Matthew G. Baring - Rice

Matthew G. Baring
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Matthew G. Baring
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Rice
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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (30)
 
Astrophysics (18)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (4)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)
 
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (2)
 
Nuclear Theory (1)
 
Nuclear Experiment (1)
 
Physics - Optics (1)
 
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)
 
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Physics - Plasma Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Matthew G. Baring

Multiwavelength followup of unidentified Fermi sources has vastly expanded the number of known galactic-field "black widow" and "redback" millisecond pulsar binaries. Focusing on their rotation-powered state, we interpret the radio to X-ray phenomenology in a consistent framework. We advocate the existence of two distinct modes differing in their intrabinary shock orientation, distinguished by the phase-centering of the double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation originating from mildly-relativistic Doppler boosting. Read More

2017Feb
Affiliations: 1GWU, 2GWU, 3ASTRON, 4Rice University, 5GWU, 6NASA/Goddard, 7ASTRON, 8NASA/Goddard, 9The Open University, 10New York University, 11The Open University, 12Sabancı University, 13Beijing Normal University

We analyzed broad-band X-ray and radio data of the magnetar SGR J1935+2154 taken in the aftermath of its 2014, 2015, and 2016 outbursts. The source soft X-ray spectrum <10 keV is well described with a BB+PL or 2BB model during all three outbursts. NuSTAR observations revealed a hard X-ray tail, $\Gamma=0. Read More

We have compiled the most comprehensive burst sample from magnetar 4U 0142+61, comprising 27 bursts from its three burst-active episodes in 2011, 2012 and the latest one in 2015 observed with Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM. Bursts from 4U 0142+61 morphologically resemble typical short bursts from other magnetars. However, 4U 0142+61 bursts are less energetic compared to the bulk of magnetar bursts. Read More

Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is widely thought to be an important acceleration mechanism in various astrophysical jet sources, including radio-loud active galactic nuclei such as blazars. Such acceleration can produce the non-thermal particles that emit the broadband continuum radiation that is detected from extragalactic jets. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-LAT spectroscopy to pin down the shape of the distribution of the underlying non-thermal particle population. Read More

The first wind nebula around a magnetar was recently discovered in X-rays around Swift~J1834.9$-$0846. We study this magnetar's global energetics and the properties of its particle wind or outflows. Read More

2015Oct
Affiliations: 1Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 3California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 4Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 5Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 6Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 7Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 8Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 9Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 10Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, 11California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 12California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 13Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 14Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 15Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 16Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 17Georgia College, Department of Chemistry, Physics, and Astronomy, 18Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 19Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 20North-West University, Centre for Space Research, 21Technical University of Denmark, DTU Space, National Space Institute, 22Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 23Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 24University of Virginia, Department of Astronomy, 25MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics Garching, 26Durham University, Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, 27Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 28North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, 29Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 30Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, UK, 31Penn State University, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 32Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 33University of California, Berkeley, Department of Physics, 34ASI Science Data Center, Italy, 35California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 36Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, UK, 37Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 38Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 39Texas Tech University, Physics Department, 40Nagoya University, Center for Experimental Studies, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, 41University of Maryland, Physics Department, 42RIKEN, 43Univ. of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Astronomy Dept, 44Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 45Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, 46Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 47Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 48Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 49Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 50NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 51Tohoku University, Astronomical Institute, 52NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

This paper describes the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR), a mission proposed to NASA's 2014 Small Explorer (SMEX) announcement of opportunity. PolSTAR measures the linear polarization of 3-50 keV (requirement; goal: 2.5-70 keV) X-rays probing the behavior of matter, radiation and the very fabric of spacetime under the extreme conditions close to the event horizons of black holes, as well as in and around magnetars and neutron stars. Read More

Dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) are promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter through gamma-ray emission due to their proximity, lack of astrophysical backgrounds and high dark matter density. They are often used to place restrictive bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross section. In this paper, we analyze six years of {\it Fermi}-LAT gamma-ray data from 19 dSphs that are satellites of the Milky Way, and derive from a stacked analysis of 15 dSphs, robust 95\% confidence level lower limits on the dark matter lifetime for several decay channels and dark matter masses between $\sim 1$GeV and $10$TeV. Read More

The quantum electrodynamical (QED) process of Compton scattering in strong magnetic fields is commonly invoked in atmospheric and inner magnetospheric models of x-ray and soft gamma-ray emission in high-field pulsars and magnetars. A major influence of the field is to introduce resonances at the cyclotron frequency and its harmonics, where the incoming photon accesses thresholds for the creation of virtual electrons or positrons in intermediate states with excited Landau levels. At these resonances, the effective cross section typically exceeds the classical Thomson value by over 2 orders of magnitude. Read More

The interaction of petawatt ($10^{15}\ \mathrm{W}$) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light $f$, and even the range of $f$ is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that $f$ exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. Read More

Magnetic pair creation $\gamma \to e^+e^-$ has been at the core of radio pulsar paradigms and central to polar cap models of gamma-ray pulsars for over three decades. The Fermi gamma-ray pulsar population now exceeds 140 sources and has defined an important part of Fermi's science legacy. Among the population characteristics well established is the common occurrence of exponential turnovers in their spectra in the 1--10 GeV range. Read More

The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. The scarcity of giant flares makes a search for QPOs in the shorter, far more numerous bursts from Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs) desirable. In Huppenkothen et al (2013), we developed a Bayesian method for searching for QPOs in short magnetar bursts, taking into account the effects of the complicated burst structure, and have shown its feasibility on a small sample of bursts. Read More

Recent observations by the $Fermi$ Gamma-ray Space Telescope have confirmed the existence of thermal and non-thermal components in the prompt photon spectra of some Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Through an analysis of six bright Fermi GRBs, we have discovered a correlation between the observed photospheric and non-thermal $\gamma$-ray emission components of several GRBs using a physical model that has previously been shown to be a good fit to the Fermi data. From the spectral parameters of these fits we find that the characteristic energies, $E_{\rm p}$ and $kT$, of these two components are correlated via the relation $E_{\rm p} \propto T^{\alpha}$ which varies from GRB to GRB. Read More

Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is likely to be an important acceleration mechanism in various astrophysical jet sources, including radio-loud AGN. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-LAT data to pin down the power-law index of the high energy portion of emission in these sources, and therefore also the index of the underlying non-thermal particle population. This diagnostic potential was not possible prior to Fermi launch, when gamma-ray information was dominated by the highly-absorbed TeV band. Read More

2013Mar
Affiliations: 1Wash. Univ. in St. Louis, 2NASA/GSFC, 3Rice, 4NASA/GSFC, 5NASA/GSFC, 6NASA/ARC, 7TIFR, India, 8NASA/GSFC, 9NASA/GSFC, 10NASA/GSFC, 11U. Iowa, 12NASA/GSFC, 13JHU, 14Cornell, 15NASA/GSFC, 16MIT, 17Temple, 18NASA/ARC, 19NASA/GSFC, 20NASA/GSFC, 21U. Oula, Finland, 22NCSU, 23NASA/ARC, 24NASA/GSFC, 25NASA/GSFC, 26NASA/GSFC, 27NASA/GSFC, 28NASA/GSFC, 29Nagoya U., Japan, 30Riken U., Japan

In this document, we describe the scientific potential of blazar observations with a X-ray polarimetry mission like GEMS (Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX). We describe five blazar science investigations that such a mission would enable: (i) the structure and the role of magnetic fields in AGN jets, (ii) analysis of the polarization of the synchrotron X-ray emission from AGN jets, (iii) discrimination between synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton models for blazars with inverse Compton emission in the X-ray band, (iv) a precision study of the polarization properties of the X-ray emission from Cen-A, (v) tests of Lorentz Invariance based on X-ray polarimetric observations of blazars. We conclude with a discussion of a straw man observation program and recommended accompanying multiwavelength observations. Read More

2013Jan
Affiliations: 1NASA/GSFC, 2NASA/GSFC, 3Rice, 4NASA/GSFC, 5NASA/GSFC, 6NASA/ARC, 7TIFR, India, 8NASA/GSFC, 9NASA/GSFC, 10NASA/GSFC, 11U. Iowa, 12NASA/GSFC, 13Washington U., 14JHU, 15Cornell, 16NASA/GSFC, 17MIT, 18Temple, 19NASA/ARC, 20NASA/GSFC, 21NASA/GSFC, 22U. Oula, Finland, 23NCSU, 24NASA/ARC, 25NASA/GSFC, 26NASA/GSFC, 27NASA/GSFC, 28NASA/GSFC, 29Nagoya U., Japan, 30Riken U., Japan

We present here a summary of the scientific goals behind the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) X-ray polarimetry mission's black hole (BH) observing program. The primary targets can be divided into two classes: stellar-mass galactic BHs in accreting binaries, and super-massive BHs in the centers of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The stellar-mass BHs can in turn be divided into various X-ray spectral states: thermal-dominant (disk), hard (radio jet), and steep power-law (hot corona). Read More

We present the results of our broadband spectral analysis of 42 SGR J1550-5418 bursts simultaneously detected with the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), during the 2009 January active episode of the source. The unique spectral and temporal capabilities of the XRT Windowed Timing mode have allowed us to extend the GBM spectral coverage for these events down to the X-ray domain (0.5-10 keV). Read More

The extremely efficient process of resonant Compton upscattering by relativistic electrons in high magnetic fields is believed to be a leading emission mechanism of high field pulsars and magnetars in the production of intense X-ray radiation. New analytic developments for the Compton scattering cross section using Sokolov & Ternov (S&T) states with spin-dependent resonant widths are presented. These new results display significant numerical departures from both the traditional cross section using spin-averaged widths, and also from the spin-dependent cross section that employs the Johnson & Lippmann (J&L) basis states, thereby motivating the astrophysical deployment of this updated resonant Compton formulation. Read More

In early October 2008, the Soft Gamma Repeater SGRJ1550 - 5418 (1E 1547.0 - 5408, AXJ155052 - 5418, PSR J1550 - 5418) became active, emitting a series of bursts which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) after which a second especially intense activity period commenced in 2009 January and a third, less active period was detected in 2009 March-April. Here we analyze the GBM data all the bursts from the first and last active episodes. Read More

2012May
Affiliations: 1Washington Univ. in St. Louis, 2GSFC, 3GSFC, 4GSFC, 5GSFC, 6Johns Hopkins Univ., 7Rice Univ., 8Univ. of Hawaii, 9Univ. of Maryland, 10Washington Univ. in St. Louis, 11Washington Univ. in St. Louis, 12Washington Univ. in St. Louis, 13Washington Univ. in St. Louis

In this white paper, we discuss the concept of a next-generation X-ray mission called BEST (Black hole Evolution and Space Time). The mission concept uses a 3000 square centimeter effective area mirror (at 6 keV) to achieve unprecedented sensitivities for hard X-ray imaging spectrometry (5-70 keV) and for broadband X-ray polarimetry (2-70 keV). BEST can make substantial contributions to our understanding of the inner workings of accreting black holes, our knowledge about the fabric of extremely curved spacetime, and the evolution of supermassive black holes. Read More

Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is expected to be an important acceleration mechanism in a variety of astrophysical objects including extragalactic jets in active galactic nuclei and gamma ray bursts. These sources remain good candidate sites for the generation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. In this paper, key predictions of DSA at relativistic shocks that are germane to production of relativistic electrons and ions are outlined. Read More

Swift/BAT detected the first burst from 1E 1841-045 in May 2010 with intermittent burst activity recorded through at least July 2011. Here we present Swift and Fermi/GBM observations of this burst activity and search for correlated changes to the persistent X-ray emission of the source. The T90 durations of the bursts range between 18-140 ms, comparable to other magnetar burst durations, while the energy released in each burst ranges between (0. Read More

Discerning the radiative dissipation mechanism for prompt emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) requires detailed spectroscopic modeling that straddles the $\nu F_{\nu}$ peak in the 100 keV - 1 MeV range. Historically, empirical fits such as the popular Band function have been employed with considerable success in interpreting the observations. While extrapolations of the Band parameters can provide some physical insight into the emission mechanisms responsible for GRBs, these inferences do not provide a unique way of discerning between models. Read More

We present our temporal and spectral analyses of 29 bursts from SGR J0501+4516, detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during the 13 days of the source activation in 2008 (August 22 to September 3). We find that the T90 durations of the bursts can be fit with a log-normal distribution with a mean value of ~ 123 ms. We also estimate for the first time event durations of Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR) bursts in photon space (i. Read More

For inner magnetospheric models of hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission in high-field pulsars and magnetars, resonant Compton upscattering is anticipated to be the most efficient process for generating continuum radiation. This is due in part to the proximity of a hot soft photon bath from the stellar surface to putative radiation dissipation regions in the inner magnetosphere. Moreover, because the scattering process becomes resonant at the cyclotron frequency, the effective cross section exceeds the classical Thomson value by over two orders of magnitude, thereby enhancing the efficiency of continuum production and the cooling of relativistic electrons. Read More

Pulsars are powerful sources of radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper highlights some theoretical insights into non-thermal, magnetospheric pulsar gamma-ray radiation. These advances have been driven by NASA's Fermi mission, launched in mid-2008. Read More

We report on the findings of a 364 ksec observation of the BL LAC object Mrk 421 with the X-ray observatory Suzaku. The analysis in this paper uses fluxes and hardness ratios in the broad energy range from 0.5 keV to 30 keV. Read More

Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) act as calorimeters for the relativistic pair winds emanating from within the pulsar light cylinder. Their radiative dissipation in various wavebands is significantly different from that of their pulsar central engines: the broadband spectra of PWNe possess characteristics distinct from those of pulsars, thereby demanding a site of lepton acceleration remote from the pulsar magnetosphere. A principal candidate for this locale is the pulsar wind termination shock, a putatively highly-oblique, ultra-relativistic MHD discontinuity. Read More

On August 24th 2008 the new magnetar SGR 0501+4516 (discovered by SWIFT) emitted a bright burst with a pronounced double-peak structure in hard X-rays, reminiscent of the double-peak temporal structure seen in some bright thermonuclear bursts on accreting neutron stars. In the latter case this is due to Photospheric Radius Expansion (PRE): when the flux reaches the Eddington limit, the photosphere expands and cools so that emission becomes softer and drops temporarily out of the X-ray band, re-appearing as the photosphere settles back down. We consider the factors necessary to generate double-peaked PRE events, and show that such a mechanism could plausibly operate in magnetar bursts, despite the vastly different emission process. Read More

It is widely accepted that the prompt transient signal in the 10 keV - 10 GeV band from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) arises from multiple shocks internal to the ultra-relativistic expansion. The detailed understanding of the dissipation and accompanying acceleration at these shocks is a currently topical subject. This paper explores the relationship between GRB prompt emission spectra and the electron (or ion) acceleration properties at the relativistic shocks that pertain to GRB models. Read More

Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is expected to be an important acceleration mechanism in a variety of astrophysical objects including extragalactic jets in active galactic nuclei and gamma ray bursts. These sources remain strong and interesting candidate sites for the generation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. In this paper, key predictions of DSA at relativistic shocks that are salient to the issue of cosmic ray ion and electron production are outlined. Read More

The principal paradigm for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) suggests that the prompt transient gamma-ray signal arises from multiple shocks internal to the relativistic expansion. This paper explores how GRB prompt emission spectra can constrain electron (or ion) acceleration properties at the relativistic shocks that pertain to GRB models. The array of possible high-energy power-law indices in accelerated populations is highlighted, focusing on how spectra above 1 MeV can probe the field obliquity in GRB internal shocks, and the character of hydromagnetic turbulence in their environs. Read More

The Be/X-ray binary system A0535+262 underwent a giant outburst in May-June 2005, followed by a dimmer outburst in August-September 2005. This increased intensity provided an opportunity to search for redshifted neutron-capture lines from the surface of the neutron star. If discovered, such lines would constrain the neutron star equation of state, providing the motivation of this search. Read More

The acceleration of interstellar pick-up ions as well as solar wind species has been observed at a multitude of interplanetary (IP) shocks by different spacecraft. This paper expands upon previous work modeling the phase space distributions of accelerated ions associated with the shock event encountered on day 292 of 1991 by the Ulysses mission at 4.5 AU. Read More

The magnetospheres of neutron stars provide a valuable testing ground for as-yet unverified theoretical predictions of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in strong electromagnetic fields. Exhibiting magnetic field strengths well in excess of a TeraGauss, such compact astrophysical environments permit the action of exotic mechanisms that are forbidden by symmetries in field-free regions. Foremost among these processes are single-photon pair creation, where a photon converts to an electron-positron pair, and magnetic photon splitting, where a single photon divides into two of lesser energy via the coupling to the external field. Read More

The paradigm for Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) has evolved recently with the discovery by INTEGRAL and RXTE of flat, hard X-ray components in three AXPs. These non-thermal spectral components differ dramatically from the steeper quasi-power-law tails seen in the classic X-ray band in these sources, and can naturally be attributed to activity in the magnetosphere. Resonant, magnetic Compton upscattering is a candidate mechanism for generating this new component, since it is very efficient in the strong fields present near AXP surfaces. Read More

The observed spectra of blazars, their intrinsic emission, and the underlying populations of radiating particles are intimately related. The use of these sources as probes of the extragalactic infrared background, a prospect propelled by recent advances in TeV-band telescopes, soon to be augmented by observations by NASA's upcoming Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), has been a topic of great recent interest. Here, it is demonstrated that if particles in blazar jets are accelerated at relativistic shocks, then gamma-ray spectra with indices less than 1. Read More

Particle acceleration at plasma shocks appears to be ubiquitous in the universe, spanning systems in the heliosphere, supernova remnants, and relativistic jets in distant active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts. This review addresses some of the key issues for shock acceleration theory that require resolution in order to propel our understanding of particle energization in astrophysical environments. These include magnetic field amplification in shock ramps, the non-linear hydrodynamic interplay between thermal ions and their extremely energetic counterparts possessing ultrarelativistic energies, and the ability to inject and accelerate electrons in both non-relativistic and relativistic shocks. Read More

A significant new development in the study of Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) has been the recent discovery by INTEGRAL and RXTE of flat, hard X-ray components in three AXPs. These non-thermal spectral components differ dramatically from the steeper quasi-power-law tails seen in the classic X-ray band in these sources. A prime candidate mechanism for generating this new component is resonant, magnetic Compton upscattering. Read More

Recent advances in the understanding of the properties of supernova remnant shocks have been precipitated by the Chandra and XMM X-ray Observatories, and the HESS Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope in the TeV band. A critical problem for this field is the understanding of the relative degree of dissipative heating/energization of electrons and ions in the shock layer. This impacts the interpretation of X-ray observations, and moreover influences the efficiency of injection into the acceleration process, which in turn feeds back into the thermal shock layer energetics and dynamics. Read More

The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT), the next major step in gamma-ray astronomy, will probe the fires where chemical elements are formed by enabling high-resolution spectroscopy of nuclear emission from supernova explosions. During the past two years, our collaboration has been undertaking a NASA mission concept study for ACT. This study was designed to (1) transform the key scientific objectives into specific instrument requirements, (2) to identify the most promising technologies to meet those requirements, and (3) to design a viable mission concept for this instrument. Read More

The spectra obtained above 100 MeV by the EGRET experiment aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory for a handful of gamma-ray bursts has given no indication of any spectral attenuation that might preclude detection of bursts at higher energies. With the discovery of optical afterglows and counterparts to bursts in the last few years, enabling the determination of significant redshifts for these sources, it is anticipated that profound spectral attenuation will arise in the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) energy band of 30 MeV-300 GeV for many if not most bursts. This paper explores time-dependent expectations for burst spectral properties in the EGRET/GLAST band, focusing on how attenuation of photons by pair creation internal to the source generates distinctive spectral signatures. Read More

Heliospheric shocks are excellent systems for testing theories of particle acceleration in their environs. These generally fall into two classes: (1) interplanetary shocks that are linear in their ion acceleration characteristics, with the non-thermal ions serving as test particles, and (2) non-linear systems such as the Earth's bow shock and the solar wind termination shock, where the accelerated ions strongly influence the magnetohydrodynamic structure of the shock. This paper explores the modelling of diffusive acceleration at a particular interplanetary shock, with an emphasis on explaining in situ measurements of ion distribution functions. Read More

The acceleration of interstellar pick-up ions as well as solar wind species has been observed at a multitude of interplanetary (IP) shocks by different spacecraft. The efficiency of injection of the pick-up ion component differs from that of the solar wind, and is expected to be strongly enhanced at highly oblique and quasi-perpendicular shock events, in accord with inferences from {\it in situ} observations. This paper explores theoretical modeling of the phase space distributions of accelerated ions obtained by the Ulysses mission for the Day 292, 1991 shock associated with a corotating interaction region, encountered before Ulysses' fly-by of Jupiter. Read More

Cyclotron decay and absorption rates have been well studied in the literature, focusing primarily on spectral, angular and polarization dependence. Astrophysical applications usually do not require retention of information on the electron spin state, and these are normally averaged in obtaining the requisite rates. In magnetic fields, higher order quantum processes such as Compton scattering become resonant at the cyclotron frequency and its harmonics, with the resonances being formally divergent. Read More

The remnant G347.3-0.5 exhibits strong shell emission in the radio and X-ray bands, and has a purported detection in the TeV gamma-ray band by the CANGAROO-II telescope. Read More

The principal paradigm for gamma-ray bursts suggest that the prompt transient gamma-ray signal arises from multiple shocks internal to the relativistic expansion. This paper illustrates some properties of diffusive acceleration at relativistic shocks that pertain to GRB models, providing interpretation of the BATSE/EGRET data. Using a standard Monte Carlo simulation, computations of the spectral shape, and the range of spectral indices are presented, as functions of the shock speed, magnetic field obliquity and the type of particle scattering. Read More

The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. A key characteristic of this statistical energization mechanism is the absence of a momentum scale; astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and even beyond, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Read More

The principal paradigm for the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts invokes diffusive acceleration at shocks internal to the dynamic ultrarelativistic outflow. This paper explores expectations for burst emission spectra arising from shock acceleration theory in the limit of particles cooling much slower than their acceleration. Parametric fits to burst spectra obtained by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) are explored for the cases of the synchrotron, inverse Compton and synchrotron self-Compton radiation mechanisms, using a linear combination of thermal and non-thermal electron populations. Read More

A principal candidate for quiescent non-thermal gamma-ray emission from magnetars is resonant inverse Compton scattering in the strong fields of their magnetospheres. This paper outlines expectations for such emission, formed from non-thermal electrons accelerated in a pulsar-like polar cap potential upscattering thermal X-rays from the hot stellar surface. The resultant spectra are found to be strikingly flat, with fluxes and strong pulsation that could be detectable by GLAST. Read More