# Masahito Hayashi

## Contact Details

NameMasahito Hayashi |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesMathematics - Information Theory (33) Computer Science - Information Theory (33) Quantum Physics (29) Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (11) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (3) Mathematical Physics (3) Mathematics - Statistics (3) Statistics - Theory (3) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (2) Mathematics - Probability (1) |

## Publications Authored By Masahito Hayashi

Hypergraph states are generalizations of graph states where controlled-$Z$ gates on edges are replaced with generalized controlled-$Z$ gates on hyperedges. Hypergraph states have several advantages over graph states. For example, certain hypergraph states, such as the Union Jack states, are universal resource states for measurement-based quantum computing with only Pauli measurements, while graph state measurement-based quantum computing needs non-Clifford basis measurements. Read More

For conventional secret sharing, if cheaters can submit possibly forged shares after observing shares of the honest users in the reconstruction phase then they cannot only disturb the protocol but also only they may reconstruct the true secret. To overcome the problem, secret sharing scheme with properties of cheater-identification have been proposed. Existing protocols for cheater-identifiable secret sharing assumed non-rushing cheaters or honest majority. Read More

We derive the second order rates of joint source-channel coding, whose source obeys an irreducible and ergodic Markov process by introducing new distribution family, switched Gaussian convolution distribution, when the channel is a discrete memoryless. We also compare the joint source-channel scheme with the separation scheme in the second order regime. Read More

We derive novel upper and lower finite-length bounds of the error probability in joint source-channel coding when the source obeys the ergodic Markov process and the channel is a Markovian additive channel or a Markovian conditional additive channel. These bounds achieve the tight bounds in the large and moderate deviation regimes. Read More

We study the compression of arbitrary parametric families of $n$ identically prepared finite-dimensional quantum states, in a setting that can be regarded as a quantum analogue of population coding. For a family with $f$ free parameters, we propose an asymptotically faithful protocol that requires a memory of overall size $(f/2)\log n$. Our construction uses a quantum version of local asymptotic normality and, as an intermediate step, solves the problem of the optimal compression of $n$ identically prepared displaced thermal states. Read More

In this paper we obtain a lower bound of exponent of average probability of error for classical quantum multiple access channel, which implies that for all rate pairs in the capacity region is achievable by a code with exponential probability of error. Thus we re-obtain the direct coding theorem. Read More

In quantum thermodynamics, effects of finiteness of the baths has been less considered. In particular, there is no prior research to focus on finiteness of the baths of arbitrary multiple conserved quantities. Thus, we focus on how the optimal performance of generalized heat engines with multiple quantities alters in response to the size of the baths. Read More

Given a sufficient statistic for a parametric family of distributions, one can estimate the parameter without access to the data itself. However, the memory or code size for storing the sufficient statistic may nonetheless still be prohibitive. Indeed, for $n$ independent data samples drawn from a $k$-nomial distribution with $d=k-1$ degrees of freedom, the length of the code scales as $d\log n+O(1)$. Read More

We investigate the ability of a quantum measurement device to discriminate two states or, generically, two hypothesis. In full generality, the measurement can be performed a number $n$ of times, and arbitrary pre-processing of the states and post-processing of the obtained data is allowed. Even if the two hypothesis correspond to orthogonal states, perfect discrimination is not always possible. Read More

Shannon introduced the classic model of a cryptosystem in 1949, where Eve has access to an identical copy of the cyphertext that Alice sends to Bob. Shannon defined perfect secrecy to be the case when the mutual information between the plaintext and the cyphertext is zero. Perfect secrecy is motivated by error-free transmission and requires that Bob and Alice share a secret key. Read More

Quantum systems, in general, output data that cannot be simulated efficiently by a classical computer, and hence is useful for solving certain mathematical problems and simulating quantum many-body systems. This also implies, unfortunately, that verification of the output of the quantum systems is not so trivial, since predicting the output is exponentially hard. As another problem, quantum system is very delicate for noise and thus needs error correction. Read More

We establish the ultimate limits to the compression of sequences of identically prepared qubits. The limits are determined by Holevo's information quantity and are attained through use of the optimal universal cloning machine, which finds here a novel application to quantum Shannon theory. Read More

In this paper, we analyze the asymptotics of the normalized remaining uncertainty of a source when a compressed or hashed version of it and correlated side-information is observed. For this system, commonly known as Slepian-Wolf source coding, we establish the optimal (minimum) rate of compression of the source to ensure that the remaining uncertainties vanish. We also study the exponential rate of decay of the remaining uncertainty to zero when the rate is above the optimal rate of compression. Read More

Coding technology is used in several information processing tasks. In particular, when noise during transmission disturbs communications, coding technology is employed to protect the information. However, there are two types of coding technology: coding in classical information theory and coding in quantum information theory. Read More

We consider wireless communication between Alice and Bob when the intermediate space between Alice and Bob is controlled by Eve. That is, our model divides the channel noise into two parts, the noise generated during the transmission and the noise generated in the detector. Eve is allowed to control the former, but is not allowed to do the latter. Read More

We introduce a new verification protocol for measurement-only blind quantum computation where the client can only perform single-qubit measurements and the server has sufficient ability to prepare a multi-qubit entangled states. Previous such protocols were limited by strong assumptions about the client's quantum devices. We remove these assumptions by performing self-testing procedure to certify the initial entangled state prepared by the server as well as the operation of the client's quantum devices. Read More

In quantum metrology, it is widely believed that the quantum Cramer-Rao bound is attainable bound while it is not true. In order to clarify this point, we explain why the quantum Cramer-Rao bound cannot be attained geometrically. In this manuscript, we investigate noiseless channel estimation under energy constraint for states, using a physically reasonable error function, and present the optimal state and the attainable bound. Read More

We revisit the problem of asymmetric binary hypothesis testing against a composite alternative hypothesis. We introduce a general framework to treat such problems when the alternative hypothesis adheres to certain axioms. In this case we find the threshold rate, the optimal error and strong converse exponents (at large deviations from the threshold) and the second order asymptotics (at small deviations from the threshold). Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

We propose a general framework for constructing universal steering criteria that are applicable to arbitrary bipartite states and measurement settings of the steering party. The same framework is also useful for studying the joint measurement problem. Based on the data-processing inequality for an extended R\'enyi relative entropy, we then introduce a family of universal steering inequalities, which detect steering much more efficiently than those inequalities known before. Read More

We show that the class QMA does not change even if we restrict Arthur's computing ability to only Clifford gate operations (plus classical XOR gate). The idea is to use the fact that the preparation of certain single-qubit states, so called magic states, plus any Clifford gate operations are universal for quantum computing. If Merlin is honest, he sends the witness plus magic states to Arthur. Read More

We introduce a simple protocol for verifiable measurement-only blind quantum computing. Alice, a client, can perform only single-qubit measurements, whereas Bob, a server, can generate and store entangled many-qubit states. Bob generates copies of a graph state, which is a universal resource state for measurement-based quantum computing, and sends Alice each qubit of them one by one. Read More

There exist two formulations for quantum heat engine that models an energy transfer between two microscopic systems. One is semi-classical scenario, and the other is full quantum scenario. The former is formulated as a unitary evolution for the internal system, and is adopted by the community of statistical mechanics. Read More

Recently, entanglement concentration was explicitly shown to be irreversible. However, it is still not clear what kind of states can be reversibly converted in the asymptotic setting by LOCC when neither the initial nor the target state is maximally entangled. We derive the necessary and sufficient condition for the reversibility of LOCC conversions between two bipartite pure entangled states in the asymptotic setting. Read More

We evaluate the asymptotics of equivocations, their exponents as well as their second-order coding rates under various R\'{e}nyi information measures. Specifically, we consider the effect of applying a hash function on a source and we quantify the level of non-uniformity and dependence of the compressed source from another correlated source when the number of copies of the sources is large. Unlike previous works that use Shannon information measures to quantify randomness, information or uniformity, we define our security measures in terms of a more general class of information measures--the R\'{e}nyi information measures and their Gallager-type counterparts. Read More

In this paper, we derive non-asymptotic achievability and converse bounds on the random number generation with/without side-information. Our bounds are efficiently computable in the sense that the computational complexity does not depend on the block length. We also characterize the asymptotic behaviors of the large deviation regime and the moderate deviation regime by using our bounds, which implies that our bounds are asymptotically tight in those regimes. Read More

We propose two types of universal codes that are suited to two asymptotic regimes when the output alphabet is possibly continuous. The first class has the property that the error probability decays exponentially fast and we identify an explicit lower bound on the error exponent. The other class attains the epsilon-capacity the channel and we also identify the second-order term in the asymptotic expansion. Read More

We revisit the problem of secret key agreement using interactive public communication for two parties and propose a new secret key agreement protocol. The protocol attains the secret key capacity for general observations and attains the second-order asymptotic term in the maximum length of a secret key for independent and identically distributed observations. In contrast to the previously suggested secret key agreement protocols, the proposed protocol uses interactive communication. Read More

We establish an upper bound on the rate of codes for a wiretap channel with public feedback for a fixed probability of error and secrecy parameter. As a corollary, we obtain a strong converse for the capacity of a degraded wiretap channel with public feedback. Our converse proof is based on a reduction of active hypothesis testing for discriminating between two channels to coding for wiretap channel with feedback. Read More

We consider asymptotic hypothesis testing (or state discrimination with asymmetric treatment of errors) between an arbitrary fixed bipartite pure state $\ket{\Psi}$ and the completely mixed state under one-way LOCC (local operations and classical communications), two-way LOCC, and separable POVMs. As a result, we derive the Hoeffding bounds under two-way LOCC POVMs and separable POVMs. Further, we derive a Stein's lemma type of optimal error exponents under one-way LOCC, two-way LOCC, and separable POVMs up to the third order, which clarifies the difference between one-way and two-way LOCC POVM. Read More

A variety of new measures of quantum Renyi mutual information and quantum Renyi conditional entropy have recently been proposed, and some of their mathematical properties explored. Here, we show that the Renyi mutual information attains operational meaning in the context of composite hypothesis testing, when the null hypothesis is a fixed bipartite state and the alternate hypothesis consists of all product states that share one marginal with the null hypothesis. This hypothesis testing problem occurs naturally in channel coding, where it corresponds to testing whether a state is the output of a given quantum channel or of a 'useless' channel whose output is decoupled from the environment. Read More

The problem of channel coding with the erasure option is revisited for discrete memoryless channels. The interplay between the code rate, the undetected and total error probabilities is characterized. Using the information spectrum method, a sequence of codes of increasing blocklengths $n$ is designed to illustrate this tradeoff. Read More

The optimal efficiency of quantum (or classical) heat engines whose heat baths are $n$-particle systems is given by the information geometry and the strong large deviation. We give the optimal work extraction process as a concrete energy-preserving unitary time evolution among the heat baths and the work storage. We show that our optimal work extraction turns the disordered energy of the heat baths to the ordered energy of the work storage, by evaluating the ratio of the entropy difference to the energy difference in the heat baths and the work storage, respectively. Read More

We study the problem of channel resolvability for fixed i.i.d. Read More

We consider random number conversion (RNC) through random number storage with restricted size. We clarify the relation between the performance of RNC and the size of storage in the framework of first- and second-order asymptotics, and derive their rate regions. Then, we show that the results for RNC with restricted storage recover those for conventional RNC without storage in the limit of storage size. Read More

Using terminologies of information geometry, we derive upper and lower bounds of the tail probability of the sample mean. Employing these bounds, we obtain upper and lower bounds of the minimum error probability of the 2nd kind of error under the exponential constraint for the error probability of the 1st kind of error in a simple hypothesis testing for a finite-length Markov chain, which yields the Hoeffding type bound. For these derivations, we derive upper and lower bounds of cumulant generating function for Markov chain. Read More

We consider the parameter estimation of Markov chain when the unknown transition matrix belongs to an exponential family of transition matrices. Then, we show that the sample mean of the generator of the exponential family is an asymptotically efficient estimator. Further, we also define a curved exponential family of transition matrices. Read More

We explicitly construct random hash functions for privacy amplification (extractors) that require smaller random seed lengths than the previous literature, and still allow efficient implementations with complexity $O(n\log n)$ for input length $n$. The key idea is the concept of dual universal$_2$ hash function introduced recently. We also use a new method for constructing extractors by concatenating $\delta$-almost dual universal$_2$ hash functions with other extractors. Read More

Recently a new quantum generalization of the Renyi divergence and the corresponding conditional Renyi entropies was proposed. Here we report on a surprising relation between conditional Renyi entropies based on this new generalization and conditional Renyi entropies based on the quantum relative Renyi entropy that was used in previous literature. Our result generalizes the well-known duality relation H(A|B) + H(A|C) = 0 of the conditional von Neumann entropy for tripartite pure states to Renyi entropies of two different kinds. Read More

In the decoy quantum key distribution, we show that a smaller decoy intensity gives a better key generation rate in the asymptotic setting when we employ only one decoy intensity and the vacuum pulse. In particular, the counting rate of single photon can be perfectly estimated when the decoy intensity is infinitesimal. The same property holds even when the intensities cannot be perfectly identified. Read More

We study finite-length bounds for source coding with side information for Markov sources and channel coding for channels with conditional Markovian additive noise. For this purpose, we propose two criteria for finite-length bounds. One is the asymptotic optimality and the other is the efficient computability of the bound. Read More

Recently, $\varepsilon$-almost dual universal$_2$ hash functions has been proposed as a new and wider class of hash functions. Using this class of hash functions, several efficient hash functions were proposed. This paper evaluates the security performance when we apply this kind of hash functions. Read More

We consider the optimal approximate conversion between multiple copies of pure entangled states in quantum systems when only local operations and classical communications (LOCC) are allowed. This problem contains a kind of cloning problem with LOCC restriction as a special case. To derive the asymptotic LOCC conversion rate, we consider two kinds of approximate conversions, deterministic conversion and majorization conversion, for probability distributions, and solve their asymptotic conversion rates up to the second order. Read More

In quantum information theory, it is widely believed that entanglement concentration for bipartite pure states is asymptotically reversible. In order to examine this, we give a precise formulation of the problem, and show a trade-off relation between performance and reversibility, which implies the irreversibility of entanglement concentration. Then, we regard entanglement concentration as entangled state compression in an entanglement storage with lower dimension. Read More

We treat a random number generation from an i.i.d. Read More

This paper provides a formula for the sacrifice bit-length for privacy amplification with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths when we employ the decoy method. Using the formula, we can guarantee the security parameter for realizable quantum key distribution system. The key generation rates with finite key lengths are numerically evaluated. Read More

This paper investigates the privacy amplification problem, and compares the existing two bounds: the exponential bound derived by one of the authors and the min-entropy bound derived by Renner. It turns out that the exponential bound is better than the min-entropy bound when a security parameter is rather small for a block length, and that the min-entropy bound is better than the exponential bound when a security parameter is rather large for a block length. Furthermore, we present another bound that interpolates the exponential bound and the min-entropy bound by a hybrid use of the Renyi entropy and the inf-spectral entropy. Read More

This article proposes a unified method to estimation of group action by using the inverse Fourier transform of the input state. The method provides optimal estimation for commutative and non-commutative group with/without energy constraint. The proposed method can be applied to projective representations of non-compact groups as well as of compact groups. Read More

We consider two fundamental tasks in quantum information theory, data compression with quantum side information as well as randomness extraction against quantum side information. We characterize these tasks for general sources using so-called one-shot entropies. We show that these characterizations - in contrast to earlier results - enable us to derive tight second order asymptotics for these tasks in the i. Read More

For a pure state $\psi$ on a composite system $\mathcal{H}_A\otimes\mathcal{H}_B$, both the entanglement cost $E_C(\psi)$ and the distillable entanglement $E_D(\psi)$ coincide with the von Neumann entropy $H(\mathrm{Tr}_{B}\psi)$. Therefore, the entanglement concentration from the multiple state $\psi^{\otimes n}$ of a pure state $\psi$ to the multiple state $\Phi^{\otimes L_n}$ of the EPR state $\Phi$ seems to be able to be reversibly performed with an asymptotically infinitesimal error when the rate ${L_n}/{n}$ goes to $H(\mathrm{Tr}_{B}\psi)$. In this paper, we show that it is impossible to reversibly perform the entanglement concentration for a multiple pure state even in asymptotic situation. Read More

The secure multiplex coding (SMC) is a technique to remove rate loss in the coding for wire-tap channels and broadcast channels with confidential messages caused by the inclusion of random bits into transmitted signals. SMC replaces the random bits by other meaningful secret messages, and a collection of secret messages serves as the random bits to hide the rest of messages. In the previous researches, multiple secret messages were assumed to have independent and uniform distributions, which is difficult to be ensured in practice. Read More