Mark A. Kasevich

Mark A. Kasevich
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Mark A. Kasevich
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Physics - Atomic Physics (17)
 
Quantum Physics (17)
 
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (7)
 
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (7)
 
High Energy Physics - Theory (6)
 
Physics - Optics (5)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)
 
Astrophysics (3)
 
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (2)
 
High Energy Physics - Experiment (1)
 
Physics - Accelerator Physics (1)
 
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1)

Publications Authored By Mark A. Kasevich

Quantum enhanced microscopy allows for measurements at high sensitivities and low damage. Recently, multi-pass microscopy was introduced as such a scheme, exploiting the sensitivity enhancement offered by multiple photon-sample interactions. Here we theoretically and numerically compare three different contrast enhancing techniques that are all based on self-imaging cavities: CW cavity enhanced microscopy, cavity ring-down microscopy and multi-pass microscopy. Read More

In their correspondence [arXiv:1610.07633] Drummond and Brand criticize our work [Nature Physics 12, 451-454 (2016) http://dx.doi. Read More

Feynman once asked physicists to build better electron microscopes to be able to watch biology at work. While electron microscopes can now provide atomic resolution, electron beam induced specimen damage precludes high resolution imaging of sensitive materials, such as single proteins or polymers. Here, we use simulations to show that an electron microscope based on a simplemulti-pass measurement protocol enables imaging of single proteins at reduced damage and at nanometer resolution, without averaging structures overmultiple images. Read More

We present a single-source dual atom interferometer and utilize it as a gradiometer for precise gravitational measurements. The macroscopic separation between interfering atomic wave packets (as large as 16 cm) reveals the interplay of recoil effects and gravitational curvature from a nearby Pb source mass. The gradiometer baseline is set by the laser wavelength and pulse timings, which can be measured to high precision. Read More

We describe an atom interferometric gravitational wave detector design that can operate in a resonant mode for increased sensitivity. By oscillating the positions of the atomic wavepackets, this resonant detection mode allows for coherently enhanced, narrow-band sensitivity at target frequencies. The proposed detector is flexible and can be rapidly switched between broadband and narrow-band detection modes. Read More

One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This 'quantum weirdness' could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Read More

The emission times of laser-triggered electrons from a sharp tungsten tip are directly characterized under ultrafast, near-infrared laser excitation at Keldysh parameters $6.6< \gamma < 19.1$. Read More

We propose a scheme based on a heterodyne laser link that allows for long baseline gravitational wave detection using atom interferometry. While the baseline length in previous atom-based proposals is constrained by the need for a reference laser to remain collimated as it propagates between two satellites, here we circumvent this requirement by employing a strong local oscillator laser near each atom ensemble that is phase locked to the reference laser beam. Longer baselines offer a number of potential advantages, including enhanced sensitivity, simplified atom optics, and reduced atomic source flux requirements. Read More

The single-particle density is the most basic quantity that can be calculated from a given many-body wave function. It provides the probability to find a particle at a given position when the average over many realizations of an experiment is taken. However, the outcome of single experimental shots of ultracold atom experiments is determined by the $N$-particle probability density. Read More

Using a matter wave lens and a long time-of-flight, we cool an ensemble of Rb-87 atoms in two dimensions to an effective temperature of less than $50^{+50}_{-30}$~pK. A short pulse of red-detuned light generates an optical dipole force that collimates the ensemble. We also report a three-dimensional magnetic lens that substantially reduces the chemical potential of evaporatively cooled ensembles with high atom number. Read More

Light field microscopy methods together with three dimensional (3D) deconvolution can be used to obtain single shot 3D images of atomic clouds. We demonstrate the method using a test setup which extracts three dimensional images from a fluorescent $^{87}$Rb atomic vapor. Read More

We demonstrate a many-atom-cavity system with a high-finesse dual-wavelength standing wave cavity in which all participating rubidium atoms are nearly identically coupled to a 780-nm cavity mode. This homogeneous coupling is enforced by a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by the field of a 1560-nm cavity mode. Read More

We present a method for determining the phase and contrast of a single shot of an atom interferometer. The application of a phase shear across the atom ensemble yields a spatially varying fringe pattern at each output port, which can be imaged directly. This method is broadly relevant to atom interferometric precision measurement, as we demonstrate in a 10 m Rb-87 atomic fountain by implementing an atom interferometric gyrocompass with 10 millidegree precision. Read More

We show that light-pulse atom interferometry with atomic point sources and spatially resolved detection enables multi-axis (two rotation, one acceleration) precision inertial sensing at long interrogation times. Using this method, we demonstrate a light-pulse atom interferometer for Rb-87 with 1.4 cm peak wavepacket separation and a duration of 2T = 2. Read More

Laser frequency noise is a dominant noise background for the detection of gravitational waves using long-baseline optical interferometry. Amelioration of this noise requires near simultaneous strain measurements on more than one interferometer baseline, necessitating, for example, more than two satellites for a space-based detector, or two interferometer arms for a ground-based detector. We describe a new detection strategy based on recent advances in optical atomic clocks and atom interferometry which can operate at long-baselines and which is immune to laser frequency noise. Read More

Electron emission from hafnium carbide (HfC) field emission tips induced by a sub-10 fs, 150 MHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser is studied. Two-photon emission is observed at low power with a moderate electric bias field applied to the tips. As the bias field and/or laser power is increased, the average current becomes dominated by thermally-enhanced field emission due to laser heating: both the low thermal conductivity of HfC and the laser's high repetition rate can lead to a temperature rise of several hundred Kelvin at the tip apex. Read More

Electrons travelling in free space have allowed to explore fundamental physics like the wave nature of matter, the Aharonov-Bohm and the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect. Complementarily, the precise control over the external degrees of freedom of electrons has proven pivotal for wholly new types of experiments such as high precision measurements of the electron's mass and magnetic moment in Penning traps. Interestingly, the confinement of electrons in the purely electric field of an alternating quadrupole has rarely been considered. Read More

We propose an atom interferometer gravitational wave detector in low Earth orbit (AGIS-LEO). Gravitational waves can be observed by comparing a pair of atom interferometers separated over a ~30 km baseline. In the proposed configuration, one or three of these interferometer pairs are simultaneously operated through the use of two or three satellites in formation flight. Read More

We provide an analytical description of the dynamics of an atom in an optical lattice using the method of perturbative adiabatic expansion. A precise understanding of the lattice-atom interaction is essential to taking full advantage of the promising applications that optical lattices offer in the field of atom interferometry. One such application is the implementation of Large Momentum Transfer (LMT) beam splitters that can potentially provide multiple order of magnitude increases in momentum space separations over current technology. Read More

We use a quantum nondemolition measurement to probe the collective pseudospin of an atomic ensemble in a high-finesse optical cavity. We analyze the backaction antisqueezing produced by the measurement process to show that our protocol could create conditional spin squeezing in the atomic ensemble. Read More

The light-pulse atom interferometry method is reviewed. Applications of the method to inertial navigation and tests of the Equivalence Principle are discussed. Read More

We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10 m atom interferometer presently under construction. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The signal scales with the distance between the interferometers, which can be large since only the light travels over this distance, not the atoms. Read More

Atom interferometry is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. We begin by explaining the non-relativistic calculation of the phase shift in an atom interferometer and deriving its range of validity. From this we develop a method for calculating the phase shift in general relativity. Read More

We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford $10 \text{m}$ atom interferometer presently under construction. The terrestrial experiment can operate with strain sensitivity $ \sim \frac{10^{-19}}{\sqrt{\text{Hz}}}$ in the 1 Hz - 10 Hz band, inaccessible to LIGO, and can detect gravitational waves from solar mass binaries out to megaparsec distances. The satellite experiment probes the same frequency spectrum as LISA with better strain sensitivity $ \sim \frac{10^{-20}}{\sqrt{\text{Hz}}}$. Read More

We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10^{-28}e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10^{-28}e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds. Read More

The unprecedented precision of atom interferometry will soon lead to laboratory tests of general relativity to levels that will rival or exceed those reached by astrophysical observations. We propose such an experiment that will initially test the equivalence principle to 1 part in 10^15 (300 times better than the current limit), and 1 part in 10^17 in the future. It will also probe general relativistic effects--such as the non-linear three-graviton coupling, the gravity of an atom's kinetic energy, and the falling of light--to several decimals. Read More

Coherence properties of Bose-Einstein condensates offer the potential for improved interferometric phase contrast. However, decoherence effects due to the mean-field interaction shorten the coherence time, thus limiting potential sensitivity. In this work, we demonstrate increased coherence times with number squeezed states in an optical lattice using the decay of Bloch oscillations to probe the coherence time. Read More

We present an experimental and numerical study of electron emission from a sharp tungsten tip triggered by sub-8 femtosecond low power laser pulses. This process is non-linear in the laser electric field, and the non-linearity can be tuned via the DC voltage applied to the tip. Numerical simulations of this system show that electron emission takes place within less than one optical period of the exciting laser pulse, so that an 8 fsec 800 nm laser pulse is capable of producing a single electron pulse of less than 1 fsec duration. Read More

A novel mm-scale Ioffe-Pritchard trap is used to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation in 7Li. The trap employs free-standing copper coils integrated onto a direct-bond copper surface electrode structure. The trap achieves a radial magnetic gradient of 420 G/cm, an axial oscillation frequency of 50 Hz and a trap depth of 66 G with a 100 A drive current and 7 W total power dissipation. Read More

We report a source of free electron pulses based on a field emission tip irradiated by a low-power femtosecond laser. The electron pulses are shorter than 70 fs and originate from a tip with an emission area diameter down to 2 nm. Depending on the operating regime we observe either photofield emission or optical field emission with up to 200 electrons per pulse at a repetition rate of 1 GHz. Read More

High-order inertial phase shifts are calculated for time-domain atom interferometers. We obtain closed-form analytic expressions for these shifts in accelerometer, gyroscope, optical clock and photon recoil measurement configurations. Our analysis includes Coriolis, centrifugal, gravitational, and gravity gradient-induced forces. Read More