# Mark Braverman

## Contact Details

NameMark Braverman |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesComputer Science - Computational Complexity (15) Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (11) Mathematics - Dynamical Systems (9) Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory (8) Computer Science - Information Theory (6) Mathematics - Information Theory (6) Mathematics - Probability (2) Mathematics - Complex Variables (2) Mathematics - Logic (2) Mathematics - Numerical Analysis (2) Computer Science - Numerical Analysis (1) Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics (1) Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science (1) Mathematics - Classical Analysis and ODEs (1) Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (1) Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics (1) Statistics - Machine Learning (1) Computer Science - Learning (1) Quantum Physics (1) Nonlinear Sciences - Adaptation and Self-Organizing Systems (1) Mathematics - Functional Analysis (1) Mathematics - Geometric Topology (1) |

## Publications Authored By Mark Braverman

We consider the following communication problem: Alice and Bob each have some valuation functions $v_1(\cdot)$ and $v_2(\cdot)$ over subsets of $m$ items, and their goal is to partition the items into $S, \bar{S}$ in a way that maximizes the welfare, $v_1(S) + v_2(\bar{S})$. We study both the allocation problem, which asks for a welfare-maximizing partition and the decision problem, which asks whether or not there exists a partition guaranteeing certain welfare, for binary XOS valuations. For interactive protocols with $poly(m)$ communication, a tight 3/4-approximation is known for both [Fei06,DS06]. Read More

While it is known that using network coding can significantly improve the throughput of directed networks, it is a notorious open problem whether coding yields any advantage over the multicommodity flow (MCF) rate in undirected networks. It was conjectured by Li and Li (2004) that the answer is "no". In this paper we show that even a small advantage over MCF can be amplified to yield a near-maximum possible gap. Read More

We consider the problem of finding the $k^{th}$ highest element in a totally ordered set of $n$ elements (select), and partitioning a totally ordered set into the top $k$ and bottom $n-k$ elements (partition) using pairwise comparisons. Motivated by settings like peer grading or crowdsourcing, where multiple rounds of interaction are costly and queried comparisons may be inconsistent with the ground truth, we evaluate algorithms based both on their total runtime and the number of interactive rounds in three comparison models: noiseless (where the comparisons are correct), erasure (where comparisons are erased with probability $1-\gamma$), and noisy (where comparisons are correct with probability $1/2+\gamma/2$ and incorrect otherwise). We provide numerous matching upper and lower bounds in all three models. Read More

We study the communication complexity of combinatorial auctions via interpolation mechanisms that interpolate between non-truthful and truthful protocols. Specifically, an interpolation mechanism has two phases. In the first phase, the bidders participate in some non-truthful protocol whose output is itself a truthful protocol. Read More

In this note we obtain tight bounds on the space-complexity of computing the ergodic measure of a low-dimensional discrete-time dynamical system affected by Gaussian noise. If the scale of the noise is $\varepsilon$, and the function describing the evolution of the system is not by itself a source of computational complexity, then the density function of the ergodic measure can be approximated within precision $\delta$ in space polynomial in $\log 1/\varepsilon+\log\log 1/\delta$. We also show that this bound is tight up to polynomial factors. Read More

We consider the question of interactive communication, in which two remote parties perform a computation while their communication channel is (adversarially) noisy. We extend here the discussion into a more general and stronger class of noise, namely, we allow the channel to perform insertions and deletions of symbols. These types of errors may bring the parties "out of sync", so that there is no consensus regarding the current round of the protocol. Read More

We study the tradeoff between the statistical error and communication cost of distributed statistical estimation problems in high dimensions. In the distributed sparse Gaussian mean estimation problem, each of the $m$ machines receives $n$ data points from a $d$-dimensional Gaussian distribution with unknown mean $\theta$ which is promised to be $k$-sparse. The machines communicate by message passing and aim to estimate the mean $\theta$. Read More

We prove a near optimal round-communication tradeoff for the two-party quantum communication complexity of disjointness. For protocols with $r$ rounds, we prove a lower bound of $\tilde{\Omega}(n/r + r)$ on the communication required for computing disjointness of input size $n$, which is optimal up to logarithmic factors. The previous best lower bound was $\Omega(n/r^2 + r)$ due to Jain, Radhakrishnan and Sen [JRS03]. Read More

We show that, assuming the (deterministic) Exponential Time Hypothesis, distinguishing between a graph with an induced $k$-clique and a graph in which all k-subgraphs have density at most $1-\epsilon$, requires $n^{\tilde \Omega(log n)}$ time. Our result essentially matches the quasi-polynomial algorithms of Feige and Seltser [FS97] and Barman [Bar15] for this problem, and is the first one to rule out an additive PTAS for Densest $k$-Subgraph. We further strengthen this result by showing that our lower bound continues to hold when, in the soundness case, even subgraphs smaller by a near-polynomial factor ($k' = k 2^{-\tilde \Omega (log n)}$) are assumed to be at most ($1-\epsilon$)-dense. Read More

The information complexity of a function $f$ is the minimum amount of information Alice and Bob need to exchange to compute the function $f$. In this paper we provide an algorithm for approximating the information complexity of an arbitrary function $f$ to within any additive error $\alpha > 0$, thus resolving an open question as to whether information complexity is computable. In the process, we give the first explicit upper bound on the rate of convergence of the information complexity of $f$ when restricted to $b$-bit protocols to the (unrestricted) information complexity of $f$. Read More

We show that $T$ rounds of interaction over the binary symmetric channel $BSC_{1/2-\epsilon}$ with feedback can be simulated with $O(\epsilon^2 T)$ rounds of interaction over a noiseless channel. We also introduce a more general "energy cost" model of interaction over a noisy channel. We show energy cost to be equivalent to external information complexity, which implies that our simulation results are unlikely to carry over to energy complexity. Read More

We investigate the problem of a principal looking to contract an expert to provide a probability forecast for a categorical event. We assume all experts have a common public prior on the event's probability, but can form more accurate opinions by engaging in research. Various experts' research costs are unknown to the principal. Read More

We investigate computational and mechanism design aspects of scarce resource allocation, where the primary rationing mechanism is through waiting times. Specifically we consider allocating medical treatments to a population of patients. Each patient needs exactly one treatment, and can choose from $k$ hospitals. Read More

In a multiparty message-passing model of communication, there are $k$ players. Each player has a private input, and they communicate by sending messages to one another over private channels. While this model has been used extensively in distributed computing and in multiparty computation, lower bounds on communication complexity in this model and related models have been somewhat scarce. Read More

We investigate the problem of determining a set S of k indistinguishable integers in the range [1,n]. The algorithm is allowed to query an integer $q\in [1,n]$, and receive a response comparing this integer to an integer randomly chosen from S. The algorithm has no control over which element of S the query q is compared to. Read More

We study convergence of the following discrete-time non-linear dynamical system: n agents are located in R^d and at every time step, each moves synchronously to the average location of all agents within a unit distance of it. This popularly studied system was introduced by Krause to model the dynamics of opinion formation and is often referred to as the Hegselmann-Krause model. We prove the first polynomial time bound for the convergence of this system in arbitrary dimensions. Read More

Motivated by applications to word-of-mouth advertising, we consider a game-theoretic scenario in which competing advertisers want to target initial adopters in a social network. Each advertiser wishes to maximize the resulting cascade of influence, modeled by a general network diffusion process. However, competition between products may adversely impact the rate of adoption for any given firm. Read More

A central problem in e-commerce is determining overlapping communities among individuals or objects in the absence of external identification or tagging. We address this problem by introducing a framework that captures the notion of communities or clusters determined by the relative affinities among their members. To this end we define what we call an affinity system, which is a set of elements, each with a vector characterizing its preference for all other elements in the set. Read More

Computation plays a key role in predicting and analyzing natural phenomena. There are two fundamental barriers to our ability to computationally understand the long-term behavior of a dynamical system that describes a natural process. The first one is unaccounted-for errors, which may make the system unpredictable beyond a very limited time horizon. Read More

This paper provides the first general technique for proving information lower bounds on two-party unbounded-rounds communication problems. We show that the discrepancy lower bound, which applies to randomized communication complexity, also applies to information complexity. More precisely, if the discrepancy of a two-party function $f$ with respect to a distribution $\mu$ is $Disc_\mu f$, then any two party randomized protocol computing $f$ must reveal at least $\Omega(\log (1/Disc_\mu f))$ bits of information to the participants. Read More

We show how to efficiently simulate the sending of a message M to a receiver who has partial information about the message, so that the expected number of bits communicated in the simulation is close to the amount of additional information that the message reveals to the receiver. This is a generalization and strengthening of the Slepian-Wolf theorem, which shows how to carry out such a simulation with low amortized communication in the case that M is a deterministic function of X. A caveat is that our simulation is interactive. Read More

In recent work of Hazan and Krauthgamer (SICOMP 2011), it was shown that finding an $\eps$-approximate Nash equilibrium with near-optimal value in a two-player game is as hard as finding a hidden clique of size $O(\log n)$ in the random graph $G(n,1/2)$. This raises the question of whether a similar intractability holds for approximate Nash equilibrium without such constraints. We give evidence that the constraint of near-optimal value makes the problem distinctly harder: a simple algorithm finds an optimal 1/2-approximate equilibrium, while finding strictly better than 1/2-approximate equilibria is as hard as the Hidden Clique problem. Read More

We prove that $K_G<\frac{\pi}{2\log(1+\sqrt{2})}$, where $K_G$ is the Grothendieck constant. Read More

It is well known that a stable matching in a many-to-one matching market with couples need not exist. We introduce a new matching algorithm for such markets and show that for a general class of large random markets the algorithm will find a stable matching with high probability. In particular we allow the number of couples to grow at a near-linear rate. Read More

We demonstrate that the question whether or not a given postcritically finite topological ramified covering map of the 2-sphere is Thurston equivalent to a rational map is algorithmically decidable. Read More

Brolin-Lyubich measure $\lambda_R$ of a rational endomorphism $R:\riem\to\riem$ with $\deg R\geq 2$ is the unique invariant measure of maximal entropy $h_{\lambda_R}=h_{\text{top}}(R)=\log d$. Its support is the Julia set $J(R)$. We demonstrate that $\lambda_R$ is always computable by an algorithm which has access to coefficients of $R$, even when $J(R)$ is not computable. Read More

Motivated by the fact that in many game-theoretic settings, the game analyzed is only an approximation to the game being played, in this work we analyze equilibrium computation for the broad and natural class of bimatrix games that are stable to perturbations. We specifically focus on games with the property that small changes in the payoff matrices do not cause the Nash equilibria of the game to fluctuate wildly. For such games we show how one can compute approximate Nash equilibria more efficiently than the general result of Lipton et al. Read More

We introduce the Tree Evaluation Problem, show that it is in logDCFL (and hence in P), and study its branching program complexity in the hope of eventually proving a superlogarithmic space lower bound. The input to the problem is a rooted, balanced d-ary tree of height h, whose internal nodes are labeled with d-ary functions on [k] = {1,.. Read More

This paper studies problems of inferring order given noisy information. In these problems there is an unknown order (permutation) $\pi$ on $n$ elements denoted by $1,.. Read More

In this paper we examine the rate of convergence of one of the standard algorithms for emulating exit probabilities of Brownian motion, the Walk on Spheres (WoS) algorithm. We obtain the complete characterization of the rate of convergence of WoS in terms of the local geomnetry of a domain. Read More

We point out a simple poly-time log-space routing algorithm in ad hoc networks with guaranteed delivery using universal exploration sequences. Read More

In this paper we study noisy sorting without re-sampling. In this problem there is an unknown order $a_{\pi(1)} < .. Read More

In this paper we settle most of the open questions on algorithmic computability of Julia sets. In particular, we present an algorithm for constructing quadratics whose Julia sets are uncomputable. We also show that a filled Julia set of a polynomial is always computable. Read More

In this paper, we study a game called ``Mafia,'' in which different players have different types of information, communication and functionality. The players communicate and function in a way that resembles some real-life situations. We consider two types of operations. Read More

We completely characterize the conformal radii of Siegel disks in the family $$P_\theta(z)=e^{2\pi i\theta}z+z^2,$$ corresponding to {\bf computable} parameters $\theta$. As a consequence, we constructively produce quadratic polynomials with {\bf non-computable} Julia sets. Read More

In this note we give answers to questions posed to us by J.Milnor and M.Shub, which shed further light on the structure of non-computable Julia sets. Read More

We give a detailed treatment of the ``bit-model'' of computability and complexity of real functions and subsets of R^n, and argue that this is a good way to formalize many problems of scientific computation. In the introduction we also discuss the alternative Blum-Shub-Smale model. In the final section we discuss the issue of whether physical systems could defeat the Church-Turing Thesis. Read More

In this paper we consider the computational complexity of uniformizing a domain with a given computable boundary. We give nontrivial upper and lower bounds in two settings: when the approximation of boundary is given either as a list of pixels, or by a Turing Machine. Read More

In this paper we prove that parabolic Julia sets of rational functions are locally computable in polynomial time. Read More

We develop a notion of computability and complexity of functions over the reals, which seems to be very natural when one tries to determine just how "difficult" a certain function is. This notion can be viewed as an extension of both BSS computability [Blum, Cucker, Shub, Smale 1998], and bit computability in the tradition of computable analysis [Weihrauch 2000] as it relies on the latter but allows some discontinuities and multiple values. Read More

We show that under the definition of computability which is natural from the point of view of applications, there exist non-computable quadratic Julia sets. Read More