-like scattering in the detector producing neutral pions, which for certain experiments may provide the best sensitivity. Read More

Authors: Jim Alexander, Marco Battaglieri, Bertrand Echenard, Rouven Essig, Matthew Graham, Eder Izaguirre, John Jaros, Gordan Krnjaic, Jeremy Mardon, David Morrissey, Tim Nelson, Maxim Perelstein, Matt Pyle, Adam Ritz, Philip Schuster, Brian Shuve, Natalia Toro, Richard G Van De Water, Daniel Akerib, Haipeng An, Konrad Aniol, Isaac J. Arnquist, David M. Asner, Henning O. Back, Keith Baker, Nathan Baltzell, Dipanwita Banerjee, Brian Batell, Daniel Bauer, James Beacham, Jay Benesch, James Bjorken, Nikita Blinov, Celine Boehm, Mariangela Bondí, Walter Bonivento, Fabio Bossi, Stanley J. Brodsky, Ran Budnik, Stephen Bueltmann, Masroor H. Bukhari, Raymond Bunker, Massimo Carpinelli, Concetta Cartaro, David Cassel, Gianluca Cavoto, Andrea Celentano, Animesh Chaterjee, Saptarshi Chaudhuri, Gabriele Chiodini, Hsiao-Mei Sherry Cho, Eric D. Church, D. A. Cooke, Jodi Cooley, Robert Cooper, Ross Corliss, Paolo Crivelli, Francesca Curciarello, Annalisa D'Angelo, Hooman Davoudiasl, Marzio De Napoli, Raffaella De Vita, Achim Denig, Patrick deNiverville, Abhay Deshpande, Ranjan Dharmapalan, Bogdan Dobrescu, Sergey Donskov, Raphael Dupre, Juan Estrada, Stuart Fegan, Torben Ferber, Clive Field, Enectali Figueroa-Feliciano, Alessandra Filippi, Bartosz Fornal, Arne Freyberger, Alexander Friedland, Iftach Galon, Susan Gardner, Francois-Xavier Girod, Sergei Gninenko, Andrey Golutvin, Stefania Gori, Christoph Grab, Enrico Graziani, Keith Griffioen, Andrew Haas, Keisuke Harigaya, Christopher Hearty, Scott Hertel, JoAnne Hewett, Andrew Hime, David Hitlin, Yonit Hochberg, Roy J. Holt, Maurik Holtrop, Eric W. Hoppe, Todd W. Hossbach, Lauren Hsu, Phil Ilten, Joe Incandela, Gianluca Inguglia, Kent Irwin, Igal Jaegle, Robert P. Johnson, Yonatan Kahn, Grzegorz Kalicy, Zhong-Bo Kang, Vardan Khachatryan, Venelin Kozhuharov, N. V. Krasnikov, Valery Kubarovsky, Eric Kuflik, Noah Kurinsky, Ranjan Laha, Gaia Lanfranchi, Dale Li, Tongyan Lin, Mariangela Lisanti, Kun Liu, Ming Liu, Ben Loer, Dinesh Loomba, Valery E. Lyubovitskij, Aaron Manalaysay, Giuseppe Mandaglio, Jeremiah Mans, W. J. Marciano, Thomas Markiewicz, Luca Marsicano, Takashi Maruyama, Victor A. Matveev, David McKeen, Bryan McKinnon, Dan McKinsey, Harald Merkel, Jeremy Mock, Maria Elena Monzani, Omar Moreno, Corina Nantais, Sebouh Paul, Michael Peskin, Vladimir Poliakov, Antonio D Polosa, Maxim Pospelov, Igor Rachek, Balint Radics, Mauro Raggi, Nunzio Randazzo, Blair Ratcliff, Alessandro Rizzo, Thomas Rizzo, Alan Robinson, Andre Rubbia, David Rubin, Dylan Rueter, Tarek Saab, Elena Santopinto, Richard Schnee, Jessie Shelton, Gabriele Simi, Ani Simonyan, Valeria Sipala, Oren Slone, Elton Smith, Daniel Snowden-Ifft, Matthew Solt, Peter Sorensen, Yotam Soreq, Stefania Spagnolo, James Spencer, Stepan Stepanyan, Jan Strube, Michael Sullivan, Arun S. Tadepalli, Tim Tait, Mauro Taiuti, Philip Tanedo, Rex Tayloe, Jesse Thaler, Nhan V. Tran, Sean Tulin, Christopher G. Tully, Sho Uemura, Maurizio Ungaro, Paolo Valente, Holly Vance, Jerry Vavra, Tomer Volansky, Belina von Krosigk, Andrew Whitbeck, Mike Williams, Peter Wittich, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Wei Xue, Jong Min Yoon, Hai-Bo Yu, Jaehoon Yu, Tien-Tien Yu, Yue Zhang, Yue Zhao, Yiming Zhong, Kathryn Zurek

This report, based on the Dark Sectors workshop at SLAC in April 2016, summarizes the scientific importance of searches for dark sector dark matter and forces at masses beneath the weak-scale, the status of this broad international field, the important milestones motivating future exploration, and promising experimental opportunities to reach these milestones over the next 5-10 years. Read More

An extended Higgs sector may allow for new scalar particles well below the weak scale. In this work, we present a detailed study of a light scalar $S$ with enhanced coupling to leptons, which could be responsible for the existing discrepancy between experimental and theoretical determinations of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We present an ultraviolet completion of this model in terms of the lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model and an additional scalar singlet. Read More

While global cosmological and local galactic abundance of dark matter is well established, its identity, physical size and composition remain a mystery. In this paper, we analyze an important question of dark matter detectability through its gravitational interaction, using current and next generation gravitational-wave observatories to look for macroscopic (kilogram-scale or larger) objects. Keeping the size of the dark matter objects to be smaller than the physical dimensions of the detectors, and keeping their mass as free parameters, we derive the expected event rates. Read More

Heavy right-handed neutrinos (RHNs) provide the simplest explanation for the origin of light neutrino masses and mixings. If the RHN masses are at or below the weak scale, direct experimental discovery of these states is possible at accelerator experiments such as the LHC or new dedicated beam dump experiments; in such experiments, the RHN decays after traversing a macroscopic distance from the collision point. The experimental sensitivity to RHNs is significantly enhanced if there is a new "dark" gauge force connecting them to the Standard Model (SM), and detection of RHNs can be the primary discovery mode for the new dark force itself. Read More

Preliminary ATLAS and CMS results from the first 13 TeV LHC run have encountered an intriguing excess of events in the diphoton channel around the invariant mass of 750 GeV. We investigate a possibility that the current excess is due to a heavy resonance decaying to light metastable states, which in turn give displaced decays to very highly collimated $e^+e^-$ pairs. Such decays may pass the photon selection criteria, and successfully mimic the diphoton events, especially at low counts. Read More

We point out that the cosmological abundance of ${}^7$Li can be reduced down to observed values if during its formation Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is modified by the presence of light electrically neutral particles $X$ that have substantial interactions with nucleons. We find that the lithium problem can be solved without affecting the precisely measured abundances of deuterium and helium if the following conditions are satisfied: the mass and lifetimes of such particles are bounded by $ 1.6~{\rm MeV}\leq m_X \leq 20~{\rm MeV}$ and $ {\rm few}~100~{\rm s} \lesssim \tau_X \lesssim 10^4~{\rm s}$, and the abundance times the absorption cross section by either deuterium or ${}^7$Be are comparable to the Hubble rate, $n_X \sigma_{\rm abs} v \sim H$, at the time of ${}^7$Be formation. Read More

A model of dark sector where $O({\rm few~GeV})$ mass dark matter particles $\chi$ couple to a lighter dark force mediator $V$, $m_V \ll m_\chi$, is motivated by the recently discovered mismatch between simulated and observed shapes of galactic haloes. Such models, in general, provide a challenge for direct detection efforts and collider searches. We show that for a large range of coupling constants and masses, the production and decay of the bound states of $\chi$, such as $0^{-+}$ and $1^{--}$ states, $\eta_D$ and $ \Upsilon_D$, is an important search channel. Read More

Dark matter experiments primarily search for the scattering of WIMPs on target nuclei of well shielded underground detectors. The results from liquid scintillator experiments furthermore provide precise probes of very light and very weakly coupled particles that may be absorbed by electrons. In these proceedings we summarize previously obtained constraints on long-lived dark matter vector particles $V$ (dark photons) in the $0. Read More

We demonstrate that current and planned underground neutrino experiments could offer a powerful probe of few-MeV dark matter when combined with a nearby high-intensity low-to-medium energy electron accelerator. This experimental setup, an underground beam-dump experiment, is capable of decisively testing the thermal freeze-out mechanism for several natural dark matter scenarios in this mass range. We present the sensitivity reach in terms of the mass-coupling parameter space of existing and planned detectors, such as Super-K, SNO+, and JUNO, in conjunction with a hypothetical 100 MeV energy accelerator. Read More

Experiments aiming to detect coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering present opportunities to probe new light weakly-coupled states, such as sub-GeV mass dark matter, in several extensions of the Standard Model. These states can be produced along with neutrinos in the collisions of protons with the target, and their production rate can be enhanced if there exists a light mediator produced on-shell. We analyze the sensitivity reach of several proposed experiments to light dark matter interacting with the Standard Model via a light vector mediator coupled to the electromagnetic current. Read More

Precision measurements of rare particle physics phenomena (flavor oscillations and decays, electric dipole moments, etc.) are often sensitive to the effects of new physics encoded in higher-dimensional operators with Wilson coefficients given by ${\rm C}/(\Lambda_{\rm NP})^n$, where C is dimensionless, $n\geq 1$, and $\Lambda_{\rm NP}$ is an energy scale. Many extensions of the Standard Model predict that $\Lambda_{\rm NP} $ should be at the electroweak scale or above, and the search for new short-distance physics is often stated as the primary goal of experiments at the precision frontier. Read More


This paper describes the physics case for a new fixed target facility at CERN SPS. The SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) experiment is intended to hunt for new physics in the largely unexplored domain of very weakly interacting particles with masses below the Fermi scale, inaccessible to the LHC experiments, and to study tau neutrino physics. The same proton beam setup can be used later to look for decays of tau-leptons with lepton flavour number non-conservation, $\tau\to 3\mu$ and to search for weakly-interacting sub-GeV dark matter candidates. Read More

New Abelian U(1)' gauge bosons $V_{\mu}$ can couple to the Standard Model through mixing of the associated field strength tensor $V_{\mu\nu}$ with the one from hypercharge, $F_{\mu\nu}^Y$. Here we consider early Universe sensitivity to this vector portal and show that the effective mixing parameter with the photon, $\kappa$, is being probed for vector masses in the GeV ballpark down to values $10^{-10} \lesssim \kappa \lesssim 10^{-14}$ where no terrestrial probes exist. The ensuing constraints are based on a detailed calculation of the vector relic abundance and an in-depth analysis of relevant nucleosynthesis processes. Read More

Dark matter detectors built primarily to probe elastic scattering of WIMPs on nuclei are also precise probes of light, weakly coupled particles that may be absorbed by the detector material. In this paper, we derive constraints on the minimal model of dark matter comprised of long-lived vector states V (dark photons) in the 0.01-100 keV mass range. Read More

We explore the cosmological consequences of kinetically mixed dark photons with a mass between 1 MeV and 10 GeV, and an effective electromagnetic fine structure constant as small as $10^{-38}$. We calculate the freeze-in abundance of these dark photons in the early Universe and explore the impact of late decays on BBN and the CMB. This leads to new constraints on the parameter space of mass $m_V$ vs kinetic mixing parameter $\kappa$. Read More

The production of a mu+mu- pair from the scattering of a muon-neutrino off the Coulomb field of a nucleus, known as neutrino trident production, is a sub-weak process that has been observed in only a couple of experiments. As such, we show that it constitutes an exquisitely sensitive probe in the search for new neutral currents among leptons, putting the strongest constraints on well-motivated and well-hidden extensions of the Standard Model gauge group, including the one coupled to the difference of the lepton number between the muon and tau flavor, L_mu-L_tau. The new gauge boson, Z', increases the rate of neutrino trident production by inducing additional $(\bar\mu \gamma_\alpha \mu)(\bar\nu \gamma^\alpha \nu)$ interactions, which interfere constructively with the Standard Model contribution. Read More

High-luminosity fixed-target neutrino experiments present a new opportunity to search for light sub-GeV dark matter and associated new forces. We analyze the physics reach of these experiments to light leptophobic dark states coupled to the Standard Model via gauging the $U(1)_B$ baryon current. When the baryonic vector is light, and can decay to dark matter, we find that the MiniBooNE experiment in its current beam-dump configuration can extend sensitivity to the baryonic fine structure constant down to $\alpha_B\sim 10^{-6}$. Read More

New light, weakly coupled particles can be efficiently produced at existing and future high-intensity accelerators and radioactive sources in deep underground laboratories. Once produced, these particles can scatter or decay in large neutrino detectors (e.g Super-K and Borexino) housed in the same facilities. Read More

During big bang nucleosynthesis, any injection of extra neutrons around the time of the $^7$Be formation, i.e. at a temperature of order $T \simeq 50$~keV, can reduce the predicted freeze-out amount of $^7$Be + $^7$Li that otherwise remains in sharp contradiction with the Spite plateau value inferred from the observations of Pop II stars. Read More

We consider a new massive vector-boson Z' that couples to leptons through the L_mu - L_tau current, and to quarks through an arbitrary set of couplings. We show that such a model can be obtained from a renormalizable field theory involving new heavy fermions in an anomaly-free representation. The model is a candidate explanation for the discrepancy observed recently by the LHCb collaboration in angular distributions of the final state particles in the rare decay B \to K* mu^+ mu^-. Read More

Motivated by various kinds of new physics models, a new light neutral vector boson (the dark photon) connected to the Standard Model of particle physics only through the kinetic mixing with the U(1)_Y factor has been studied extensively. Various kinds of experiments are proposed to detect it. For the dark photon with a mass smaller than 10 keV, it can be copiously produced inside the Sun, and then be detected by the detectors on the earth. Read More

The recent measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen allows for the most precise extraction of the charge radius of the proton which is currently in conflict with other determinations based on $e-p$ scattering and hydrogen spectroscopy. This discrepancy could be the result of some new muon-specific force with O(1-100) MeV force carrier---in this paper we concentrate on vector mediators. Such an explanation faces challenges from the constraints imposed by the $g-2$ of the muon and electron as well as precision spectroscopy of muonic atoms. Read More

Multi-component dark matter particles may have a more intricate direct detection signal than simple elastic scattering on nuclei. In a broad class of well-motivated models the inelastic excitation of dark matter particles is followed by de-excitation via $\gamma$-decay. In experiments with fine energy resolution, such as many $0\nu 2\beta$ decay experiments, this motivates a highly model-independent search for the sidereal daily modulation of an unexpected $\gamma$ line. Read More

The elastic nuclear recoil signal, being under intense scrutiny by multiple underground experiments, can be interpreted either as coming from the interaction of nuclei with WIMP dark matter or from the scattering of new species of MeV-energy neutrinos. The most promising model for the latter case is a neutrino $\nu_b$ that interacts with baryon number, and with a flux sourced by the oscillations of regular solar $^8$B neutrinos. We re-analyze this model in light of the latest experimental results. Read More

All current experiments searching for an electron EDM d_e are performed with atoms and diatomic molecules. Motivated by significant recent progress in searches for an EDM-type signal in diatomic molecules with an uncompensated electron spin, we provide an estimate for the expected signal in the Standard Model due to the CKM phase. We find that the main contribution originates from the effective electron-nucleon operator $\bar{e} i\gamma_5 e \bar{N}N$, induced by a combination of weak and electromagnetic interactions at $O(G_F^2\alpha^2)$, and not by the CKM-induced electron EDM itself. Read More

"Dark Photons", light new vector particles V kinetically mixed with the photon, are a frequently considered extension of the Standard Model. For masses below 10 keV they are emitted from the solar interior. In the limit of small mass m_V the dark photon flux is strongly peaked at low energies and we demonstrate that the constraint on the atomic ionization rate imposed by the results of the XENON10 Dark Matter experiment sets the to-date most stringent limit on the kinetic mixing parameter of this model: \kappa*m_V < 3*10^{-12} eV. Read More

We propose a novel mechanism of SUSY breaking by coupling a Lorentz-invariant supersymmetric matter sector to non-supersymmetric gravitational interactions with Lifshitz scaling. The improved UV properties of Lifshitz propagators moderate the otherwise uncontrollable ultraviolet divergences induced by gravitational loops. This ensures that both the amount of induced Lorentz violation and SUSY breaking in the matter sector are controlled by Lambda_HL^2/M_P^2, the ratio of the Horava-Lifshitz cross-over scale Lambda_HL to the Planck scale M_P. Read More

Authors: Andreas S. Kronfeld1, Robert S. Tschirhart2, Usama Al-Binni, Wolfgang Altmannshofer, Charles Ankenbrandt, Kaladi Babu, Sunanda Banerjee, Matthew Bass, Brian Batell, David V. Baxter, Zurab Berezhiani, Marc Bergevin, Robert Bernstein, Sudeb Bhattacharya, Mary Bishai, Thomas Blum, S. Alex Bogacz, Stephen J. Brice, Joachim Brod, Alan Bross, Michael Buchoff, Thomas W. Burgess, Marcela Carena, Luis A. Castellanos, Subhasis Chattopadhyay, Mu-Chun Chen, Daniel Cherdack, Norman H. Christ, Tim Chupp, Vincenzo Cirigliano, Pilar Coloma, Christopher E. Coppola, Ramanath Cowsik, J. Allen Crabtree, André de Gouvêa, Jean-Pierre Delahaye, Dmitri Denisov, Patrick deNiverville, Ranjan Dharmapalan, Markus Diefenthaler, Alexander Dolgov, Georgi Dvali, Estia Eichten, Jürgen Engelfried, Phillip D. Ferguson, Tony Gabriel, Avraham Gal, Franz Gallmeier, Kenneth S. Ganezer, Susan Gardner, Douglas Glenzinski, Stephen Godfrey, Elena S. Golubeva, Stefania Gori, Van B. Graves, Geoffrey Greene, Cory L. Griffard, Ulrich Haisch, Thomas Handler, Brandon Hartfiel, Athanasios Hatzikoutelis, Ayman Hawari, Lawrence Heilbronn, James E. Hill, Patrick Huber, David E. Jaffe, Xiaodong Jiang, Christian Johnson, Yuri Kamyshkov, Daniel M. Kaplan, Boris Kerbikov, Brendan Kiburg, Harold G. Kirk, Andreas Klein, Kyle Knoepfel, Boris Kopeliovich, Vladimir Kopeliovich, Joachim Kopp, Wolfgang Korsch, Graham Kribs, Ronald Lipton, Chen-Yu Liu, Wolfgang Lorenzon, Zheng-Tian Lu, Naomi C. R. Makins, David McKeen, Geoffrey Mills, Michael Mocko, Rabindra Mohapatra, Nikolai V. Mokhov, Guenter Muhrer, Pieter Mumm, David Neuffer, Lev Okun, Mark A. Palmer, Robert Palmer, Robert W. Pattie Jr., David G. Phillips II, Kevin Pitts, Maxim Pospelov, Vitaly S. Pronskikh, Chris Quigg, Erik Ramberg, Amlan Ray, Paul E. Reimer, David G. Richards, Adam Ritz, Amit Roy, Arthur Ruggles, Robert Ryne, Utpal Sarkar, Andy Saunders, Yannis K. Semertzidis, Anatoly Serebrov, Hirohiko Shimizu, Robert Shrock, Arindam K. Sikdar, Pavel V. Snopok, William M. Snow, Aria Soha, Stefan Spanier, Sergei Striganov, Zhaowen Tang, Lawrence Townsend, Jon Urheim, Arkady Vainshtein, Richard Van de Water, Ruth S. Van de Water, Richard J. Van Kooten, Bernard Wehring, William C. Wester III, Lisa Whitehead, Robert J. Wilson, Elizabeth Worcester, Albert R. Young, Geralyn Zeller
Affiliations: 1Editors, 2Editors

Part 2 of "Project X: Accelerator Reference Design, Physics Opportunities, Broader Impacts". In this Part, we outline the particle-physics program that can be achieved with Project X, a staged superconducting linac for intensity-frontier particle physics. Topics include neutrino physics, kaon physics, muon physics, electric dipole moments, neutron-antineutron oscillations, new light particles, hadron structure, hadron spectroscopy, and lattice-QCD calculations. Read More

Light new particles with masses below 10 keV, often considered as a plausible extension of the Standard Model, will be emitted from the solar interior, and can be detected on the Earth with a variety of experimental tools. Here we analyze the new "dark" vector state V, a massive vector boson mixed with the photon via an angle kappa, that in the limit of the small mass m_V has its emission spectrum strongly peaked at low energies. Thus, we utilize the constraints on the atomic ionization rate imposed by the results of the XENON10 experiment to set the limit on the parameters of this model: kappa times m_V< 3 times10^{-12} eV. Read More

A possible supersymmetric interpretation of the new Higgs-like 126 GeV resonance involves a high sfermion mass scale, from tens of TeV to a PeV or above. This scale provides sufficiently large loop corrections to the Higgs mass and can naturally resolve the constraints from flavor-violating observables, even with a generic flavor structure in the sfermion sector. We point out that such high scales could still generate CP-violating electric dipole moments (EDMs) at interesting levels due to the enhancement of left-right (LR) sfermion mixing. Read More

We consider the stellar production of vector states V within the minimal model of "dark photons". We show that when the Stuckelberg mass of the dark vector becomes smaller than plasma frequency, the emission rate is dominated by the production of the longitudinal modes of V, and scales as \kappa^2 m_V^2, where \kappa and m_V are the mixing angle with the photon and the mass of the dark state. This is in contrast with earlier erroneous claims in the literature that the emission rate decouples as the forth power of the mass. Read More

If the neutral component of weak-scale dark matter is accompanied by a charged excitation separated by a mass gap of less than ~20 MeV, WIMPs can form stable bound states with nuclei. We show that the recent progress in experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay sets the first direct constraint on the exoergic reaction of WIMP-nucleus bound state formation. We calculate the rate for such process in representative models and show that the double-beta decay experiments provide unique sensitivity to a large fraction of parameter space of the WIMP doublet model, complementary to constraints imposed by cosmology and direct collider searches. Read More

New physics thresholds which can modify the diphoton and dilepton Higgs branching ratios significantly may also provide new sources of CP and lepton flavor violation. We find that limits on electric dipole moments impose strong constraints on any CP-odd contributions to Higgs diphoton decays unless there are degeneracies in the Higgs sector that enhance CP-violating mixing. We exemplify this point in the language of effective operators and in simple UV-complete models with vector-like fermions. Read More

The observed amount of lithium for low metallicity population II stars (known as the Spite plateau) is a factor of $\sim 3-5$ lower than the predictions of the standard cosmology. Since the observations are limited to the local Universe (halo stars, globular clusters and satellites of the Milky Way) it is possible that certain physical processes may have led to the spatial separation of lithium and local reduction of [Li/H]. We study the question of lithium diffusion after the cosmological recombination in sub-Jeans dark matter haloes, taking into account that more than 95% of lithium remains in the singly-ionized state at all times. Read More

The newly discovered resonance at 125 GeV has properties consistent with the Standard Model (SM) Higgs particle, although some production and/or decay channels currently exhibit O(1) deviations. We consider scenarios with a new scalar singlet field with couplings to electrically charged vector-like matter, focusing particularly on the case when the singlet mass lies within a narrow ~ few GeV window around the Higgs mass. Such a `singlet neighbor' presents novel mechanisms for modifying the observed properties of the Higgs boson. Read More

We construct explicit models of particle dark matter where the attractive force in the dark matter sector creates a narrow near-threshold resonance that qualitatively changes the energy dependence of the annihilation cross section. In these models, the resonant enhancement of the dark matter annihilation can easily source the excess of energetic leptons observed by experiments on PAMELA and FERMI satellites. The distinct feature of these models is that by construction the enhancement of the annihilation cross section shuts off when the dark matter velocity falls below the typical Milky Way values, thus automatically satisfying constraints on dark matter annihilation imposed by the CMB anisotropies and gamma ray constraints from satellite galaxies. Read More

Neutrino speed experiments could be viewed not only as tests of Lorentz invariance but also as measurements of limiting propagation speed for all standard model species below certain depth where no direct metrological information is available. The latter option, hypothetically caused by some chameleon-type background, could be tested in the next installment of the neutrino speed experiments. We also show that that complementary constraints on the same class of models can be obtained with experiments testing clock universality in deep underground/underwater experiments. Read More

The next generation of "intensity frontier" facilities will bring a significant increase in the intensity of sub-relativistic beams of $\mu^-$. We show that the use of these beams in combination with thin targets of $Z\sim 30$ elements opens up the possibility of testing parity-violating interactions of muons with nuclei via direct radiative capture of muons into atomic 2S orbitals. Since atomic capture preserves longitudinal muon polarization, the measurement of the gamma ray angular asymmetry in the single photon $2S_{1/2}$-$1S_{1/2}$ transition will offer a direct test of parity. Read More

The coupling of the baryonic current to new neutrino states \nu_b with strength in excess of the weak interactions is a viable extension of the Standard Model. We analyze the signature of \nu_b appearance in the solar neutrino flux that gives rise to an elastic scattering signal in dark matter direct detection and in solar neutrino experiments. This paper lays out an in-depth study of \nu_b detection prospects for current and future underground rare event searches. Read More

Recent measurement of the $\gamma\gamma^\ast$ form factor of the neutral pion in the high $Q^2$ region disagrees with {\em a priori} predictions of QCD-based calculations. We comment on existing explanations, and analyze a possibility that this discrepancy is not due to poorly understood QCD effects, but is a result of some new physics beyond the standard model (SM). We show that such physics would necessarily involve a new neutral light state with mass close to the mass of $\pi^0$, and with stronger than $\pi^0$ couplings to heavier SM flavors such as $c$, $\tau$, and $b$. Read More

We examine the interplay between Higgs mediation of dark matter annihilation and scattering on one hand, and the invisible Higgs decay width on the other, in a generic class of models utilizing the Higgs portal. We find that, while the invisible width of the Higgs to dark matter is now constrained for a minimal singlet scalar WIMP by experiments such as XENON100, this conclusion is not robust within more generic examples of Higgs mediation. We present a survey of simple WIMP scenarios with m_{DM} < m_h/2 and Higgs portal mediation, where direct detection signatures are suppressed, while the Higgs width is still dominated by decays to dark matter. Read More

We consider the sensitivity of fixed-target neutrino experiments at the luminosity frontier to light stable states, such as those present in models of MeV-scale dark matter. To ensure the correct thermal relic abundance, such states must annihilate via light mediators, which in turn provide an access portal for direct production in colliders or fixed targets. Indeed, this framework endows the neutrino beams produced at fixed-target facilities with a companion `dark matter beam', which may be detected via an excess of elastic scattering events off electrons or nuclei in the (near-)detector. Read More

New neutrino states \nu_b, sterile under the Standard Model interactions, can be coupled to baryons via the isoscalar vector currents that are much stronger than the Standard Model weak interactions. If some fraction of solar neutrinos oscillate into \nu_b on their way to Earth, the coherently enhanced elastic \nu_b-nucleus scattering can generate a strong signal in the dark matter detectors. For the interaction strength a few hundred times stronger than the weak force, the elastic \nu_b-nucleus scattering via new baryonic currents may account for the existing anomalies in the direct detection dark matter experiments at low recoil. Read More

The recent discrepancy between proton charge radius measurements extracted from electron-proton versus muon-proton systems is suggestive of a new force that differentiates between lepton species. We identify a class of models with gauged right-handed muon number, which contains new vector and scalar force carriers at the 100 MeV scale or lighter, that is consistent with observations. Such forces would lead to an enhancement by several orders-of-magnitude of the parity-violating asymmetries in the scattering of low-energy muons on nuclei. Read More

We show that ordinary and radiative muon capture impose stringent constraints on sterile neutrino properties. In particular, we consider a sterile neutrino with a mass between 40 to $80 {\rm MeV}$ that has a large mixing with the muon neutrino and decays predominantly into a photon and light neutrinos due to a large transition magnetic moment. Such a model was suggested as a possible resolution to the puzzle presented by the results of the LSND, KARMEN, and MiniBooNE experiments. Read More

Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), an epoch of primordial nuclear transformations in the expanding Universe, has left an observable imprint in the abundances of light elements. Precision observations of such abundances, combined with high-accuracy predictions, provide a nontrivial test of the hot big bang and probe non-standard cosmological and particle physics scenarios. We give an overview of BBN sensitivity to different classes of new physics: new particle or field degrees of freedom, time-varying couplings, decaying or annihilating massive particles leading to non-thermal processes, and catalysis of BBN by charged relics. Read More