Marco Tomamichel

Marco Tomamichel
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Marco Tomamichel

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Quantum Physics (44)
Mathematics - Information Theory (21)
Computer Science - Information Theory (21)
Mathematical Physics (19)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (19)
Mathematics - Operator Algebras (2)
Mathematics - Probability (1)

Publications Authored By Marco Tomamichel

We provide a sphere-packing lower bound for the optimal error probability in finite blocklengths when coding over a symmetric classical-quantum channel. Our result shows that the pre-factor can be significantly improved from the order of the subexponential to the polynomial. The established pre-factor is essentially optimal because it matches the best known random coding upper bound in the classical case. Read More

We analyse families of codes for classical data transmission over quantum channels that have both a vanishing probability of error and a code rate approaching capacity as the code length increases. To characterise the fundamental tradeoff between decoding error, code rate and code length for such codes we introduce a quantum generalisation of the moderate deviation analysis proposed by Altug and Wagner as well as Polyanskiy and Verdu. We derive such a tradeoff for classical-quantum (as well as image-additive) channels in terms of the channel capacity and the channel dispersion, giving further evidence that the latter quantity characterises the necessary backoff from capacity when transmitting finite blocks of classical data. Read More

One of the main figures of merit for quantum memories and quantum communication devices is their quantum capacity. It has been studied for arbitrary kinds of quantum channels, but its practical estimation has so far been limited to devices that implement independent and identically distributed (i.i. Read More

We show that recent multivariate generalizations of the Araki-Lieb-Thirring inequality and the Golden-Thompson inequality [Sutter, Berta, and Tomamichel, Comm. Math. Phys. Read More

Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most basic tasks in quantum information theory and has fundamental links with quantum communication and estimation theory. In this paper, we establish a formula that characterizes the decay rate of the minimal Type-II error probability in a quantum hypothesis test of two Gaussian states given a fixed constraint on the Type-I error probability. This formula is a direct function of the mean vectors and covariance matrices of the quantum Gaussian states in question. Read More

We prove several trace inequalities that extend the Golden-Thompson and the Araki-Lieb-Thirring inequality to arbitrarily many matrices. In particular, we strengthen Lieb's triple matrix inequality. As an example application of our four matrix extension of the Golden-Thompson inequality, we prove remainder terms for the monotonicity of the quantum relative entropy and strong sub-additivity of the von Neumann entropy in terms of recoverability. Read More

This paper establishes several converse bounds on the private transmission capabilities of a quantum channel. The main conceptual development builds firmly on the notion of a private state, which is a powerful, uniquely quantum method for simplifying the tripartite picture of privacy involving local operations and public classical communication to a bipartite picture of quantum privacy involving local operations and classical communication. This approach has previously led to some of the strongest upper bounds on secret key rates, including the squashed entanglement and the relative entropy of entanglement. Read More

Distance measures between quantum states like the trace distance and the fidelity can naturally be defined by optimizing a classical distance measure over all measurement statistics that can be obtained from the respective quantum states. In contrast, Petz showed that the measured relative entropy, defined as a maximization of the Kullback-Leibler divergence over projective measurement statistics, is strictly smaller than Umegaki's quantum relative entropy whenever the states do not commute. We extend this result in two ways. Read More

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle forms a fundamental element of quantum mechanics. Uncertainty relations in terms of entropies were initially proposed to deal with conceptual shortcomings in the original formulation of the uncertainty principle and, hence, play an important role in quantum foundations. More recently, entropic uncertainty relations have emerged as the central ingredient in the security analysis of almost all quantum cryptographic protocols, such as quantum key distribution and two-party quantum cryptography. Read More

We revisit the problem of asymmetric binary hypothesis testing against a composite alternative hypothesis. We introduce a general framework to treat such problems when the alternative hypothesis adheres to certain axioms. In this case we find the threshold rate, the optimal error and strong converse exponents (at large deviations from the threshold) and the second order asymptotics (at small deviations from the threshold). Read More

In the study of Markovian processes, one of the principal achievements is the equivalence between the $\Phi$-Sobolev inequalities and an exponential decrease of the $\Phi$-entropies. In this work, we develop a framework of Markov semigroups on matrix-valued functions and generalize the above equivalence to the exponential decay of matrix $\Phi$-entropies. This result also specializes to spectral gap inequalities and modified logarithmic Sobolev inequalities in the random matrix setting. Read More

The quantum relative entropy between two states satisfies a monotonicity property meaning that applying the same quantum channel to both states can never increase their relative entropy. It is known that this inequality is only tight when there is a "recovery map" that exactly reverses the effects of the quantum channel on both states. In this paper we strengthen this inequality by showing that the difference of relative entropies is bounded below by the measured relative entropy between the first state and a recovered state from its processed version. Read More

The goal of this work is to provide a largely self-contained, rigorous proof of the security of quantum key distribution in the finite key regime. For our analysis we consider an entanglement-based protocol based on BBM92 as well as a prepare-and-measure protocol based on BB84. Our presentation differs from previous work in that we are careful to model all the randomness that is used throughout the protocol and take care of all the transcripts of the communication over the public channel. Read More

The quantum capacity of a memoryless channel is often used as a single figure of merit to characterize its ability to transmit quantum information coherently. The capacity determines the maximal rate at which we can code reliably over asymptotically many uses of the channel. We argue that this asymptotic treatment is insufficient to the point of being irrelevant in the quantum setting where decoherence severely limits our ability to manipulate large quantum systems in the encoder and decoder. Read More

One of the predominant challenges when engineering future quantum information processors is that large quantum systems are notoriously hard to maintain and control accurately. It is therefore of immediate practical relevance to investigate quantum information processing with limited physical resources, for example to ask: How well can we perform information processing tasks if we only have access to a small quantum device? Can we beat fundamental limits imposed on information processing with classical resources? This book will introduce the reader to the mathematical framework required to answer such questions. A strong emphasis is given to information measures that are essential for the study of devices of finite size, including R\'enyi entropies and smooth entropies. Read More

Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Alice wishes to commit a secret bit to Bob. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob each split into several agents exchanging classical information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Read More

A variety of new measures of quantum Renyi mutual information and quantum Renyi conditional entropy have recently been proposed, and some of their mathematical properties explored. Here, we show that the Renyi mutual information attains operational meaning in the context of composite hypothesis testing, when the null hypothesis is a fixed bipartite state and the alternate hypothesis consists of all product states that share one marginal with the null hypothesis. This hypothesis testing problem occurs naturally in channel coding, where it corresponds to testing whether a state is the output of a given quantum channel or of a 'useless' channel whose output is decoupled from the environment. Read More

Audenaert and Datta recently introduced a two-parameter family of relative R\'{e}nyi entropies, known as the $\alpha$-$z$-relative R\'{e}nyi entropies. The definition of the $\alpha$-$z$-relative R\'{e}nyi entropy unifies all previously proposed definitions of the quantum R\'{e}nyi divergence of order $\alpha$ under a common framework. Here we will prove that the $\alpha$-$z$-relative R\'{e}nyi entropies are a proper generalization of the quantum relative entropy by computing the limit of the $\alpha$-$z$ divergence as $\alpha$ approaches one and $z$ is an arbitrary function of $\alpha$. Read More

We revisit a fundamental open problem in quantum information theory, namely whether it is possible to transmit quantum information at a rate exceeding the channel capacity if we allow for a non-vanishing probability of decoding error. Here we establish that the Rains information of any quantum channel is a strong converse rate for quantum communication: For any sequence of codes with rate exceeding the Rains information of the channel, we show that the fidelity vanishes exponentially fast as the number of channel uses increases. This remains true even if we consider codes that perform classical post-processing on the transmitted quantum data. Read More

The entanglement-assisted classical capacity of a quantum channel is known to provide the formal quantum generalization of Shannon's classical channel capacity theorem, in the sense that it admits a single-letter characterization in terms of the quantum mutual information and does not increase in the presence of a noiseless quantum feedback channel from receiver to sender. In this work, we investigate second-order asymptotics of the entanglement-assisted classical communication task. That is, we consider how quickly the rates of entanglement-assisted codes converge to the entanglement-assisted classical capacity of a channel as a function of the number of channel uses and the error tolerance. Read More

We investigate entropic uncertainty relations for two or more binary measurements, for example spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ or polarisation measurements. We argue that the effective anti-commutators of these measurements, i.e. Read More

The security of quantum key distribution protocols is guaranteed by the laws of quantum mechanics. However, a precise analysis of the security properties requires tools from both classical cryptography and information theory. Here, we employ recent results in non-asymptotic classical information theory to show that information reconciliation imposes fundamental limitations on the amount of secret key that can be extracted in the finite key regime. Read More

Recently a new quantum generalization of the Renyi divergence and the corresponding conditional Renyi entropies was proposed. Here we report on a surprising relation between conditional Renyi entropies based on this new generalization and conditional Renyi entropies based on the quantum relative Renyi entropy that was used in previous literature. Our result generalizes the well-known duality relation H(A|B) + H(A|C) = 0 of the conditional von Neumann entropy for tripartite pure states to Renyi entropies of two different kinds. Read More

This paper shows that, under the average error probability formalism, the third-order term in the normal approximation for the additive white Gaussian noise channel with a maximal or equal power constraint is at least $\frac{1}{2} \log n + O(1)$. This matches the upper bound derived by Polyanskiy-Poor-Verd\'{u} (2010). Read More

We study non-asymptotic fundamental limits for transmitting classical information over memoryless quantum channels, i.e. we investigate the amount of classical information that can be transmitted when a quantum channel is used a finite number of times and a fixed, non-vanishing average error is permissible. Read More

A prominent formulation of the uncertainty principle identifies the fundamental quantum feature that no particle may be prepared with certain outcomes for both position and momentum measurements. Often the statistical uncertainties are thereby measured in terms of entropies providing a clear operational interpretation in information theory and cryptography. Recently, entropic uncertainty relations have been used to show that the uncertainty can be reduced in the presence of entanglement and to prove security of quantum cryptographic tasks. Read More

The Renyi entropies constitute a family of information measures that generalizes the well-known Shannon entropy, inheriting many of its properties. They appear in the form of unconditional and conditional entropies, relative entropies or mutual information, and have found many applications in information theory and beyond. Various generalizations of Renyi entropies to the quantum setting have been proposed, most notably Petz's quasi-entropies and Renner's conditional min-, max- and collision entropy. Read More

We study the performance limits of state-dependent discrete memoryless channels with a discrete state available at both the encoder and the decoder. We establish the epsilon-capacity as well as necessary and sufficient conditions for the strong converse property for such channels when the sequence of channel states is not necessarily stationary, memoryless or ergodic. We then seek a finer characterization of these capacities in terms of second-order coding rates. Read More

This paper shows that the logarithm of the epsilon-error capacity (average error probability) for n uses of a discrete memoryless channel is upper bounded by the normal approximation plus a third-order term that does not exceed 1/2 log n + O(1) if the epsilon-dispersion of the channel is positive. This matches a lower bound by Y. Polyanskiy (2010) for discrete memoryless channels with positive reverse dispersion. Read More

We consider a game in which two separate laboratories collaborate to prepare a quantum system and are then asked to guess the outcome of a measurement performed by a third party in a random basis on that system. Intuitively, by the uncertainty principle and the monogamy of entanglement, the probability that both players simultaneously succeed in guessing the outcome correctly is bounded. We are interested in the question of how the success probability scales when many such games are performed in parallel. Read More

We consider two fundamental tasks in quantum information theory, data compression with quantum side information as well as randomness extraction against quantum side information. We characterize these tasks for general sources using so-called one-shot entropies. We show that these characterizations - in contrast to earlier results - enable us to derive tight second order asymptotics for these tasks in the i. Read More

Device-independent quantum key distribution (DIQKD) in its current design requires a violation of Bell's inequality between two honest parties, Alice and Bob, who are connected by a quantum channel. However, in reality, quantum channels are lossy, and this can be exploited for attacks based on the detection loophole. Here, we propose a novel approach to DIQKD that overcomes this limitation. Read More

Most coding theorems in quantum Shannon theory can be proven using the decoupling technique: to send data through a channel, one guarantees that the environment gets no information about it; Uhlmann's theorem then ensures that the receiver must be able to decode. While a wide range of problems can be solved this way, one of the most basic coding problems remains impervious to a direct application of this method: sending classical information through a quantum channel. We will show that this problem can, in fact, be solved using decoupling ideas, specifically by proving a "dequantizing" theorem, which ensures that the environment is only classically correlated with the sent data. Read More

We investigate two-party cryptographic protocols that are secure under assumptions motivated by physics, namely relativistic assumptions (no-signalling) and quantum mechanics. In particular, we discuss the security of bit commitment in so-called split models, i.e. Read More

The chain rule for the Shannon and von Neumann entropy, which relates the total entropy of a system to the entropies of its parts, is of central importance to information theory. Here we consider the chain rule for the more general smooth min- and max-entropy, used in one-shot information theory. For these entropy measures, the chain rule no longer holds as an equality, but manifests itself as a set of inequalities that reduce to the chain rule for the von Neumann entropy in the i. Read More

This thesis consolidates, improves and extends the smooth entropy framework for non-asymptotic information theory and cryptography. We investigate the conditional min- and max-entropy for quantum states, generalizations of classical R\'enyi entropies. We introduce the purified distance, a novel metric for unnormalized quantum states and use it to define smooth entropies as optimizations of the min- and max-entropies over a ball of close states. Read More

We provide a security analysis for continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols based on the transmission of squeezed vacuum states measured via homodyne detection. We employ a version of the entropic uncertainty relation for smooth entropies to give a lower bound on the number of secret bits which can be extracted from a finite number of runs of the protocol. This bound is valid under general coherent attacks, and gives rise to keys which are composably secure. Read More

Consider a bipartite system, of which one subsystem, A, undergoes a physical evolution separated from the other subsystem, R. One may ask under which conditions this evolution destroys all initial correlations between the subsystems A and R, i.e. Read More

Two of the most intriguing features of quantum physics are the uncertainty principle and the occurrence of nonlocal correlations. The uncertainty principle states that there exist pairs of incompatible measurements on quantum systems such that their outcomes cannot both be predicted. On the other hand, nonlocal correlations of measurement outcomes at different locations cannot be explained by classical physics, but appear in the presence of entanglement. Read More

Quantum key distribution (QKD) is often, more correctly, called key growing. Given a short key as a seed, QKD enables two parties, connected by an insecure quantum channel, to generate a secret key of arbitrary length. Conversely, no key agreement is possible without access to an initial key. Read More

Despite enormous progress both in theoretical and experimental quantum cryptography, the security of most current implementations of quantum key distribution is still not established rigorously. One of the main problems is that the security of the final key is highly dependent on the number, M, of signals exchanged between the legitimate parties. While, in any practical implementation, M is limited by the available resources, existing security proofs are often only valid asymptotically for unrealistically large values of M. Read More

Uncertainty relations give upper bounds on the accuracy by which the outcomes of two incompatible measurements can be predicted. While established uncertainty relations apply to cases where the predictions are based on purely classical data (e.g. Read More

The Leftover Hash Lemma states that the output of a two-universal hash function applied to an input with sufficiently high entropy is almost uniformly random. In its standard formulation, the lemma refers to a notion of randomness that is (usually implicitly) defined with respect to classical side information. Here, we prove a (strictly) more general version of the Leftover Hash Lemma that is valid even if side information is represented by the state of a quantum system. Read More

In classical and quantum information theory, operational quantities such as the amount of randomness that can be extracted from a given source or the amount of space needed to store given data are normally characterized by one of two entropy measures, called smooth min-entropy and smooth max-entropy, respectively. While both entropies are equal to the von Neumann entropy in certain special cases (e.g. Read More

The classical asymptotic equipartition property is the statement that, in the limit of a large number of identical repetitions of a random experiment, the output sequence is virtually certain to come from the typical set, each member of which is almost equally likely. In this paper, we prove a fully quantum generalization of this property, where both the output of the experiment and side information are quantum. We give an explicit bound on the convergence, which is independent of the dimensionality of the side information. Read More