M. Viviani - INFN Pisa, Italy

M. Viviani
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Name
M. Viviani
Affiliation
INFN Pisa, Italy
City
Pisa
Country
Italy

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Nuclear Theory (46)
 
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (6)
 
Nuclear Experiment (6)
 
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (6)
 
Physics - Atomic and Molecular Clusters (5)
 
Physics - Atomic Physics (1)
 
Physics - Computational Physics (1)
 
Physics - Other (1)
 
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (1)
 
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1)
 
High Energy Physics - Theory (1)
 
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High Energy Physics - Experiment (1)

Publications Authored By M. Viviani

The possibility of solving the Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Minkowski space, even for fermionic systems, is becoming actual, through the applications of well-known tools: i) the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and ii) the light-front projection onto the null-plane. The theoretical background and some preliminary calculations are illustrated, in order to show the potentiality and the wide range of application of the method. Read More

The universal behavior of a three-boson system close to the unitary limit is encoded in a simple dependence of many observables in terms of few parameters. For example the product of the three-body parameter $\kappa_*$ and the two-body scattering length $a$, $\kappa_* a$ depends on the angle $\xi$ defined by $E_3/E_2=\tan^2\xi$. A similar dependence is observed in the ratio $a_{AD}/a$ with $a_{AD}$ the boson-dimer scattering length. Read More

In chiral effective field theory the leading order (LO) nucleon-nucleon potential includes two contact terms, in the two spin channels $S=0,1$, and the one-pion-exchange potential. When the pion degrees of freedom are integrated out, as in the pionless effective field theory, the LO potential includes two contact terms only. In the three-nucleon system, the pionless theory includes a three-nucleon contact term interaction at LO whereas the chiral effective theory does not. Read More

p-3H and n-3He scattering in the energy range above the n-3He but below the d-d thresholds is studied by solving the 4-nucleon problem with a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. Three different methods -- Alt, Grassberger and Sandhas, Hyperspherical Harmonics, and Faddeev-Yakubovsky -- have been employed and their results for both elastic and charge-exchange processes are compared. We observe a good agreement between the three different methods, thus the obtained results may serve as a benchmark. Read More

The charge and magnetic form factors, FC and FM, of 3He have been extracted in the kinematic range 25 fm-2 < Q2 < 61 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering by detecting 3He recoil nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility at Jefferson Lab. The measurements are indicative of a second diffraction minimum for the magnetic form factor, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment, and of a continuing diffractive structure for the charge form factor. The data are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations based on realistic interactions and accurate methods to solve the three-body nuclear problem. Read More

Actual solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for a two-fermion bound system are becoming available directly in Minkowski space, by virtue of a novel technique, based on the so-called Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and improved by expressing the relevant momenta through light-front components, i.e. $k^\pm=k^0 \pm k^3$. Read More

We present fully local versions of the minimally non-local nucleon-nucleon potentials constructed in a previous paper [M.\ Piarulli {\it et al.}, Phys. Read More

The quantitative investigation of the scalar Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space, within the ladder-approximation framework, is extended to include the excited states. This study has been carried out for an interacting system composed by two massive bosons exchanging a massive scalar, by adopting (i) the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, and (ii) the formally exact projection onto the null plane. Our analysis, on one hand, confirms the reliability of the method already applied to the ground state and, on the other one, extends the investigation from the valence distribution in momentum space to the corresponding quantity in the impact-parameter space, pointing out some relevant features, like (i) the equivalence between Minkowski and Euclidean transverse-momentum amplitudes, and (ii) the leading exponential fall-off of the valence wave function in the impact-parameter space. Read More

We evaluate the Fermi and Gamow-Teller (GT) matrix elements in tritium $\beta$-decay by including in the charge-changing weak current the corrections up to one loop recently derived in nuclear chiral effective field theory ($\chi$ EFT). The trinucleon wave functions are obtained from hyperspherical-harmonics solutions of the Schrodinger equation with two- and three-nucleon potentials corresponding to either $\chi$ EFT (the N3LO/N2LO combination) or meson-exchange phenomenology (the AV18/UIX combination). We find that contributions due to loop corrections in the axial current are, in relative terms, as large as (and in some cases, dominate) those from one-pion exchange, which nominally occur at lower order in the power counting. Read More

The astrophysical $S$-factor for the radiative capture $d(p,\gamma)^3$He in the energy-range of interest for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is calculated using an {\it ab-initio} approach. The nuclear Hamiltonian retains both two- and three-nucleon interactions - the Argonne $v_{18}$ and the Urbana IX, respectively. Both one- and many-body contributions to the nuclear current operator are included. Read More

Two-nucleon axial charge and current operators are derived in chiral effective field theory up to one loop. The derivation is based on time-ordered perturbation theory, and accounts for cancellations between the contributions of irreducible diagrams and the contributions due to non-static corrections from energy denominators of reducible diagrams. Ultraviolet divergencies associated with the loop corrections are isolated in dimensional regularization. Read More

Experimental form factors of the hydrogen and helium isotopes, extracted from an up-to-date global analysis of cross sections and polarization observables measured in elastic electron scattering from these systems, are compared to predictions obtained in three different theoretical approaches: the first is based on realistic interactions and currents, including relativistic corrections (labeled as the conventional approach); the second relies on a chiral effective field theory description of the strong and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei (labeled $\chi$EFT); the third utilizes a fully relativistic treatment of nuclear dynamics as implemented in the covariant spectator theory (labeled CST). For momentum transfers below $Q \lesssim 5$ fm$^{-1}$ there is satisfactory agreement between experimental data and theoretical results in all three approaches. However, at $Q \gtrsim 5$ fm$^{-1}$, particularly in the case of the deuteron, a relativistic treatment of the dynamics, as is done in the CST, is necessary. Read More

For the first time, the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter Equation for an interacting system, composed by two massive scalars exchanging a massive scalar, is numerically investigated in ladder approximation, directly in Minkowski space, by using an approach based on the Nakanishi integral representation. In this paper, the limiting case of zero-energy states is considered, extending the approach successfully applied to bound states. The numerical values of scattering lengths, are calculated for several values of the Yukawa coupling constant, by using two different integral equations that stem within the Nakanishi framework. Read More

We present a precise measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in the $^3\vec{\mathrm{He}}(\vec{\mathrm{e}},\mathrm{e}'\mathrm{d})$ reaction. This particular process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in $^3\mathrm{He}$ and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed in and around quasi-elastic kinematics at $Q^2 = 0. Read More

General expressions for the breakup cross sections in the lab frame for $1+2$ reactions are given in terms of the hyperspherical adiabatic basis. The three-body wave function is expanded in this basis and the corresponding hyperradial functions are obtained by solving a set of second order differential equations. The ${\cal S}$-matrix is computed by using two recently derived integral relations. Read More

We reconsider the derivation of the nucleon-nucleon parity-violating (PV) potential within a chiral effective field theory framework. We construct the potential up to next-to-next-to-leading order by including one-pion-exchange, two-pion-exchange, contact, and 1/M (M being the nucleon mass) terms, and use dimensional regularization to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A detailed analysis of the number of independent low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the potential is carried out. Read More

The Bethe-Salpeter Equation for a two-scalar, S-wave bound system, interacting through a massive scalar, is investigated within the ladder approximation. By assuming a Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, one can deduce new integral equations that can be solved and quantitatively studied, overcoming the analytic difficulties of the Minkowski space. Finally, it is shown that the Light-front distributions of the valence state, directly obtained from the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, open an effective window for studying the two-body dynamics. Read More

The Bethe-Salpeter Equation for a bound system, composed by two massive scalars exchanging a massive scalar, is quantitatively investigated in ladder approximation, within the Nakanishi integral representation approach. For the S-wave case, numerical solutions with a form inspired by the Nakanishi integral representation, have been calculated. The needed Nakanishi weight functions have been evaluated by solving two different eigenequations, obtained directly from the Bethe-Salpeter equation applying the Light-Front projection technique. Read More

The charge form factor of $^$4He has been extracted in the range 29 fm$^{-2}$ $\le Q^2 \le 77$ fm$^{-2}$ from elastic electron scattering, detecting $^4$He nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The results are in qualitative agreement with realistic meson-nucleon theoretical calculations. The data have uncovered a second diffraction minimum, which was predicted in the $Q^2$ range of this experiment, and rule out conclusively long-standing predictions of dimensional scaling of high-energy amplitudes using quark counting. Read More

We present a detailed study of the effect of different three-nucleon interaction models in p-3He elastic scattering at low energies. In particular, two models have been considered: one derived from effective field theory at next-to-next-to-leading order and one derived from a more phenomenological point of view -- the so-called Illinois model. The four-nucleon scattering observables are calculated using the Kohn variational principle and the hyperspherical harmonics technique and the results are compared with available experimental data. Read More

The astrophysical S-factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0--100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and magnetic moments, and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium beta decay. Read More

The objectives of the present work are twofold. The first is to address and resolve some of the differences present in independent, chiral-effective-field-theory (\chiEFT) derivations up to one loop, recently appeared in the literature, of the nuclear charge and current operators. The second objective is to provide a complete set of \chiEFT predictions for the structure functions and tensor polarization of the deuteron, for the charge and magnetic form factors of 3He and 3H, and for the charge and magnetic radii of these few-nucleon systems. Read More

We study small clusters of bosons, $A=2,3,4,5,6$, characterized by a resonant interaction. Firstly, we use a soft-gaussian interaction that reproduces the values of the dimer binding energy and the atom-atom scattering length obtained with LM2M2 potential, a widely used $^4$He-$^4$He interaction. We change the intensity of the potential to explore the clusters' spectra in different regions with large positive and large negative values of the two-body scattering length and we report the clusters' energies on Efimov plot, which makes the scale invariance explicit. Read More

The integral relations formalism introduced in \cite{bar09,rom11}, and designed to describe 1+$N$ reactions, is extended here to collision energies above the threshold for the target breakup. These two relations are completely general, and in this work they are used together with the adiabatic expansion method for the description of 1+2 reactions. The neutron-deuteron breakup, for which benchmark calculations are available, is taken as a test of the method. Read More

The effect of the inclusion of different models of three nucleon (3N) forces in p-3He elastic scattering at low energies is studied. Two models have been considered: one derived from effective field theory at next-to-next-to-leading order and one derived from a more phenomenological point of view -- the so-called Illinois model. The four nucleon scattering observables are calculated using the Kohn variational principle and the hyperspherical harmonic technique and the results are compared with available experimental data. Read More

A satisfactory description of bound and scattering states of the three-nucleon (3N) system is still lacking, contrary to what happens in the two-nucleon case. In the framework of chiral effective theory, it is possible that a realistic 3N interaction will require the inclusion of subleading contact terms, which are unconstrained by chiral symmetry. We construct the minimal 3N contact Lagrangian imposing all constraints from the discrete symmetries, Fierz identities and Poincar\'e covariance, and show that it consists of 10 independent operators. Read More

In this work we investigate small clusters of bosons using the hyperspherical harmonic basis. We consider systems with $A=2,3,4,5,6$ particles interacting through a soft inter-particle potential. In order to make contact with a real system, we use an attractive gaussian potential that reproduces the values of the dimer binding energy and the atom-atom scattering length obtained with one of the most widely used $^4$He-$^4$He interactions, the LM2M2 potential. Read More

In this work we show results for light nuclear systems and small clusters of helium atoms using the hyperspherical harmonics basis. We use the basis without previous symmetrization or antisymmetrization of the state. After the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix, the eigenvectors have well defined symmetry under particle permutation and the identification of the physical states is possible. Read More

The Nakanishi perturbative integral representation of the four-dimensional T-matrix is investigated in order to get a workable treatment for scattering states, solutions of the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter Equation, in Minkowski space. The projection onto the null-plane of the four-dimensional inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter Equation plays a key role for devising an equation for the Nakanishi weight function (a real function), as in the homogeneous case that corresponds to bound states and it has been already studied within different frameworks. In this paper, the whole formal development is illustrated in detail and applied to a system, composed by two massive scalars interacting through the exchange of a massive scalar. Read More

The muon-capture reactions 2H(\mu^-,\nu_\mu)nn and 3He(\mu^-,\nu_\mu)3H are studied with nuclear strong-interaction potentials and charge-changing weak currents, derived in chiral effective field theory. The low-energy constants (LEC's) c_D and c_E, present in the three-nucleon potential and (c_D) axial-vector current, are constrained to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and the triton Gamow-Teller matrix element. The vector weak current is related to the isovector component of the electromagnetic current via the conserved-vector-current constraint, and the two LEC's entering the contact terms in the latter are constrained to reproduce the A=3 magnetic moments. Read More

Bound-state-like wave functions are used to determine the scattering matrix corresponding to low energy $N-d$ and $p-^3$He collisions. To this end, the coupled channel form of the integral relations derived from the Kohn variational principle is used. The construction of degenerate bound-state-like wave functions belonging to the continuum spectrum of the Hamiltonian is discussed. Read More

The n-3H and p-3He elastic phase-shifts below the trinucleon disintegration thresholds are calculated by solving the 4-nucleon problem with three different realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions (the I-N3LO model by Entem and Machleidt, the Argonne v18 potential model, and a low-k model derived from the CD-Bonn potential). Three different methods -- Alt, Grassberger and Sandhas, Hyperspherical Harmonics, and Faddeev-Yakubovsky -- have been used and their respective results are compared. For both n-3H and p-3He we observe a rather good agreement between the three different theoretical methods. Read More

The electromagnetic charge operator in a two-nucleon system is derived in chiral effective field theory ($\chi$EFT) up to order $e\, Q$ (or N4LO), where $Q$ denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. The specific form of the N3LO and N4LO corrections from, respectively, one-pion-exchange and two-pion-exchange depends on the off-the-energy-shell prescriptions adopted for the non-static terms in the corresponding potentials. We show that different prescriptions lead to unitarily equivalent potentials and accompanying charge operators. Read More

In this work we investigate small clusters of helium atoms using the hyperspherical harmonic basis. We consider systems with $A=2,3,4,5,6$ atoms with an inter-particle potential which does not present a strong repulsion at short distances. We use an attractive gaussian potential that reproduces the values of the dimer binding energy, the atom-atom scattering length, and the effective range obtained with one of the widely used He-He interactions, the LM2M2 potential. Read More

2011Feb
Affiliations: 1Salento U. and INFN, Lecce, 2INFN, Pisa, 3INFN, Pisa
Category: Nuclear Theory

We obtain a minimal form of the two-derivative three-nucleon contact Lagrangian, by imposing all constraints deriving from discrete symmetries, Fierz identities and Poincare' covariance. The resulting interaction, depending on 10 unknown low-energy constants, leads to a three-nucleon potential which we give in a local form in configuration space. We also consider the leading (no-derivative) four-nucleon interaction and show that there exists only one independent operator. Read More

2011Jan
Affiliations: 1IEM, CSIC, Madrid, 2IEM, CSIC, Madrid, 3University College London, UK, 4INFN, Pisa, Italy, 5INFN, Pisa, Italy

In this work we investigate 1+2 reactions within the framework of the hyperspherical adiabatic expansion method. To this aim two integral relations, derived from the Kohn variational principle, are used. A detailed derivation of these relations is shown. Read More

The Hyperspherical Harmonics basis, without a previous symmetrization step, is used to calculate binding energies of the nuclear A=6 systems using a version of the Volkov potential acting only on s-wave. The aim of this work is to illustrate the use of the nonsymmetrized basis to deal with permutational-symmetry-breaking term in the Hamiltonian, in the present case the Coulomb interaction. Read More

The use of the hyperspherical harmonic (HH) basis in the description of bound states in an $A$-body system composed by identical particles is normally preceded by a symmetrization procedure in which the statistic of the system is taken into account. This preliminary step is not strictly necessary; the direct use of the HH basis is possible, even if the basis has not a well defined behavior under particle permutations. In fact, after the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix, the eigenvectors reflect the symmetries present in it. Read More

The muon capture reactions 2H(\mu^-,\nu_\mu)nn and 3He(\mu^-,\nu_\mu)3H are studied with conventional or chiral realistic potentials and consistent weak currents. The initial and final A=2 and 3 nuclear wave functions are obtained from the Argonne v18 or chiral N3LO two-nucleon potential, in combination with, respectively, the Urbana IX or chiral N2LO three-nucleon potential in the case of A=3. The weak current consists of polar- and axial-vector components. Read More

We report on a study of the $nd$ and $n\,^3$He radiative captures at thermal neutron energies, using wave functions obtained from either chiral or conventional two- and three-nucleon realistic potentials with the hyperspherical harmonics method, and electromagnetic currents derived in chiral effective field theory up to one loop. The predicted $nd$ and $n\,^3$He cross sections are in good agreement with data, but exhibit a significant dependence on the input Hamiltonian. A comparison is also made between these and new results for the $nd$ and $n\,^3$He cross sections obtained in the conventional framework for both potentials and currents. Read More

The longitudinal asymmetry induced by parity-violating (PV) components in the nucleon-nucleon potential is studied in the charge-exchange reaction 3He(n,p)3H at vanishing incident neutron energies. An expression for the PV observable is derived in terms of T-matrix elements for transitions from the {2S+1}L_J=1S_0 and 3S_1 states in the incoming n-3He channel to states with J=0 and 1 in the outgoing p-3H channel. The T-matrix elements involving PV transitions are obtained in first-order perturbation theory in the hadronic weak-interaction potential, while those connecting states of the same parity are derived from solutions of the strong-interaction Hamiltonian with the hyperspherical-harmonics method. Read More

The Kohn variational principle and the hyperspherical harmonic technique are applied to study p-3He elastic scattering at low energies. Preliminary results obtained using several interaction models are reported. The calculations are compared to a recent phase shift analysis performed at the Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory and to the available experimental data. Read More

Two integral relations derived from the Kohn Variational Principle (KVP) are used for describing scattering states. In usual applications the KVP requires the explicit form of the asymptotic behavior of the scattering wave function. This is not the case when the integral relations are applied since, due to their short range nature, the only condition for the scattering wave function $\Psi$ is that it be the solution of $(H-E)\Psi=0$ in the internal region. Read More

Using modern nucleon-nucleon interactions in the description of the $A=3,4$ nuclei, it is not possible to reproduce both the three- and four-nucleon binding energies simultaneously. This is one manifestation of the necessity of including a three-nucleon force in the nuclear Hamiltonian. In this paper we will perform a comparative study of some, widely used, three-nucleon force models. Read More

The elastic backward proton-deuteron scattering is analyzed including relativistic effects in the deuteron and the mechanism of this reaction which includes the graphs corresponding to the emission, rescattering and absorption of the virtual pion by a deuteron nucleon in addition to the one-nucleon exchange graph. It allows one to obtain a rather satisfactory description of all the experimental data on the differential cross section, tensor analyzing power of the deuteron and transfer polarization in this reaction. Read More

We construct the most general, relativistically invariant, contact Lagrangian at order Q^2 in the power counting, Q denoting the low momentum scale. A complete, but non-minimal, set of (contact) interaction terms is identified, which upon non-relativistic reduction generate 2 leading independent operator combinations of order Q^0 and 7 sub-leading ones of order Q^2 - a result derived previously in the heavy-baryon formulation of effective field theories (EFT's). We show that Poincare covariance of the theory requires that additional terms with fixed coefficients be included, in order to describe the two-nucleon potential in reference frames other than the center-of-mass frame. Read More

We summarize our recent work dealing with the construction of the nucleon-nucleon potential and associated electromagnetic currents up to one loop in chiral effective field theory ($\chi$EFT). The magnetic dipole operators derived from these currents are then used in hybrid calculations of static properties and low-energy radiative capture processes in few-body nuclei. A preliminary set of results are presented for the magnetic moments of the deuteron and trinucleons and thermal neutron captures on $p$, $d$, and $^3$He. Read More

Recently, we have derived a two--nucleon potential and consistent nuclear electromagnetic currents in chiral effective field theory with pions and nucleons as explicit degrees of freedom. The calculation of the currents has been carried out to include N$^3$LO corrections, consisting of two--pion exchange and contact contributions. The latter involve unknown low-energy constants (LECs), some of which have been fixed by fitting the $np$ S- and P-wave phase shifts up to 100 MeV lab energies. Read More

A two-nucleon potential and consistent electromagnetic currents are derived in chiral effective field theory ($\chi$EFT) at, respectively, $Q^{2}$ (or N$^2$LO) and $e Q$ (or N$^3$LO), where $Q$ generically denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A simple expression is derived for the magnetic dipole ($M1$) operator associated with pion loops, consisting of two terms, one of which is determined, uniquely, by the isospin-dependent part of the two-pion-exchange potential. Read More

The application of the hyperspherical harmonic approach to the case of the N-d scattering problem below deuteron breakup threshold is described. The nuclear Hamiltonian includes two- and three-nucleon interactions, in particular the Argonne v_{18}, the N3LO-Idaho, and the V_{low k} two-nucleon, and the Urbana IX and N2LO three-nucleon interactions. Some of these models are local, some are non-local. Read More