Mario Nonino
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Mario Nonino

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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (27)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (6)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)
Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Mario Nonino

Since galaxy clusters sit at the high-end of the mass function, the number of galaxy clusters both massive and concentrated enough to yield particularly large Einstein radii poses useful constraints on cosmological and structure formation models. To date, less than a handful of clusters are known to have Einstein radii exceeding $\sim40$" (for a source at $z_{s}\simeq2$, nominally). Here, we report an addition to that list of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) selected cluster, PLCK G287. Read More

We report Chandra X-ray observations and optical weak-lensing measurements from Subaru/Suprime-Cam images of the double galaxy cluster Abell 2465 (z=0.245). The X-ray brightness data are fit to a beta-model to obtain the radial gas density profiles of the northeast (NE) and southwest (SW) sub-components, which are seen to differ in structure. Read More

We reconstruct the radial profile of the projected gravitational potential of the galaxy cluster MACS-J1206 from 592 spectroscopic measurements of velocities of cluster members. For doing so, we use a method we have developed recently based on the Richardson-Lucy deprojection algorithm and an inversion of the spherically-symmetric Jeans equation. We find that, within the uncertainties, our reconstruction agrees very well with a potential reconstruction from weak and strong gravitational lensing as well as with a potential obtained from X-ray measurements. Read More

We present a weak-lensing analysis of the merging {\em Frontier Fields} (FF) cluster Abell~2744 using new Subaru/Suprime-Cam imaging. The wide-field lensing mass distribution reveals this cluster is comprised of four distinct substructures. Simultaneously modeling the two-dimensional reduced shear field using a combination of a Navarro--Frenk--White (NFW) model for the main core and truncated NFW models for the subhalos, we determine their masses and locations. Read More

We investigated the absolute age of the Galactic globular cluster M71 (NGC 6838) by using optical ground-based images (u',g',r',i',z') collected with the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT). We performed a robust selection of field and cluster stars by applying a new method based on the 3D (r',u'-g',g'-r') Color-Color-Magnitude-Diagram. The comparison between the Color-Magnitude-Diagram of the candidate cluster stars and a new set of isochrones, at the locus of the Main Sequence Turn Off (MSTO), suggests an absolute age of 12+/-2 Gyr. Read More

We perform a 3D multi-probe analysis of the rich galaxy cluster A1689 by combining improved weak-lensing data from new BVRi'z' Subaru/Suprime-Cam observations with strong-lensing, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) data sets. We reconstruct the projected matter distribution from a joint weak-lensing analysis of 2D shear and azimuthally integrated magnification constraints, the combination of which allows us to break the mass-sheet degeneracy. The resulting mass distribution reveals elongation with axis ratio ~0. Read More

We present results from a comprehensive lensing analysis in HST data, of the complete CLASH cluster sample. We identify new multiple-images previously undiscovered allowing improved or first constraints on the cluster inner mass distributions and profiles. We combine these strong-lensing constraints with weak-lensing shape measurements within the HST FOV to jointly constrain the mass distributions. Read More


We investigate the environmental dependence of the mass-metallicty (MZ) relation and it's connection to galaxy stellar structures and morphologies. In our studies, we analyze galaxies in massive clusters at z~0.4 from the CLASH (HST) and CLASH-VLT surveys and measure their gas metallicities, star-formation rates, stellar structures and morphologies. Read More

We present profiles of temperature (Tx), gas mass, and hydrostatic mass estimated from new and archival X-ray observations of CLASH clusters. We compare measurements derived from XMM and Chandra observations with one another and compare both to gravitational lensing mass profiles derived with CLASH HST and ground-based lensing data. Radial profiles of Chandra and XMM electron density and enclosed gas mass are nearly identical, indicating that differences in hydrostatic masses inferred from X-ray observations arise from differences in Tx measurements. Read More

A pressureless scenario for the Dark Matter (DM) fluid is a widely adopted hypothesis, despite the absence of a direct observational evidence. According to general relativity, the total mass-energy content of a system shapes the gravitational potential well, but different test particles perceive this potential in different ways depending on their properties. Cluster galaxy velocities, being $\ll$c, depend solely on the gravitational potential, whereas photon trajectories reflect the contributions from the gravitational potential plus a relativistic-pressure term that depends on the cluster mass. Read More

We build a sample of 298 spectroscopically-confirmed galaxies at redshift z~2, selected in the z-band from the GOODS-MUSIC catalog. By exploiting the rest frame 8 um luminosity as a proxy of the star formation rate (SFR) we check the accuracy of the standard SED-fitting technique, finding it is not accurate enough to provide reliable estimates of the galaxy physical parameters. We then develop a new SED-fitting method that includes the IR luminosity as a prior and a generalized Calzetti law with a variable RV . Read More

In this work we analyze the mass distribution of MACSJ1206.2-0847, especially focusing on the halo properties of its cluster members. The cluster appears relaxed in its X-ray emission, but has significant amounts of intracluster light which is not centrally concentrated, suggesting that galaxy-scale interactions are still ongoing despite the overall relaxed state. Read More

We show the effectiveness of strong lensing in the characterisation of Lyman continuum emission from faint L<~0.1L* star-forming galaxies at redshift >~ 3. Past observations of L>~L* galaxies at redshift >~3 have provided upper limits of the average escape fraction of ionising radiation of fesc~5%. Read More

The early Universe at redshift z\sim6-11 marks the reionization of the intergalactic medium, following the formation of the first generation of stars. However, those young galaxies at a cosmic age of \lesssim 500 million years (Myr, at z \gtrsim 10) remain largely unexplored as they are at or beyond the sensitivity limits of current large telescopes. Gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters enables the detection of high-redshift galaxies that are fainter than what otherwise could be found in the deepest images of the sky. Read More

We use the spatially-resolved, multi-band photometry in the GOODS South field acquired by the CANDELS project to constrain the nature of candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters at redshift z~3.7 identified using ultra-deep imaging below the Lyman limit (1-sigma limit of ~30 AB in a 2" diameter aperture). In 18 candidates, out of a sample of 19 with flux detected at >3-sigma level, the light centroid of the candidate LyC emission is offset from that of the LBG by up to 1. Read More

Using the deepest (370 ksec) Chandra observation of a high-redshift galaxy cluster, we perform a detailed characterization of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) of WARPJ1415.1+3612 at z=1.03. Read More

Extensive surveys of galaxy clusters motivate us to assess the likelihood of cluster-cluster lensing (CCL), namely, gravitational-lensing of a background cluster by a foreground cluster. We briefly describe the characteristics of CCLs in optical, X-ray and SZ measurements, and calculate their predicted numbers for $\Lambda$CDM parameters and a viable range of cluster mass functions and their uncertainties. The predicted number of CCLs in the strong-lensing regime varies from several ($<10$) to as high as a few dozen, depending mainly on whether lensing triaxiality bias is accounted for, through the c-M relation. Read More

The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) is a 524-orbit multi-cycle treasury program to use the gravitational lensing properties of 25 galaxy clusters to accurately constrain their mass distributions. The survey, described in detail in this paper, will definitively establish the degree of concentration of dark matter in the cluster cores, a key prediction of CDM. The CLASH cluster sample is larger and less biased than current samples of space-based imaging studies of clusters to similar depth, as we have minimized lensing-based selection that favors systems with overly dense cores. Read More

Affiliations: 1UMass Amherst, 2INAF-Trieste Observ, 3UMass Amherst, 4UMass Amherst, 5NOAO, 6UMass Amherst, 7INAF-Padova Observ, 8UMass Amherst, 9STScI, 10INAF-Trieste Observ, 11Bologna Univ, 12MPE Garching, 13INAF-Bologna Observ, 14UMass Amherst

We report the discovery of large amounts of cold (T ~ 10^4 K), chemically young gas in an overdensity of galaxies at redshift z ~ 1.6 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey southern field (GOODS-S). The gas is identified thanks to the ultra-strong Mg II absorption features it imprints in the rest-frame UV spectra of galaxies in the background of the overdensity. Read More

We report on the discovery of a very distant galaxy cluster serendipitously detected in the archive of the XMM-Newton mission, within the scope of the XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project (XDCP). XMMUJ0044.0-2033 was detected at a high significance level (5sigma) as a compact, but significantly extended source in the X-ray data, with a soft-band flux f(r<40")=(1. Read More

Affiliations: 1GEPI, 2GEPI, ZAH, 3GEPI, 4GEPI, MPA, 5GEPI, ZAH, 6GEPI, 7INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, 8GEPI, 9GEPI, 10GEPI, 11Cassiopee, 12INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, 13INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico de Arcetri, 14Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, 15INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova

Some insight on the first generation of stars can be obtained from the chemical composition of their direct descendants, extremely metal-poor stars (EMP), with metallicity less than or equal to 1/1000 of the solar metalllicity. Such stars are exceedingly rare, the most successful surveys, for this purpose, have so far provided only about 100 stars with 1/1000 the solar metallicity and 4 stars with about 1/10000 of the solar metallicity. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has the potential to provide a large number of candidates of extremely low metallicity. Read More

We use the deepest and the most comprehensive photometric data currently available for GOODS-South galaxies to measure their photometric redshifts. The photometry includes VLT/VIMOS (U-band), HST/ACS (F435W, F606W, F775W, and F850LP bands), VLT/ISAAC (J-, H-, and Ks-bands), and four Spitzer/IRAC channels (3.6, 4. Read More

Category: Astrophysics

We measure the luminosity function of QSOs in the redshift range 3.5 < z < 5.2 for the absolute magnitude interval -21 < M_{145} < -28. Read More