# Mark Hindmarsh - University of Sussex

## Contact Details

NameMark Hindmarsh |
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AffiliationUniversity of Sussex |
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CountryUnited Kingdom |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesCosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (34) High Energy Physics - Theory (31) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (24) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (10) Astrophysics (3) High Energy Physics - Lattice (3) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (2) Mathematical Physics (2) Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons (2) Physics - History of Physics (1) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (1) Physics - Computational Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Mark Hindmarsh

We present results from large-scale numerical simulations of a first order thermal phase transition in the early universe, in order to explore the shape of the acoustic gravitational wave and the velocity power spectra. We compare the results with the predictions of the recently proposed sound shell model. For the gravitational wave power spectrum, we find that the predicted $k^{-3}$ behaviour, where $k$ is the wavenumber, emerges clearly for detonations. Read More

We investigate cosmic string networks in the Abelian Higgs model using data from a campaign of large-scale numerical simulations on lattices of up to $4096^3$ grid points. We observe scaling or self-similarity of the networks over a wide range of scales, and estimate the asymptotic values of the mean string separation in horizon length units $\dot{\xi}$ and of the mean square string velocity $\bar v^2$ in the continuum and large time limits. The scaling occurs because the strings lose energy into classical radiation of the scalar and gauge fields of the Abelian Higgs model. Read More

**Authors:**CORE Collaboration, Fabio Finelli, Martin Bucher, Ana Achúcarro, Mario Ballardini, Nicola Bartolo, Daniel Baumann, Sébastien Clesse, Josquin Errard, Will Handley, Mark Hindmarsh, Kimmo Kiiveri, Martin Kunz, Anthony Lasenby, Michele Liguori, Daniela Paoletti, Christophe Ringeval, Jussi Väliviita, Bartjan van Tent, Vincent Vennin, Rupert Allison, Frederico Arroja, Marc Ashdown, A. J. Banday, Ranajoy Banerji, James G. Bartlett, Soumen Basak, Jochem Baselmans, Paolo de Bernardis, Marco Bersanelli, Anna Bonaldi, Julian Borril, François R. Bouchet, François Boulanger, Thejs Brinckmann, Carlo Burigana, Alessandro Buzzelli, Zhen-Yi Cai, Martino Calvo, Carla Sofia Carvalho, Gabriella Castellano, Anthony Challinor, Jens Chluba, Ivan Colantoni, Martin Crook, Giuseppe D'Alessandro, Guido D'Amico, Jacques Delabrouille, Vincent Desjacques, Gianfranco De Zotti, Jose Maria Diego, Eleonora Di Valentino, Stephen Feeney, James R. Fergusson, Raul Fernandez-Cobos, Simone Ferraro, Francesco Forastieri, Silvia Galli, Juan García-Bellido, Giancarlo de Gasperis, Ricardo T. Génova-Santos, Martina Gerbino, Joaquin González-Nuevo, Sebastian Grandis, Josh Greenslade, Steffen Hagstotz, Shaul Hanany, Dhiraj K. Hazra, Carlos Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos Hervias-Caimapo, Matthew Hills, Eric Hivon, Bin Hu, Ted Kisner, Thomas Kitching, Ely D. Kovetz, Hannu Kurki-Suonio, Luca Lamagna, Massimiliano Lattanzi, Julien Lesgourgues, Antony Lewis, Valtteri Lindholm, Joanes Lizarraga, Marcos López-Caniego, Gemma Luzzi, Bruno Maffei, Nazzareno Mandolesi, Enrique Martínez-González, Carlos J. A. P. Martins, Silvia Masi, Darragh McCarthy, Sabino Matarrese, Alessandro Melchiorri, Jean-Baptiste Melin, Diego Molinari, Alessandro Monfardini, Paolo Natoli, Mattia Negrello, Alessio Notari, Filippo Oppizzi, Alessandro Paiella, Enrico Pajer, Guillaume Patanchon, Subodh P. Patil, Michael Piat, Giampaolo Pisano, Linda Polastri, Gianluca Polenta, Agnieszka Pollo, Vivian Poulin, Miguel Quartin, Andrea Ravenni, Mathieu Remazeilles, Alessandro Renzi, Diederik Roest, Matthieu Roman, Jose Alberto Rubiño-Martin, Laura Salvati, Alexei A. Starobinsky, Andrea Tartari, Gianmassimo Tasinato, Maurizio Tomasi, Jesús Torrado, Neil Trappe, Tiziana Trombetti, Carole Tucker, Marco Tucci, Jon Urrestilla, Rien van de Weygaert, Patricio Vielva, Nicola Vittorio, Karl Young

**Category:**Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics

We forecast the scientific capabilities to improve our understanding of cosmic inflation of CORE, a proposed CMB space satellite submitted in response to the ESA fifth call for a medium-size mission opportunity. The CORE satellite will map the CMB anisotropies in temperature and polarization in 19 frequency channels spanning the range 60-600 GHz. CORE will have an aggregate noise sensitivity of $1. Read More

We perform the first numerical simulations of necklaces in a non-Abelian gauge theory. Necklaces are composite classical solutions which can be interpreted as monopoles trapped on strings, rather generic structures in a Grand Unified Theory. We generate necklaces from random initial conditions, modelling a phase transition in the early Universe, and study the evolution. Read More

I give a short commentary on a seminal article by T W B Kibble in 1976, "Topology of cosmic domains and strings". Read More

We present cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra from recent numerical simulations of cosmic strings in the Abelian Higgs model and compare them to CMB power spectra measured by Planck. We obtain revised constraints on the cosmic string tension parameter $G\mu$. For example, in the $\Lambda$CDM model with the addition of strings and no primordial tensor perturbations, we find $G\mu < 2. Read More

A model for the acoustic production of gravitational waves at a first order phase transition is presented. The source of gravitational radiation is the sound waves generated by the explosive growth of bubbles of the stable phase. The model assumes that the sound waves are linear and that their power spectrum is determined by the characteristic form of the sound shell around the expanding bubble. Read More

We study the properties of classical vortex solutions in a non-Abelian gauge theory. A system of two adjoint Higgs fields breaks the SU(2) gauge symmetry to $Z_2$, producing 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles trapped on cosmic strings, termed beads; there are two charges of monopole and two degenerate string solutions. The strings break an accidental discrete $Z_2$ symmetry of the theory, explaining the degeneracy of the ground state. Read More

We investigate the potential for the eLISA space-based interferometer to detect the stochastic gravitational wave background produced by strong first-order cosmological phase transitions. We discuss the resulting contributions from bubble collisions, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, and sound waves to the stochastic background, and estimate the total corresponding signal predicted in gravitational waves. The projected sensitivity of eLISA to cosmological phase transitions is computed in a model-independent way for various detector designs and configurations. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}University of Sussex,

^{2}University of Sussex,

^{3}University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics,

^{4}University of Stavanger

First order phase transitions in the early Universe generate gravitational waves, which may be observable in future space-based gravitational wave observatiories, e.g. the European eLISA satellite constellation. Read More

We report on the energy-momentum correlators obtained with recent numerical simulations of the Abelian Higgs model, essential for the computation of cosmic microwave background and matter perturbations of cosmic strings. Due to significant improvements both in raw computing power and in our parallel simulation framework, the dynamical range of the simulations has increased four-fold both in space and time, and for the first time we are able to simulate strings with a constant physical width in both the radiation and matter eras. The new simulations improve the accuracy of the measurements of the correlation functions at the horizon scale and confirm the shape around the peak. Read More

latfield2 is a C++ library designed to simplify writing parallel codes for solving partial differen- tial equations, developed for application to classical field theories in particle physics and cosmology. It is a significant rewrite of the latfield framework, moving from a slab domain decomposition to a rod decomposition, where the last two dimension of the lattice are scattered into a two dimensional process grid. Parallelism is implemented using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard, and hidden in the basic objects of grid-based simulations: Lattice, Site and Field. Read More

We calculate the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum from cosmic strings, for the first time including the contributions from the last scattering surface, using a well-established Gaussian model for the string energy-momentum correlation functions, and a simplified model for the cosmic fluid. We check our approximation for the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) contribution against the bispectrum obtained from the full sky map of the cosmic string ISW signal used by the Planck team, obtaining good agreement. We validate our model for the last scattering surface contribution by comparing the predicted temperature power spectrum with that obtained from a full Boltzmann code treatment applied to the Unconnected Segment Model of a string network. Read More

We present details of numerical simulations of the gravitational radiation produced by a first order thermal phase transition in the early universe. We confirm that the dominant source of gravitational waves is sound waves generated by the expanding bubbles of the low-temperature phase. We demonstrate that the sound waves have a power spectrum with a power-law form between the scales set by the average bubble separation (which sets the length scale of the fluid flow $L_\text{f}$) and the bubble wall width. Read More

We examine the production of dark matter by decaying topological defects in the high mass region $m_{\mathrm{DM}} \gg m_W$ of the Inert Doublet Model, extended with an extra U(1) gauge symmetry. The density of dark matter states (the neutral Higgs states of the inert doublet) is determined by the interplay of the freeze-out mechanism and the additional production of dark matter states from the decays of topological defects, in this case cosmic strings. These decays increase the predicted relic abundance compared to the standard freeze-out only case, and as a consequence the viable parameter space of the Inert Doublet Model can be widened substantially. Read More

In this work we discuss the possibility of cosmic defects being responsible for the B-mode signal measured by the BICEP2 collaboration. We also allow for the presence of other cosmological sources of B-modes such as inflationary gravitational waves and polarized dust foregrounds, which might contribute to or dominate the signal. On the one hand, we find that defects alone give a poor fit to the data points. Read More

We present the first calculation of the bispectrum of the matter perturbations induced by cosmic strings. The calculation is performed in two different ways: the first uses the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the string network - computed using a Gaussian model previously employed for cosmic string power spectra. The second approach uses the wake model, where string density perturbations are concentrated in sheet-like structures whose surface density grows with time. Read More

We analyse the possible contribution of topological defects to cosmic microwave anisotropies, both temperature and polarisation. We allow for the presence of both inflationary scalars and tensors, and of polarised dust foregrounds that may contribute to or dominate the B-mode polarisation signal. We confirm and quantify our previous statements that topological defects on their own are a poor fit to the B-mode signal. Read More

We consider constraints on cosmic strings from their emission of Higgs particles, in the case that the strings have a Higgs condensate with amplitude of order the string mass scale, assuming that a fraction of the energy of condensate can be turned into radiation near cusps. The injection of energy by the decaying Higgs particles affects the light element abundances predicted by standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), and also contributes to the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Background (DGRB) in the universe today. We examine the two main string scenarios (Nambu-Goto and field theory), and find that the primordial Helium abundance strongly constrains the string tension and the efficiency of the emission process in the NG scenario, while the strongest BBN constraint in the FT scenario comes from the Deuterium abundance. Read More

In real-time lattice simulations of cosmic strings in the Abelian Higgs model, the broken translational invariance introduces lattice artefacts; relativistic strings therefore decelerate and radiate. We introduce two different methods to construct a moving string on the lattice, and study in detail the lattice effects on moving strings. We find that there are two types of lattice artefact: there is an effective maximum speed with which a moving string can be placed on the lattice, and a moving string also slows down, with the deceleration approximately proportional to the exponential of the velocity. Read More

We show that the B-mode polarization signal detected at low multipoles by BICEP2 cannot be entirely due to topological defects. This would be incompatible with the high-multipole B-mode polarization data and also with existing temperature anisotropy data. Adding cosmic strings to a model with tensors, we find that B-modes on their own provide a comparable limit on the defects to that already coming from Planck satellite temperature data. Read More

We study dark matter production by decaying topological defects, in particular cosmic strings. In topological defect or "top-down" (TD) scenarios, the dark matter injection rate varies as a power law with time with exponent $p-4$. We find a formula in closed form for the yield for all $p < 3/2$, which accurately reproduces the solution of the Boltzmann equation. Read More

We report on the first 3-dimensional numerical simulations of first-order phase transitions in the early universe to include the cosmic fluid as well as the scalar field order parameter. We calculate the gravitational wave (GW) spectrum resulting from the nucleation, expansion and collision of bubbles of the low-temperature phase, for phase transition strengths and bubble wall velocities covering many cases of interest. We find that the compression waves in the fluid continue to be a source of GWs long after the bubbles have merged, a new effect not taken properly into account in previous modelling of the GW source. Read More

We consider a class of models in which minimal gauged F-term hybrid inflation is coupled renormalisably to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), with no extra ingredients; we call this class the "minimal hybrid inflationary supersymmetric standard model" (MHISSM). The singlet inflaton supplies the Higgs mu-term, and allows an exit from inflation to a vacuum characterised by large Higgs vevs. The true ground state is reached after an period of thermal inflation along the Higgs flat direction. Read More

We demonstrate that any scaling source in the radiation era produces a background of gravitational waves with an exact scale-invariant power spectrum. Cosmic defects, created after a phase transition in the early Universe, are such a scaling source. We emphasise that the result is independent of the topology of the cosmic defects, the order of phase transition, and the nature of the symmetry broken, global or gauged. Read More

We consider an MSSM extension with anomaly mediation as the source of supersymmetry-breaking, and a U(1) symmetry which solves the tachyonic slepton problem, and introduces both the see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs mu-term. We compare its spectra with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 125 GeV with a gravitino mass of 140 TeV and tan(beta)=16. Read More

We explore the cosmological dynamics of an effective f(R) model constructed from a renormalisation group (RG) improvement of the Einstein--Hilbert action, using the non-perturbative beta functions of the exact renormalisation group equation. The resulting f(R) model has some remarkable properties. It naturally exhibits an unstable de Sitter era in the ultraviolet (UV), dynamically connected to a stable de Sitter era in the IR, via a period of radiation and matter domination, thereby describing a non-singular universe. Read More

We study oscillons, extremely long-lived localized oscillations of a scalar field, with three different potentials: quartic, sine-Gordon model and in a new class of convex potentials. We use an absorbing boundary at the end of the lattice to remove emitted radiation. The energy and the frequency of an oscillon evolve in time and are well fitted by a constant component and a decaying, radiative part obeying a power law as a function time. Read More

We study quantum corrections to Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology with a scalar field under the assumption that the dynamics are subject to renormalisation group improvement. We use the Bianchi identity to relate the renormalisation group scale to the scale factor and obtain the improved cosmological evolution equations. We study the solutions of these equations in the renormalisation group fixed point regime, obtaining the time-dependence of the scalar field strength and the Hubble parameter in specific models with monomial and trinomial quartic scalar field potentials. Read More

We construct complete sets of (open and closed string) covariant coherent state and mass eigenstate vertex operators in bosonic string theory. This construction can be used to study the evolution of fundamental cosmic strings as predicted by string theory, and is expected to serve as a self-contained prototype toy model on which realistic cosmic superstring vertex operators can be based on. It is also expected to be useful for other applications where massive string vertex operators are of interest. Read More

We derive the geodesic equation of motion in the presence of weak gravitational fields produced by relativistic sources such as cosmic strings, decomposed into scalar, vector and tensor parts. We find that the vector (gravito-magnetic) force is an important contributor, and for non-relativistic particles we recover the well-known result for the impulse from a moving straight string. Our results can be straightforwardly incorporated into N-body simulations to allow for the presence of cosmic defects or other sources of weak gravitational fields. Read More

A class of well-motivated models of inflation end by producing cosmic strings. The current status of efforts to calculate and observe the signals from such models are outlined, with a particular emphasis on cosmic strings, and on the Cosmic Microwave Background signal. Read More

We study quantum modifications to cosmology in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with and without scalar fields by taking the renormalisation group running of gravitational and matter couplings into account. We exploit the Bianchi identity to relate the renormalisation group scale with scale factor and derive the improved cosmological evolution equations. We find two types of cosmological fixed points where the renormalisation group scale either freezes in, or continues to evolve with scale factor. Read More

The proposed CMBPol mission will be able to detect the imprint of topological defects on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provided the contribution is sufficiently strong. We quantify the detection threshold for cosmic strings and for textures, and analyse the satellite's ability to distinguish between these different types of defects. We also assess the level of danger of misidentification of a defect signature as from the wrong defect type or as an effect of primordial gravitational waves. Read More

We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and using DDF operators provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, lightcone gauge quantum states and covariant vertex operators. The naive construction leads to covariant vertex operators whose existence requires a lightlike compactification of spacetime. Read More

We present a significant improvement over our previous calculations of the cosmic string contribution to cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra, with particular focus on sub-WMAP angular scales. These smaller scales are relevant for the now-operational Planck satellite and additional sub-orbital CMB projects that have even finer resolutions. We employ larger Abelian Higgs string simulations than before and we additionally model and extrapolate the statistical measures from our simulations to smaller length scales. Read More

We revisit the dynamical equivalence between different representations of vacuum modified gravity models in view of Legendre transformations. The equivalence is discussed for both bulk and boundary space, by including in our analysis the relevant Gibbons-Hawking terms. In the f(R) case, the Legendre transformed action coincides with the usual Einstein frame one. Read More

We construct complete sets of (open and closed string) covariant coherent state and mass eigenstate vertex operators in bosonic string theory. By minimally extending the standard definition of coherent states so as to include the string theory requirements, we show that the naive construction of the the closed string coherent states requires the existence of a lightlike compactification of spacetime. When the null winding states in the underlying Hilbert space are projected out the resulting vertex operators satisfy the definition of a coherent state and have a classical interpretation. Read More

We provide an analytical expression for the trispectrum of the Cosmic
Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies induced by cosmic strings.
Our result is derived for the small angular scales under the assumption that
the temperature anisotropy is induced by the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. The
trispectrum is predicted to decay with a non-integer power-law exponent l^(-r)
with 6

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) bispectrum of the temperature anisotropies induced by a network of cosmic strings is derived for small angular scales, under the assumption that the principal cause of temperature fluctuations is the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins (GKS) effect. We provide analytical expressions for all isosceles triangle configurations in Fourier space. Their overall amplitude is amplified as the inverse cube of the angle and diverges for flat triangles. Read More

We investigate the spacetime-dependent condensation of the tachyon in effective field theories. Previous work identified singularities in the field which appear in finite time: infinite gradients at the kinks, and (in the eikonal approximation) caustics near local minima. By performing a perturbation analysis, and with numerical simulations, we demonstrate and explain key features of the condensation process: perturbations generically freeze, and minima develop singular second derivatives in finite time (caustics). Read More

Classical lattice simulations of the Abelian Higgs model are used to investigate small scale structure and loop distributions in cosmic string networks. Use of the field theory ensures that the small-scale physics is captured correctly. The results confirm analytic predictions of Polchinski & Rocha [1] for the two-point correlation function of the string tangent vector, with a power law from length scales of order the string core width up to horizon scale with evidence to suggest that the small scale structure builds up from small scales. Read More

While observations indicate that the predominant source of cosmic inhomogeneities are adiabatic perturbations, there are a variety of candidates to provide auxiliary trace effects, including inflation-generated primordial tensors and cosmic defects which both produce B-mode cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. We investigate whether future experiments may suffer confusion as to the true origin of such effects, focusing on the ability of Planck to distinguish tensors from cosmic strings, and show that there is no significant degeneracy. Read More

We calculate the equation of state of a gas of strings at high density in a large toroidal universe, and use it to determine the cosmological evolution of background metric and dilaton fields in the entire large radius Hagedorn regime, (ln S)^{1/d} << R << S^{1/d} (with S the total entropy). The pressure in this regime is not vanishing but of O(1), while the equation of state is proportional to volume, which makes our solutions significantly different from previously published approximate solutions. For example, we are able to calculate the duration of the high-density "Hagedorn" phase, which increases exponentially with increasing entropy, S. Read More

Oscillons, extremely long-lived localized oscillations of a scalar field, are shown to be produced by evolving domain wall networks in quartic theory in two spatial dimensions. We study the oscillons in frequency space using the classical spectral function at zero momentum, and obtain approximate information of their velocity distribution. In order to gain some insight onto the dilute oscillon 'gas' produced by the domain walls, we prepare a denser gas by filling the simulation volume with oscillons boosted in random directions. Read More

Perturbative estimates suggest that extended topological defects such as cosmic strings emit few particles, but numerical simulations of the fields from which they are constructed suggest the opposite. In this paper we study the decay of the two-dimensional prototype of strings, domain walls in a simple scalar theory, solving the underlying quantum field theory in the Hartree approximation. We conclude that including the quantum effects makes the picture clear: the defects do not directly transform into particles, but there is a non-perturbative channel to microscopic classical structures in the form of propagating waves and persistent localised oscillations, which operates over a huge separation of scales. Read More

We present the first ever calculation of cosmic microwave background CMB anisotropy power spectra from semilocal cosmic strings, obtained via simulations of a classical field theory. Semilocal strings are a type of non-topological defect arising in some models of inflation motivated by fundamental physics, and are thought to relax the constraints on the symmetry breaking scale as compared to models with (topological) cosmic strings. We derive constraints on the model parameters, including the string tension parameter mu, from fits to cosmological data, and find that in this regard BPS semilocal strings resemble global textures more than topological strings. Read More

The dynamic process of unstable D-branes decaying into stable ones with one dimension lower can be described by a tachyon field with a Dirac-Born-Infeld effective action. In this paper we investigate the fluctuation modes of the tachyon field around a two-parameter family of static solutions representing an array of brane-antibrane pairs. Besides a pair of zero modes associated with the parameters of the solution, and instabilities associated with annihilation of the brane-antibrane pairs, we find states corresponding to excitations of the tachyon field around the brane and in the bulk. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}University of Sussex,

^{2}University of Nottingham,

^{3}University of Sussex

We consider the cosmological role of the scalar fields generated by the compactification of 11-dimensional Einstein gravity on a 7D elliptic twisted torus, which has the attractive features of giving rise to a positive semi-definite potential, and partially fixing the moduli. This compactification is therefore relevant for low energy M-theory, 11D supergravity. We find that slow-roll inflation with the moduli is not possible, but that there is a novel scaling solution in Friedmann cosmologies in which the massive moduli oscillate but maintain a constant energy density relative to the background barotropic fluid. Read More

A class of Modified Gravity Models, consisting of inverse powers of linear combination of quadratic curvature invariants, is studied in the full parameter space. We find that singularity-free cosmological solutions, interpolating between an almost-Friedmann universe at Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and an accelerating universe today, exist only in a restricted parameter space. Furthermore, for all parameters of the models, there is an unstable scalar mode of the gravitational field. Read More