Mauro Antezza - L2C

Mauro Antezza
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Mauro Antezza

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Quantum Physics (29)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (9)
Physics - Statistical Mechanics (8)
Physics - Optics (7)
Physics - Other (6)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (3)
Physics - Atomic Physics (2)
Physics - Classical Physics (1)
Physics - Superconductivity (1)

Publications Authored By Mauro Antezza

We show that the energy-transport efficiency in a chain of two-level emitters can be drastically enhanced by the presence of a photonic topological insulator (PTI). This is obtained by exploiting the peculiar properties of its nonreciprocal surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP), which is unidirectional, immuned to backscattering and propagates in the bulk bandgap. This amplification of transport efficiency can be as much as two orders of magnitude with respect to reciprocal SPPs. Read More

We study the radiative heat transfer between multilayer structures made by a periodic repetition of a graphene sheet and a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) slab. Surface plasmons in a monolayer graphene can couple with a hyperbolic phonon polaritons in a single hBN film to form hybrid polaritons that can assist photon tunneling. For periodic multilayer graphene/hBN structures, the stacked metallic/dielectric array can give rise to a further effective hyperbolic behavior, in addition to the intrinsic natural hyperbolic behavior of hBN. Read More

The radiative heat transfer between two dielectrics can be strongly enhanced in the near field in the presence of surface phonon-polariton resonances. Nevertheless, the spectral mismatch between the surface modes supported by two dissimilar materials is responsible for a dramatic reduction of the radiative heat flux they exchange. In the present paper we study how the presence of a graphene sheet, deposited on the material supporting the surface wave of lowest frequency, allows to widely tune the radiative heat transfer, producing an amplification factor going up to one order of magnitude. Read More

We show that graphene-dielectric multilayers give rise to an unusual tunability of the Casimir-Lifshitz forces, and allow to easily realize completely different regimes within the same structure. Concerning thermal effects, graphene-dielectric multilayers take advantage from the anomalous features predicted for isolated suspended graphene sheets, even though they are considerably affected by the presence of the dielectric substrate. They can also archive the anomalous non-monotonic thermal metallic behavior by increasing the graphene sheets density and their Fermi energy. Read More

We investigate spontaneous and pumped entanglement of two level systems in the vicinity of a photonic topological insulator interface, which supports a nonreciprocal (unidirectional), scattering-immune and topologically-protected surface plasmon polariton in the bandgap of the bulk material. To this end, we derive a master equation for qubit interactions in a general three-dimensional, nonreciprocal, inhomogeneous and lossy environment. The environment is represented exactly, via the photonic Green function. Read More

A general theory of photon-mediated energy and momentum transfer in N-body planar systems out of thermal equilibrium is introduced. It is based on the combination of the scattering theory and the fluctuational-electrodynamics approach in many-body systems. By making a Landauer-like formulation of the heat transfer problem, explicit formulas for the energy transmission coefficients between two distinct slabs as well as the self-coupling coefficients are derived and expressed in terms of the reflection and transmission coefficients of the single bodies. Read More

We calculate the radiative heat transfer between two identical metallic one-dimensional lamellar gratings. To this aim we present and exploit a modification to the widely-used Fourier modal method, known as adaptive spatial resolution, based on a stretch of the coordinate associated to the periodicity of the grating. We first show that this technique dramatically improves the rate of convergence when calculating the heat flux, allowing to explore smaller separations. Read More

Heat radiation and near-field radiative heat transfer can be strongly manipulated by adjusting geometrical shapes, optical properties, or the relative positions of the objects involved. Typically these objects are considered as embedded in vacuum. By applying the methods of fluctuational electrodynamics, we derive general closed-form expressions for heat radiation and heat transfer in a system of $N$ arbitrary objects embedded in a passive non-absorbing background medium. Read More

We investigate the transport of energy in a linear chain of two-level quantum emitters ("atoms") weakly coupled to a blackbody radiation bath. We show that, simply by displacing one or more atoms from their regular-chain positions, the efficiency of the energy transport can be considerably amplified of at least one order of magnitude. Besides, in configurations providing an efficiency greater than $100\%$ , the distance between the two last atoms of the chain can be up to 20 times larger than the one in the regular chain, thus achieving a much longer-range energy transport. Read More

Heat flux exchanged between two hot bodies at subwavelength separation distances can exceed the limit predicted by the blackbody theory. However this super-Planckian transfer is restricted to these separation distances. Here we demonstrate the possible existence of a super-Planckian transfer at arbitrary large separation distances if the interacting bodies are connected in near-field with weakly dissipating hyperbolic waveguides. Read More

We show that the electromagnetic forces generated by the excitations of a mode in graphene-based optomechanical systems are highly tunable by varying the graphene chemical potential, and orders of magnitude stronger than usual non-graphene-based devices, in both attractive and repulsive regimes. We analyze coupled waveguides made of two parallel graphene sheets, either suspended or supported by dielectric slabs, and study the interplay between the light-induced force and the Casimir-Lifshitz interaction. These findings pave the way to advanced possibilities of control and fast modulation for optomechanical devices and sensors at the nano- and micro-scales. Read More

We propose a quantum Otto cycle based on the properties of a two-level system in a realistic out-of-thermal-equilibrium electromagnetic field acting as its sole reservoir. This steady configuration is produced without the need of active control over the state of the environment, which is a non-coherent thermal radiation, sustained only by external heat supplied to macroscopic objects. Remarkably, even for non-ideal finite-time transformations, it largely over-performs the standard ideal Otto cycle, and asymptotically achieves unit efficiency at finite power. Read More

We study the functioning of a three-level thermal machine when acting on a many-qubit system, the entire system being placed in an electromagnetic field in a stationary out-of-thermal-equilibrium configuration. This realistic setup stands in between the two so-far explored cases of single-qubit and macroscopic object targets, providing information on the scaling with system size of purely quantum properties in thermodynamic contexts. We show that, thanks to the presence of robust correlations among the qubits induced by the field, thermodynamic tasks can be delivered by the machine both locally to each qubit and collectively to the many-qubit system: this allows a task to be delivered also on systems much bigger than the machine size. Read More

We propose a configuration of a single three-level quantum emitter embedded in a non-equilibrium steady electromagnetic environment, able to stabilize and control the local temperatures of a target system it interacts with, consisting of a collection of coupled two-level systems. The temperatures are induced by dissipative processes only, without the need of further external couplings for each qubit. Moreover, by acting on a set of easily tunable geometric parameters, we demonstrate the possibility to manipulate and tune each qubit temperature independently over a remarkably broad range of values. Read More

We derive the explicit expression for the Casimir energy between a sphere and a 1D grating, in terms of the sphere and grating reflection matrices, and valid for arbitrary materials, sphere radius, and grating geometric parameters. We then numerically calculate the Casimir energy between a metallic (gold) sphere and a dielectric (fused silica) lamellar grating at room temperature, and explore its dependence on the sphere radius, grating-sphere separation, and lateral displacement. We quantitatively investigate the geometrical dependence of the interaction, which is sensitive to the grating height and filling factor, and show how the sphere can be used as a local sensor of the Casimir force geometric features. Read More

We study energy-transport efficiency in light-harvesting planar and 3D complexes of two-level atomic quantum systems, embedded in a common thermal blackbody radiation. We show that the collective non-local dissipation induced by the thermal bath plays a fundamental role in energy transport. It gives rise to a dramatic enhancement of the energy-transport efficiency, which may largely overcome $100\%$. Read More

We propose a scheme for a quantum thermal machine made by atoms interacting with a single non-equilibrium electromagnetic field. The field is produced by a simple configuration of macroscopic objects held at thermal equilibrium at different temperatures. We show that these machines can deliver all thermodynamic tasks (cooling, heating and population inversion), and this by establishing quantum coherence with the body on which they act. Read More

We study an ensemble of two-level quantum systems (qubits) interacting with a common electromagnetic field in proximity of a dielectric slab whose temperature is held different from that of some far surrounding walls. We show that the dissipative dynamics of the qubits driven by this stationary and out of thermal equilibrium (OTE) field, allows the production of steady many-body entangled states, differently from the case at thermal equilibrium where steady states are always non-entangled. By studying up to ten qubits, we point out the role of symmetry in the entanglement production, which is exalted in the case of permutationally invariant configurations. Read More

We present a general scheme to realize a cold-atom quantum simulator of bidimensional atomic crystals. Our model is based on the use of two independently trapped atomic species: the first one, subject to a strong in-plane confinement, constitutes a two-dimensional matter wave which interacts only with atoms of the second species, deeply trapped around the nodes of a two-dimensional optical lattice. By introducing a general analytic approach we show that the system Green function can be exactly determined, allowing for the investigation of the matter-wave transport properties. Read More

We present a new model to realize artificial 2D lattices with cold atoms investigating the atomic artificial graphene: a 2D-confined matter wave is scattered by atoms of a second species trapped around the nodes of a honeycomb optical lattice. The system allows an exact determination of the Green function, hence of the transport properties. The inter-species interaction can be tuned via the interplay between scattering length and confinements. Read More

We calculate the Casimir-Lifshitz pressure in a system consisting of two different 1D dielectric lamellar gratings having two different temperatures and immersed in an environment having a third temperature. The calculation of the pressure is based on the knowledge of the scattering operators, deduced using the Fourier Modal Method. The behavior of the pressure is characterized in detail as a function of the three temperatures of the system as well as the geometrical parameters of the two gratings. Read More

We study the optomechanical coupling of a oscillating effective mirror with a Rydberg atomic gas, mediated by the dynamical atom-mirror Casimir-Polder force. This coupling may produce a near-field resonant atomic excitation whose probability scales as $\propto (d^2\;a\;n^4\;t)^2/z_0^8$, where $z_0$ is the average atom-surface distance, $d$ the atomic dipole moment, $a$ the mirror's effective oscillation amplitude, $n$ the initial principal quantum number, and $t$ the time. We propose an experimental configuration to realize this system with a cold atom gas trapped at a distance $\sim 2\cdot10 \, \mu$m from a semiconductor substrate, whose dielectric constant is periodically driven by an external laser pulse, hence realizing en effective mechanical mirror motion due to the periodic change of the substrate from transparent to reflecting. Read More

We study the Casimir-Lifshitz force and the radiative heat transfer in a system consisting of three bodies held at three independent temperatures and immersed in a thermal environment, the whole system being in a stationary configuration out of thermal equilibrium. The theory we develop is valid for arbitrary bodies, i.e. Read More

We investigate the creation of entanglement between two quantum emitters interacting with a realistic common stationary electromagnetic field out of thermal equilibrium. In the case of two qubits we show that the absence of equilibrium allows the generation of steady entangled states, which is inaccessible at thermal equilibrium and is realized without any further external action on the two qubits. We first give a simple physical interpretation of the phenomenon in a specific case and then we report a detailed investigation on the dependence of the entanglement dynamics on the various physical parameters involved. Read More

We study the effects of finite size and of vacancies on the photonic band gap recently predicted for an atomic diamond lattice. Close to a $J_g=0\to J_e=1$ atomic transition, and for atomic lattices containing up to $N\approx 3\times10^4$ atoms, we show how the density of states can be affected by both the shape of the system and the possible presence of a fraction of unoccupied lattice sites. We numerically predict and theoretically explain the presence of shape-induced border states and of vacancy-induced localized states appearing in the gap. Read More

We study two two-level atomic quantum systems (qubits) placed close to a body held at a temperature different from that of the surrounding walls. While at thermal equilibrium the two-qubit dynamics is characterized by not entangled steady thermal states, we show that absence of thermal equilibrium may bring to the generation of entangled steady states. Remarkably, this entanglement emerges from the two-qubit dissipative dynamic itself, without any further external action on the two qubits, suggesting a new protocol to produce and protect entanglement which is intrinsically robust to environmental effects. Read More

We study the internal dynamics of an elementary quantum system placed close to a body held at a temperature different from that of the surrounding radiation. We derive general expressions for lifetime and density matrix valid for bodies of arbitrary geometry and dielectric permittivity. Out of equilibrium, the thermalization process and steady states become both qualitatively and quantitatively significantly different from the case of radiation at thermal equilibrium. Read More

We discuss how the thermalization of an elementary quantum system is modified when the system is placed in an environment out of thermal equilibrium. To this aim we provide a detailed investigation of the dynamics of an atomic system placed close to a body of arbitrary geometry and dielectric permittivity, whose temperature $T_M$ is different from that of the surrounding walls $T_W$. A suitable master equation for the general case of an $N$-level atom is first derived and then specialized to the cases of a two- and three-level atom. Read More

Resonant tunneling of surface polaritons across a subwavelength vacuum gap between two polar or metallic bodies at different temperatures leads to an almost monochromatic heat transfer which can exceed by several orders of magnitude the far-field upper limit predicted by Planck's blackbody theory. However, despite its strong magnitude, this transfer is very far from the maximum theoretical limit predicted in near-field. Here we propose an amplifier for the photon heat tunneling based on a passive relay system intercalated between the two bodies, which is able to partially compensate the intrinsic exponential damping of energy transmission probability thanks to three-body interaction mechanisms. Read More

We study the radiative heat transfer and the Casimir-Lifshitz force occurring between two bodies in a system out of thermal equilibrium. We consider bodies of arbitrary shape and dielectric properties, held at two different temperatures, and immersed in a environmental radiation at a third different temperature. We derive explicit closed-form analytic expressions for the correlations of the electromagnetic field, and for the heat transfer and Casimir-Lifshitz force, in terms of the bodies scattering matrices. Read More

We study the Casimir-Lifshitz force and the radiative heat transfer occurring between two arbitrary bodies, each one held at a given temperature, surrounded by environmental radiation at a third temperature. The system, in stationary configuration out of thermal equilibrium, is characterized by a force and a heat transfer depending on the three temperatures, and explicitly expressed in terms of the scattering operators of each body. We find a closed-form analytic expression valid for bodies of any geometry and dielectric properties. Read More

We study the strong localization of atomic matter waves in a disordered potential created by atoms pinned at the nodes of a lattice, for both three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) systems. The localization length of the matter wave, the density of localized states, and the occurrence of energy mobility edges (for the 3D system), are numerically investigated as a function of the effective scattering length between the atomic matter wave and the pinned atoms. Both positive and negative matter wave energies are explored. Read More

We study the light dispersion relation in a periodic ensemble of atoms at fixed positions in the Fano-Hopfield model (the atomic dipole being modeled with harmonic oscillators). Compared to earlier works, we do not restrict to cubic lattices, and we do not regularize the theory by hand but we renormalize it in a systematic way using a Gaussian cut-off in momentum space. Whereas no omnidirectional spectral gap is known for light in a Bravais atomic lattice, we find that, for a wide range of parameters, an omnidirectional gap occurs in a diamond atomic lattice, which may be realized in an experiment with ultra-cold atoms. Read More

Affiliations: 1LKB - Lhomond, 2LKB - Lhomond
Category: Physics - Other

We address the general problem of the excitation spectrum for light coupled to scatterers having quantum fluctuating positions around the sites of a periodic lattice. In addition to providing an imaginary part to the spectrum, we show that these quantum fluctuations affect the real part of the spectrum, in a way that we determine analytically. Our predictions may be observed with ultracold atoms in an optical lattice, on a J=0->J'=1 narrow atomic transition. Read More

We theoretically study the optical properties of a gas of ultracold, coherently dressed three-level atoms in a Mott insulator phase of an optical lattice. The vacuum state, the band dispersion and the absorption spectrum of the polariton field can be controlled in real time by varying the amplitude and the frequency of the dressing beam. In the weak dressing regime, the system shows unique ultra-slow light propagation properties without absorption. Read More

We study the Casimir-Lifshitz interaction out of thermal equilibrium, with particular attention devoted to the surface-surface and surface-atom configurations. A systematic investigation of the contributions to the force coming from the propagating and evanescent components of the electromagnetic radiation is performed. The large distance behaviors of such interactions is discussed, and both analytical and numerical results are compared with the equilibrium ones. Read More

We investigate the behavior of dark solitons in a superfluid Fermi gas along the BCS-BEC crossover by solving the Bogoliubov - de Gennes equations and looking for real and odd solutions for the order parameter. We show that in the resonance unitary region, where the scattering length is large, the density profile of the soliton has a deep minimum, differently from what happens in the BCS regime. The superfluid gap is found to be significantly quenched by the presence of the soliton due to the occurrence of Andreev fermionic bound states localized near the nodal plane of the order parameter. Read More

We study the electromagnetic force exerted on a pair of parallel slab waveguides by the light propagating through them. We have calculated the dependence of the force on the slab separation by means of the Maxwell--Stress tensor formalism and we have discussed its main features for the different propagation modes: spatially symmetric (antisymmetric) modes give rise to an attractive (repulsive) interaction. We have derived the asymptotic behaviors of the force at small and large separation and we have quantitatively estimated the mechanical deflection induced on a realistic air-bridge structure. Read More

We derive the frequency spectrum of the lowest compressional oscillations of a 3D harmonically trapped Fermi superfluid in the presence of a vortex lattice, treated in the diffused vorticity approximation within a hydrodynamic approach. We consider the general case of a superfluid at T=0 characterized by a polytropic equation of state ($\sim{n}^\gamma$), which includes both the Bose-Einstein condensed regime of dimers ($\gamma=1$) and the unitary limit of infinite scattering length ($\gamma=2/3$). Important limiting cases are considered, including the centrifugal limit, the isotropic trapping and the cigar geometry. Read More

We investigate the force acting between two parallel plates held at different temperatures. The force reproduces, as limiting cases, the well known Casimir-Lifshitz surface-surface force at thermal equilibrium and the surface-atom force out of thermal equilibrium recently derived by M. Antezza \emph{et al. Read More

The surface-atom Casimir-Polder-Lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium is investigated in the framework of macroscopic electrodynamics. Particular attention is devoted to its large distance limit that shows a new, stronger behaviour with respect to the equilibrium case. The frequency shift produced by the surface-atom force on the the center-of-mass oscillations of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate and on the Bloch oscillations of an ultra-cold fermionic gas in an optical lattice are discussed for configurations out of thermal equilibrium. Read More

The Casimir-Polder-Lifshitz force felt by an atom near the surface of a substrate is calculated out of thermal equilibrium in terms of the dielectric function of the material and of the atomic polarizability. The new force decays like $1/z^3$ at large distances (i.e. Read More

We calculate the effect of the interaction between an optically active material and a Bose-Einstein condensate on the collective oscillations of the condensate. We provide explicit expressions for the frequency shift of the center of mass oscillation in terms of the potential generated by the substrate and of the density profile of the gas. The form of the potential is discussed in details and various regimes (van der Waals-London, Casimir-Polder and thermal regimes) are identified as a function of the distance of atoms from the surface. Read More