Martial Hebert

Martial Hebert
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Martial Hebert

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Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (15)
Computer Science - Learning (10)
Computer Science - Robotics (7)
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (5)
Computer Science - Computers and Society (1)
Statistics - Machine Learning (1)

Publications Authored By Martial Hebert

Current approaches in video forecasting attempt to generate videos directly in pixel space using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) or Variational Autoencoders (VAEs). However, since these approaches try to model all the structure and scene dynamics at once, in unconstrained settings they often generate uninterpretable results. Our insight is to model the forecasting problem at a higher level of abstraction. Read More

Boosting is a popular ensemble algorithm that generates more powerful learners by linearly combining base models from a simpler hypothesis class. In this work, we investigate the problem of adapting batch gradient boosting for minimizing convex loss functions to online setting where the loss at each iteration is i.i. Read More

Measuring visual similarity is critical for image understanding. But what makes two images similar? Most existing work on visual similarity assumes that images are similar because they contain the same object instance or category. However, the reason why images are similar is much more complex. Read More

The rational camera model recently introduced in [19] provides a general methodology for studying abstract nonlinear imaging systems and their multi-view geometry. This paper builds on this framework to study "physical realizations" of rational cameras. More precisely, we give an explicit account of the mapping between between physical visual rays and image points (missing in the original description), which allows us to give simple analytical expressions for direct and inverse projections. Read More

We address an anomaly detection setting in which training sequences are unavailable and anomalies are scored independently of temporal ordering. Current algorithms in anomaly detection are based on the classical density estimation approach of learning high-dimensional models and finding low-probability events. These algorithms are sensitive to the order in which anomalies appear and require either training data or early context assumptions that do not hold for longer, more complex videos. Read More

The ability to transfer knowledge gained in previous tasks into new contexts is one of the most important mechanisms of human learning. Despite this, adapting autonomous behavior to be reused in partially similar settings is still an open problem in current robotics research. In this paper, we take a small step in this direction and propose a generic framework for learning transferable motion policies. Read More

As robots aspire for long-term autonomous operations in complex dynamic environments, the ability to reliably take mission-critical decisions in ambiguous situations becomes critical. This motivates the need to build systems that have situational awareness to assess how qualified they are at that moment to make a decision. We call this self-evaluating capability as introspection. Read More

IT-driven innovation is an enormous factor in the worldwide economic leadership of the United States. It is larger than finance, construction, or transportation, and it employs nearly 6% of the US workforce. The top three companies, as measured by market capitalization, are IT companies - Apple, Google (now Alphabet), and Microsoft. Read More

In a given scene, humans can often easily predict a set of immediate future events that might happen. However, generalized pixel-level anticipation in computer vision systems is difficult because machine learning struggles with the ambiguity inherent in predicting the future. In this paper, we focus on predicting the dense trajectory of pixels in a scene, specifically what will move in the scene, where it will travel, and how it will deform over the course of one second. Read More

Recently, there have been numerous advances in the development of biologically inspired lightweight Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). While autonomous navigation is fairly straight-forward for large UAVs as expensive sensors and monitoring devices can be employed, robust methods for obstacle avoidance remains a challenging task for MAVs which operate at low altitude in cluttered unstructured environments. Due to payload and power constraints, it is necessary for such systems to have autonomous navigation and flight capabilities using mostly passive sensors such as cameras. Read More

Multi-task learning in Convolutional Networks has displayed remarkable success in the field of recognition. This success can be largely attributed to learning shared representations from multiple supervisory tasks. However, existing multi-task approaches rely on enumerating multiple network architectures specific to the tasks at hand, that do not generalize. Read More

In this paper, we present an approach for learning a visual representation from the raw spatiotemporal signals in videos. Our representation is learned without supervision from semantic labels. We formulate our method as an unsupervised sequential verification task, i. Read More

This paper shows how to extract dense optical flow from videos with a convolutional neural network (CNN). The proposed model constitutes a potential building block for deeper architectures to allow using motion without resorting to an external algorithm, \eg for recognition in videos. We derive our network architecture from signal processing principles to provide desired invariances to image contrast, phase and texture. Read More

We present a semi-supervised approach that localizes multiple unknown object instances in long videos. We start with a handful of labeled boxes and iteratively learn and label hundreds of thousands of object instances. We propose criteria for reliable object detection and tracking for constraining the semi-supervised learning process and minimizing semantic drift. Read More

Given a scene, what is going to move, and in what direction will it move? Such a question could be considered a non-semantic form of action prediction. In this work, we present a convolutional neural network (CNN) based approach for motion prediction. Given a static image, this CNN predicts the future motion of each and every pixel in the image in terms of optical flow. Read More

Robot teleoperation systems face a common set of challenges including latency, low-dimensional user commands, and asymmetric control inputs. User control with Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) exacerbates these problems through especially noisy and erratic low-dimensional motion commands due to the difficulty in decoding neural activity. We introduce a general framework to address these challenges through a combination of computer vision, user intent inference, and arbitration between the human input and autonomous control schemes. Read More

Cameras provide a rich source of information while being passive, cheap and lightweight for small and medium Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In this work we present the first implementation of receding horizon control, which is widely used in ground vehicles, with monocular vision as the only sensing mode for autonomous UAV flight in dense clutter. We make it feasible on UAVs via a number of contributions: novel coupling of perception and control via relevant and diverse, multiple interpretations of the scene around the robot, leveraging recent advances in machine learning to showcase anytime budgeted cost-sensitive feature selection, and fast non-linear regression for monocular depth prediction. Read More

We consider detecting objects in an image by iteratively selecting from a set of arbitrarily shaped candidate regions. Our generic approach, which we term visual chunking, reasons about the locations of multiple object instances in an image while expressively describing object boundaries. We design an optimization criterion for measuring the performance of a list of such detections as a natural extension to a common per-instance metric. Read More

We consider \textit{anytime} linear prediction in the common machine learning setting, where features are in groups that have costs. We achieve anytime (or interruptible) predictions by sequencing the computation of feature groups and reporting results using the computed features at interruption. We extend Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and Forward Regression (FR) to learn the sequencing greedily under this group setting with costs. Read More

Structured prediction plays a central role in machine learning applications from computational biology to computer vision. These models require significantly more computation than unstructured models, and, in many applications, algorithms may need to make predictions within a computational budget or in an anytime fashion. In this work we propose an anytime technique for learning structured prediction that, at training time, incorporates both structural elements and feature computation trade-offs that affect test-time inference. Read More

Autonomous navigation for large Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is fairly straight-forward, as expensive sensors and monitoring devices can be employed. In contrast, obstacle avoidance remains a challenging task for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) which operate at low altitude in cluttered environments. Unlike large vehicles, MAVs can only carry very light sensors, such as cameras, making autonomous navigation through obstacles much more challenging. Read More

The main stated contribution of the Deformable Parts Model (DPM) detector of Felzenszwalb et al. (over the Histogram-of-Oriented-Gradients approach of Dalal and Triggs) is the use of deformable parts. A secondary contribution is the latent discriminative learning. Read More

Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e. Read More