Masahiro Takada - Kavli IPMU

Masahiro Takada
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Masahiro Takada
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Kavli IPMU
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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (48)
 
Astrophysics of Galaxies (8)
 
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (2)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2)
 
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)
 
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (1)

Publications Authored By Masahiro Takada

We report the discovery of a diffuse stellar cloud with an angular extent $\gtrsim30^{\prime\prime}$, which we term "Sumo Puff", in data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP). While we do not have a redshift for this object, it is in close angular proximity to a post-merger galaxy at redshift $z=0.0431$ and is projected within a few virial radii (assuming similar redshifts) of two other ${\sim}L_\star$ galaxies, which we use to bracket a potential redshift range of $0. Read More

We utilize the HSC CAMIRA cluster catalog and the photo-$z$ galaxy catalog constructed in the HSC wide field (S16A), covering $\sim$ 174 deg$^{2}$, to study the star formation activity of galaxies in different environments over 0.2 $<$ $z$ $<$ 1.1. Read More

2017Feb
Authors: Hiroaki Aihara, Robert Armstrong, Steven Bickerton, James Bosch, Jean Coupon, Hisanori Furusawa, Yusuke Hayashi, Hiroyuki Ikeda, Yukiko Kamata, Hiroshi Karoji, Satoshi Kawanomoto, Michitaro Koike, Yutaka Komiyama, Robert H. Lupton, Sogo Mineo, Hironao Miyatake, Satoshi Miyazaki, Tomoki Morokuma, Yoshiyuki Obuchi, Yukie Oishi, Yuki Okura, Paul A. Price, Tadafumi Takata, Manobu M. Tanaka, Masayuki Tanaka, Yoko Tanaka, Tomohisa Uchida, Fumihiro Uraguchi, Yousuke Utsumi, Shiang-Yu Wang, Yoshihiko Yamada, Hitomi Yamanoi, Naoki Yasuda, Nobuo Arimoto, Masashi Chiba, Francois Finet, Hiroki Fujimori, Seiji Fujimoto, Junko Furusawa, Tomotsugu Goto, Andy Goulding, James E. Gunn, Yuichi Harikane, Takashi Hattori, Masao Hayashi, Krzysztof G. Helminiak, Ryo Higuchi, Chiaki Hikage, Paul T. P. Ho, Bau-Ching Hsieh, Kuiyun Huang, Song Huang, Masatoshi Imanishi, Ikuru Iwata, Anton T. Jaelani, Hung-Yu Jian, Nobunari Kashikawa, Nobuhiko Katayama, Takashi Kojima, Akira Konno, Shintaro Koshida, Alexie Leauthaud, C. -H. Lee, Lihwai Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Rachel Mandelbaum, Yoshiki Matsuoka, Elinor Medezinski, Shoken Miyama, Rieko Momose, Anupreeta More, Surhud More, Shiro Mukae, Ryoma Murata, Hitoshi Murayama, Tohru Nagao, Fumiaki Nakata, Hiroko Niikura, Atsushi J. Nishizawa, Masamune Oguri, Nobuhiro Okabe, Yoshiaki Ono, Masato Onodera, Masafusa Onoue, Masami Ouchi, Tae-Soo Pyo, Takatoshi Shibuya, Kazuhiro Shimasaku, Melanie Simet, Joshua Speagle, David N. Spergel, Michael A. Strauss, Yuma Sugahara, Naoshi Sugiyama, Yasushi Suto, Nao Suzuki, Philip J. Tait, Masahiro Takada, Tsuyoshi Terai, Yoshiki Toba, Edwin L. Turner, Hisakazu Uchiyama, Keiichi Umetsu, Yuji Urata, Tomonori Usuda, Sherry Yeh, Suraphong Yuma

The Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) is a three-layered imaging survey aimed at addressing some of the most outstanding questions in astronomy today, including the nature of dark matter and dark energy. The survey has been awarded 300 nights of observing time at the Subaru Telescope. The survey started in March 2014. Read More

We use the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) to conduct a high-cadence (2~min sampling) 7~hour long observation of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) to search for the microlensing magnification of stars in M31 due to intervening primordial black holes (PBHs) in the halo regions of the Milky Way (MW) and M31. The combination of an aperture of 8.2m, a field-of-view of 1. Read More

We present an optically-selected cluster catalog from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program. The HSC images are sufficiently deep to detect cluster member galaxies down to $M_*\sim 10^{10.2}M_\odot$ even at $z\sim 1$, allowing a reliable cluster detection at such high redshifts. Read More

Long-wavelength matter inhomogeneities contain cleaner information on the nature of primordial perturbations as well as the physics of the early universe. The large-scale coherent overdensity and tidal force, not directly observable for a finite-volume galaxy survey, are both related to the Hessian of large-scale gravitational potential and therefore of equal importance. We show that the coherent tidal force causes a homogeneous anisotropic distortion of the observed distribution of galaxies in all three directions, perpendicular and parallel to the line-of-sight direction. Read More

The peculiar velocity field measured by redshift-space distortions (RSD) in galaxy surveys provides a unique probe of the growth of large-scale structure. However, systematic effects arise when including satellite galaxies in the clustering analysis. Since satellite galaxies tend to reside in massive halos with a greater halo bias, the inclusion boosts the clustering power. Read More

We report the discovery of a new ultra-faint dwarf satellite companion of the Milky Way based on the early survey data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program. This new satellite, Virgo I, which is located in the constellation of Virgo, has been identified as a statistically significant (5.5 sigma) spatial overdensity of star-like objects with a well-defined main sequence and red giant branch in their color-magnitude diagram. Read More

2016Aug
Authors: Naoyuki Tamura, Naruhisa Takato, Atsushi Shimono, Yuki Moritani, Kiyoto Yabe, Yuki Ishizuka, Akitoshi Ueda, Yukiko Kamata, Hrand Aghazarian, Stephane Arnouts, Gabriel Barban, Robert H. Barkhouser, Renato C. Borges, David F. Braun, Michael A. Carr, Pierre-Yves Chabaud, Yin-Chang Chang, Hsin-Yo Chen, Masashi Chiba, Richard C. Y. Chou, You-Hua Chu, Judith G. Cohen, Rodrigo P. de Almeida, Antonio C. de Oliveira, Ligia S. de Oliveira, Richard G. Dekany, Kjetil Dohlen, Jesulino B. dos Santos, Leandro H. dos Santos, Richard S. Ellis, Maximilian Fabricius, Didier Ferrand, Decio Ferreira, Mirek Golebiowski, Jenny E. Greene, Johannes Gross, James E. Gunn, Randolph Hammond, Albert Harding, Murdock Hart, Timothy M. Heckman, Christopher M. Hirata, Paul Ho, Stephen C. Hope, Larry Hovland, Shu-Fu Hsu, Yen-Shan Hu, Ping-Jie Huang, Marc Jaquet, Yipeng Jing, Jennifer Karr, Masahiko Kimura, Matthew E. King, Eiichiro Komatsu, Vincent Le Brun, Olivier Le Fevre, Arnaud Le Fur, David Le Mignant, Hung-Hsu Ling, Craig P. Loomis, Robert H. Lupton, Fabrice Madec, Peter Mao, Lucas S. Marrara, Claudia Mendes de Oliveira, Yosuke Minowa, Chaz N. Morantz, Hitoshi Murayama, Graham J. Murray, Youichi Ohyama, Joseph Orndorff, Sandrine Pascal, Jefferson M. Pereira, Daniel J. Reiley, Martin Reinecke, Andreas Ritter, Mitsuko Roberts, Mark A. Schwochert, Michael D. Seiffert, Stephen A. Smee, Laerte Sodre Jr., David N. Spergel, Aaron J. Steinkraus, Michael A. Strauss, Christian Surace, Yasushi Suto, Nao Suzuki, John Swinbank, Philip J. Tait, Masahiro Takada, Tomonori Tamura, Yoko Tanaka, Laurence Tresse, Orlando Verducci Jr., Didier Vibert, Clement Vidal, Shiang-Yu Wang, Chih-Yi Wen, Chi-Hung Yan, Naoki Yasuda

PFS (Prime Focus Spectrograph), a next generation facility instrument on the 8.2-meter Subaru Telescope, is a very wide-field, massively multiplexed, optical and near-infrared spectrograph. Exploiting the Subaru prime focus, 2394 reconfigurable fibers will be distributed over the 1. Read More

We develop a method to simulate galaxy-galaxy weak lensing by utilizing all-sky, light-cone simulations and their inherent halo catalogs. Using the mock catalog to study the error covariance matrix of galaxy-galaxy weak lensing, we compare the full covariance with the "jackknife" (JK) covariance, the method often used in the literature that estimates the covariance from the resamples of the data itself. We show that the JK covariance is generally noisy on individual realization basis, but gives a reasonably accurate estimation of the true covariance up to separations comparable with the size of JK subregion, to within 10$\%$ on average (after subtracting the lensing measurement around random points from the measurements of lensing galaxies or clusters). Read More

We show that the projected number density profiles of SDSS photometric galaxies around galaxy clusters displays strong evidence for the splashback radius, a sharp halo edge corresponding to the location of the first orbital apocenter of satellite galaxies after their infall. We split the clusters into two subsamples with different mean projected radial distances of their members, $\langle R_{\rm mem}\rangle$, at fixed richness and redshift, and show that the sample with smaller $\langle R_{\rm mem}\rangle$ has a smaller ratio of the splashback radius to the traditional halo boundary $R_{\rm 200m}$, than the subsample with larger $\langle R_{\rm mem}\rangle$, indicative of different mass accretion rates for the two subsamples. The same cluster samples were recently used by Miyatake et al. Read More

Linear halo bias is the response of dark matter halo number density to a long wavelength fluctuation in the dark matter density. Using abundance matching between separate universe simulations which absorb the latter into a change in the background, we test the consistency relation between the change in a one point function, the halo mass function, and a two point function, the halo-matter cross correlation in the long wavelength limit. We find excellent agreement between the two at the $1-2\%$ level for average halo biases between $1 \lesssim \bar b_1 \lesssim 4$ and no statistically significant deviations at the $4-5\%$ level out to $\bar b_1 \approx 8$. Read More

The spatial curvature ($K$ or $\Omega_K$) is one of the most fundamental parameters of an isotropic and homogeneous universe and has a close link to the physics of the early Universe. Combining the radial and angular diameter distances measured via the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) experiments allows us to unambiguously constrain the curvature. The method is primarily based on the metric theory, but is less sensitive to the theory of structure formation other than the existence of the BAO scale and is free of any model of dark energy. Read More

We present significant evidence of halo assembly bias for SDSS redMaPPer galaxy clusters in the redshift range $[0.1, 0.33]$. Read More

We present properties of moderately massive clusters of galaxies detected by the newly developed Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru telescope using weak gravitational lensing. Eight peaks exceeding a S/N ratio of 4.5 are identified on the convergence S/N map of a 2. Read More

We develop a novel method of measuring the lensing distortion profiles of clusters with stacking the scaled amplitudes of background galaxy ellipticities as a function of the scaled centric radius according to the NFW prediction of each cluster, based on the assumption that the different clusters in a sample follow the universal NFW profile. First we demonstrate the feasibility of this method using both the analytical NFW model and simulated halos in high-resolution $N$-body simulations. We then apply, as a proof of concept, this method to the Subaru weak lensing data and the XMM/Chandra X-ray observables for a sample of 50 massive clusters in the redshift range $0. Read More

When extracting cosmological information from power spectrum measurements, we must consider the impact of super-sample density fluctuations whose wavelengths are larger than the survey scale. These modes contribute to the mean density fluctuation $\delta_b$ in the survey and change the power spectrum in the same way as a change in the cosmological background. They can be simply included in cosmological parameter estimation and forecasts by treating $\delta_b$ as an additional cosmological parameter enabling efficient exploration of its impact. Read More

Cosmological weak lensing is the powerful probe of cosmology. Here we address one of the most fundamental, statistical questions inherent in weak lensing cosmology: whether or not we can recover the initial Gaussian information content of large-scale structure by combining the weak lensing observables, here focused on the weak lensing power spectrum and bispectrum. To address this question we fully take into account correlations between the power spectra of different multipoles and the bispectra of different triangle configurations, measured from a finite area survey. Read More

We perform a joint analysis of the abundance, the clustering and the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal of galaxies measured from Data Release 11 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS III-BOSS) in our companion paper, Miyatake et al. (2014). The lensing signal was obtained by using the shape catalog of background galaxies from the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, which was made publicly available by the CFHTLenS collaboration, with an area overlap of about 105 deg$^2$. Read More

Naive estimates of the statistics of large scale structure and weak lensing power spectrum measurements that include only Gaussian errors exaggerate their scientific impact. Non-linear evolution and finite volume effects are both significant sources of non-Gaussian covariance that reduce the ability of power spectrum measurements to constrain cosmological parameters. Using a halo model formalism, we derive an intuitive understanding of the various contributions to the covariance and show that our analytical treatment agrees with simulations. Read More

Upcoming wide-area weak lensing surveys are expensive both in time and cost and require an optimal survey design in order to attain maximum scientific returns from a fixed amount of available telescope time. The super-sample covariance (SSC), which arises from unobservable modes that are larger than the survey size, significantly degrades the statistical precision of weak lensing power spectrum measurement even for a wide-area survey. Using the 1000 mock realizations of the log-normal model, which approximates the weak lensing field for a $\Lambda$-dominated cold dark matter model, we study an optimal survey geometry to minimize the impact of SSC contamination. Read More

We search for the lensing signal of massive filaments between 135,000 pairs of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We develop a new estimator that cleanly removes the much larger shear signal of the neighboring LRG halos, relying only on the assumption of spherical symmetry. We consider two models: a thick filament model constructed from ray-tracing simulations for $\Lambda$CDM model, and a thin filament model which models the filament by a string of halos along the line connecting the two LRGs. Read More

Using separate universe simulations, we accurately quantify super-sample covariance (SSC), the typically dominant sampling error for matter power spectrum estimators in a finite volume, which arises from the presence of super survey modes. By quantifying the power spectrum response to a background mode, this approach automatically captures the separate effects of beat coupling in the quasilinear regime, halo sample variance in the nonlinear regime and a new dilation effect which changes scales in the power spectrum coherently across the survey volume, including the baryon acoustic oscillation scale. It models these effects at typically the few percent level or better with a handful of small volume simulations for any survey geometry compared with directly using many thousands of survey volumes in a suite of large volume simulations. Read More

A joint analysis of the clustering of galaxies and their weak gravitational lensing signal is well-suited to simultaneously constrain the galaxy-halo connection as well as the cosmological parameters by breaking the degeneracy between galaxy bias and the amplitude of clustering signal. In a series of two papers, we perform such an analysis at the highest redshift ($z\sim0.53$) in the literature using CMASS galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Eleventh Data Release (SDSS-III/BOSS DR11) catalog spanning 8300~deg$^2$. Read More

The discovery of cosmic acceleration has stimulated theorists to consider dark energy or modifications to Einstein's General Relativity as possible explanations. The last decade has seen advances in theories that go beyond smooth dark energy -- modified gravity and interactions of dark energy. While the theoretical terrain is being actively explored, the generic presence of fifth forces and dark sector couplings suggests a set of distinct observational signatures. Read More

We study the complementarity of weak lensing (WL) and spectroscopic galaxy clustering (GC) surveys, by forecasting dark energy and modified gravity constraints for three upcoming survey combinations: SuMIRe (Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts, the combination of the Hyper Suprime-Cam lensing survey and the Prime Focus Spectrograph redshift survey), EUCLID and WFIRST. From the WL surveys, we take into account both the shear and clustering of the source galaxies and from the GC surveys, we use the three-dimensional clustering of spectroscopic galaxies, including redshift space distortions. A CMB prior is included in all cases. Read More

A coherent over- or under-density contrast across a finite survey volume causes an upward- or downward-fluctuation in the observed number of halos. This fluctuation in halo number adds a significant co-variant scatter in the observed amplitudes of weak lensing power spectrum at nonlinear, small scales -- the so-called super-sample variance or the halo sample variance. In this paper, we show that by measuring both the number counts of clusters and the power spectrum in the same survey region, we can mitigate this loss of information and significantly enhance the scientific return from the upcoming surveys. Read More

We re-examine a genuine power of weak lensing bispectrum tomography for constraining cosmological parameters, when combined with the power spectrum tomography, based on the Fisher information matrix formalism. To account for the full information at two- and three-point levels, we include all the power spectrum and bispectrum information built from all-available combinations of tomographic redshift bins, multipole bins and different triangle configurations over a range of angular scales (up to lmax=2000 as our fiducial choice). For the parameter forecast, we use the halo model approach in Kayo, Takada & Jain (2013) to model the non-Gaussian error covariances as well as the cross-covariance between the power spectrum and the bispectrum, including the halo sample variance or the nonlinear version of beat-coupling. Read More

The comparison between dynamical mass and lensing mass provides a targeted test for a wide range of modified gravity models. In our previous paper we showed, through numerical simulations, that the measurement of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion around stacked massive clusters whose lensing masses are known allows for stringent constraints on modified gravity on scales of 2 - 15 Mpc/h. In this work we develop a semi-analytical approach based on the halo model to describe the phase-space distribution and the line-of-sight velocity dispersion for different tracers. Read More

We provide a simple, unified approach to describing the impact of super-sample covariance, or beat coupling, on power spectrum estimation in a finite-volume survey. For a wide range of survey volumes, the sample variance that arises from modes that are larger than the survey dominates the covariance of power spectrum estimators for modes much smaller than the survey. The deeply nonlinear version of this effect is known as halo sample variance. Read More

The baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) experiment requires a sufficiently dense sampling of large-scale structure tracers with spectroscopic redshift, which is observationally expensive especially at high redshifts $z\simgt 1$. Here we present an alternative route of the BAO analysis that uses the cross-correlation of sparse spectroscopic tracers with a much denser photometric sample, where the spectroscopic tracers can be quasars or bright, rare galaxies that are easier to access spectroscopically. We show that measurements of the cross-correlation as a function of the transverse comoving separation rather than the angular separation avoid a smearing of the BAO feature without mixing the different scales at different redshifts in the projection, even for a wide redshift slice $\Delta z\simeq 1$. Read More

We present a stacked weak-lensing analysis of an approximately mass-selected sample of 50 galaxy clusters at 0.15Read More

We revisit an analytical model to describe the halo-matter cross-power spectrum and the halo auto-power spectrum in the weakly nonlinear regime, by combining the perturbation theory (PT) for matter clustering, the local bias model, and the halo bias. Nonlinearities in the power spectra arise from the nonlinear clustering of matter as well as the nonlinear relation between the matter and halo density fields. By using the "renormalization" approach, we express the nonlinear power spectra by a sum of the two contributions: the nonlinear matter power spectrum with the effective linear bias parameter, and the higher-order PT spectra having the halo bias parameters as the coefficients. Read More

We develop a novel abundance matching method to construct a mock catalog of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in SDSS, using catalogs of halos and subhalos in N-body simulations for a LCDM model. Motivated by observations suggesting that LRGs are passively-evolving, massive early-type galaxies with a typical age >5Gyr, we assume that simulated halos at z=2 (z2-halo) are progenitors for LRG-host subhalos observed today, and we label the most tightly bound particles in each progenitor z2-halo as LRG ``stars''. We then identify the subhalos containing these stars to z=0. Read More

Nonlinear redshift-space distortions, the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect, can complicate the interpretation of the galaxy power spectrum. Here, we demonstrate the method proposed by Hikage et al. (2012) to use complimentary observations to directly constrain this effect on the data. Read More

We address the amount of information in the non-Gaussian regime of weak lensing surveys by modelling all relevant covariances of the power spectra and bispectra, using 1000 ray-tracing simulation realizations for a Lambda-CDM model and an analytical halo model. We develop a formalism to describe the covariance matrices of power spectra and bispectra of all triangle configurations. In addition to the known contributions which extend up to six-point correlation functions, we propose a new contribution `the halo sample variance (HSV)' arising from the coupling of the lensing Fourier modes with large-scale mass fluctuations on scales comparable with the survey region via halo bias theory. Read More

In General Relativity, the average velocity field of dark matter around galaxy clusters is uniquely determined by the mass profile. The latter can be measured through weak lensing. We propose a new method of measuring the velocity field (phase space density) by stacking redshifts of surrounding galaxies from a spectroscopic sample. Read More

A logarithmic transform of the convergence field improves `the information content', ie., the overall precision associated with the measurement of the amplitude of the convergence power spectrum by improving the covariance matrix properties. The translation of this improvement in the information content to that in cosmological parameters, such as those associated with dark energy, requires knowing the sensitivity of the log-transformed field to those cosmological parameters. Read More

We present the analytical formulas, derived based on the halo model, to compute the cross-correlation between the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect and the distribution of galaxy clusters. By binning the clusters according to their redshifts and masses, this cross-correlation, the so-called stacked SZ signal, reveals the average SZ profile around the clusters. The stacked SZ signal is obtainable from a joint analysis of an arcminute-resolution cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment and an overlapping optical survey, which allows for detection of the SZ signals for clusters whose masses are below the individual cluster detection threshold. Read More

We study the spherical, top-hat collapse model for a mixed dark matter model including cold dark matter (CDM) and massive neutrinos of mass scales ranging from m_nu= 0.05 to a few 0.1eV, the range of lower- and upper-bounds implied from the neutrino oscillation experiments and the cosmological constraints. Read More

2011Jun

For decades, cosmologists have been using galaxies to trace the large-scale distribution of matter. At present, the largest source of systematic uncertainty in this analysis is the challenge of modeling the complex relationship between galaxy redshift and the distribution of dark matter. If all galaxies sat in the centers of halos, there would be minimal Finger-of-God (FoG) effects and a simple relationship between the galaxy and matter distributions. Read More

We develop a maximum likelihood based method of reconstructing band powers of the density and velocity power spectra at each wavenumber bins from the measured clustering features of galaxies in redshift space, including marginalization over uncertainties inherent in the Fingers-of-God (FoG) effect. The reconstruction can be done assuming that the density and velocity power spectra depend on the redshift-space power spectrum having different angular modulations of mu with mu^{2n} (n=0,1,2) and that the model FoG effect is given as a multiplicative function in the redshift-space spectrum. By using N-body simulations and the halo catalogs, we test our method by comparing the reconstructed power spectra with the simulations. Read More

We develop a new method of combining cluster observables (number counts and cluster-cluster correlation functions) and stacked weak lensing signals of background galaxy shapes, both of which are available in a wide-field optical imaging survey. Assuming that the clusters have secure redshift estimates, we show that the joint experiment enables a self-calibration of important systematic errors including the source redshift uncertainty and the cluster mass-observable relation, by adopting a single population of background source galaxies for the lensing analysis. It allows us to use the relative strengths of stacked lensing signals at different cluster redshifts for calibrating the source redshift uncertainty, which in turn leads to accurate measurements of the mean cluster mass in each bin. Read More

Using 1000 ray-tracing simulations for a {\Lambda}-dominated cold dark model in Sato et al. (2009), we study the covariance matrix of cosmic shear correlation functions, which is the standard statistics used in the previous measurements. The shear correlation function of a particular separation angle is affected by Fourier modes over a wide range of multipoles, even beyond a survey area, which complicates the analysis of the covariance matrix. Read More

Gravitational lensing of distant galaxies can be exploited to infer the convergence field as a function of angular position on the sky. The statistics of this field, much like that of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), can be studied to extract information about fundamental parameters in cosmology, most notably the dark energy in the Universe. Unlike the CMB, the distribution of matter in the Universe which determines the convergence field is highly non-Gaussian, reflecting the nonlinear processes which accompanied structure formation. Read More