# M. Sher - William and Mary

## Contact Details

NameM. Sher |
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AffiliationWilliam and Mary |
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CityKilcoy |
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CountryAustralia |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (43) High Energy Physics - Experiment (8) Physics - Materials Science (5) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (3) High Energy Physics - Theory (2) Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (2) Physics - Other (1) Astrophysics of Galaxies (1) |

## Publications Authored By M. Sher

In the lepton-specific version of two Higgs doublet models, a discrete symmetry is used to couple one Higgs, $\Phi_2$, to quarks and the other, $\Phi_1$, to leptons. The symmetry eliminates tree level flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC). Motivated by strong constraints on such currents in the quark sector from meson-antimeson mixing, and by hints of $h \to \mu\tau$ in the lepton sector, we study a simple three Higgs doublet model in which one doublet couples to quarks and the other two to leptons. Read More

**Authors:**F. Chen, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, Y. Qi, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, J. Lu, F. Quirin, H. Enquist, P. Zalden, T. Hu, J. Goodfellow, M. -J. Sher, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Zhu, H. Lemke, J. Glownia, M. Chollet, A. R. Damodaran, J. Park, Z. Cai, I. W. Jung, M. J. Highland, D. A. Walko, J. W. Freeland, P. G. Evans, A. Vailionis, J. Larsson, K. A. Nelson, A. M. Rappe, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, L. W. Martin, H. Wen, A. M. Lindenberg

**Category:**Physics - Materials Science

The dynamical processes associated with electric field manipulation of the polarization in a ferroelectric remain largely unknown but fundamentally determine the speed and functionality of ferroelectric materials and devices. Here we apply sub-picosecond duration, single-cycle terahertz pulses as an ultrafast electric field bias to prototypical BaTiO$_3$ ferroelectric thin films with the atomic-scale response probed by femtosecond x-ray scattering techniques. We show that electric fields applied perpendicular to the ferroelectric polarization drive large amplitude displacements of the titanium atoms along the ferroelectric polarization axis, comparable to that of the built-in displacements associated with the intrinsic polarization and incoherent across unit cells. Read More

We use single-cycle THz fields and the femtosecond magneto-optical Kerr effect to respectively excite and probe the magnetization dynamics in two thin-film ferromagnets with different lattice structure: crystalline Fe and amorphous CoFeB. We observe Landau-Lifshitz-torque magnetization dynamics of comparable magnitude in both systems, but only the amorphous sample shows ultrafast demagnetization caused by the spin-lattice depolarization of the THz-induced ultrafast spin current. Quantitative modelling shows that such spin-lattice scattering events occur on similar time scales than the conventional spin conserving electronic scattering ($\sim30$ fs). Read More

**Authors:**Peter Zalden, Michael J. Shu, Frank Chen, Xiaoxi Wu, Yi Zhu, Haidan Wen, Scott Johnston, Zhi-Xun Shen, Patrick Landreman, Mark Brongersma, Scott W. Fong, H. -S. Philip Wong, Meng-Ju Sher, Peter Jost, Matthias Kaes, Martin Salinga, Alexander von Hoegen, Matthias Wuttig, Aaron Lindenberg

**Category:**Physics - Materials Science

Many chalcogenide glasses undergo a breakdown in electronic resistance above a critical field strength. Known as threshold switching, this mechanism enables field-induced crystallization in emerging phase-change memory. Purely electronic as well as crystal nucleation assisted models have been employed to explain the electronic breakdown. Read More

CMS has reported indications (2.4\sigma) of the decay of the Higgs boson into \mu\tau. The simplest explanation for such a decay would be a general Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM). Read More

Materials research with a focus on enhancing the minority-carrier lifetime of the light-absorbing semiconductor is key to advancing solar energy technology for both early-stage and mature material platforms alike. Tin sulfide (SnS) is an absorber material with several clear advantages for manufacturing and deployment, but the record power conversion efficiency remains below 5%. We report measurements of bulk and interface minority-carrier recombination rates in SnS thin films using optical-pump, terahertz (THz)-probe transient photoconductivity (TPC) measurements. Read More

The Lee-Wick Standard Model is a highly constrained model which solves the gauge hierarchy problem at the expense of including states with negative norm. It appears to be macroscopically causal and consistent. This model is extended by considering the two-Higgs doublet extension of the Lee-Wick model. Read More

Recently, Kajiyama, Okada and Yagyu (KOY) proposed an electron/muon specific two Higgs doublet model. In this model, an S3 symmetry suppresses flavor changing neutral currents instead of a Z2 symmetry. In the "Type I" version of the model, the heavy Higgs bosons have a greatly enhanced coupling to electrons and muons. Read More

If the Standard Model (SM) is valid up to extremely high energy scales, then the Higgs potential becomes unstable at approximately $10^{11}$ GeV. However, calculations of the lifetime of the SM vacuum have shown that it vastly exceeds the age of the Universe. It was pointed out by two of us (VB,EM) that these calculations are extremely sensitive to effects from Planck scale higher-dimensional operators and, without knowledge of these operators, firm conclusions about the lifetime of the SM vacuum cannot be drawn. Read More

We analyze a model of hybrid natural inflation based on the smallest non-Abelian discrete group S_3. Leading invariant terms in the scalar potential have an accidental global symmetry that is spontaneously broken, providing a pseudo-Goldstone boson that is identified as the inflaton. The S_3 symmetry restricts both the form of the inflaton potential and the couplings of the inflaton field to the waterfall fields responsible for the end of inflation. Read More

We determine constraints on the Lee-Wick Higgs sector obtained from the full LHC Higgs boson data set. We determine the current lower bound on the heavy neutral Lee-Wick scalar, as well as projected bounds at a 14 TeV LHC with 300 and 3000 inverse femtobarns of integrated luminosity. We point out that the first sign of new physics in this model may be the observation of a deviation from standard model expectations of the lighter neutral Higgs signal strengths corresponding to production via gluon-gluon fusion and decay to either tau or $Z$ pairs. Read More

In Two Higgs doublet extensions of the Standard Model, flavor-changing neutral current constraints can be addressed by introducing a U(1)' gauge symmetry, under which the Higgs doublets carry different charges. That scenario implies the presence of a H^\pm W^\mp Z' vertex at tree level. For the light "dark" Z model (Z'=Z_d) with m_{Z_d} < 10 GeV, such a coupling leads to the dominant decay mode H^\pm \to W^\pm + Z_d (for m_{H^\pm} \lsim 175 GeV), rather than the usual type I model decay H^\pm \to \tau^\pm \nu, for a broad range of parameters. Read More

The simplest extension of the Two Higgs Doublet Model is the addition of a real scalar singlet, S. The effects of mixing between the singlet and the doublets can be manifested in two ways. It can modify the couplings of the 126 GeV Higgs boson, h, and it can lead to direct detection of the heavy Higgs at the LHC. Read More

If there is an additional U(1) symmetry under which Standard Model particles are singlets, then there can be mixing between the additional gauge boson and the hypercharge gauge boson. This can lead to a very light, but weakly coupled "dark" gauge boson, the $Z_d$, with a mass of O(1) GeV. If the $Z_d$ gets its mass entirely from a Higgs singlet, it is called a dark photon; whereas if there is a second Higgs doublet, it is called a dark Z. Read More

**Authors:**S. Dawson, A. Gritsan, H. Logan, J. Qian, C. Tully, R. Van Kooten, A. Ajaib, A. Anastassov, I. Anderson, D. Asner, O. Bake, V. Barger, T. Barklow, B. Batell, M. Battaglia, S. Berge, A. Blondel, S. Bolognesi, J. Brau, E. Brownson, M. Cahill-Rowley, C. Calancha-Paredes, C. -Y. Chen, W. Chou, R. Clare, D. Cline, N. Craig, K. Cranmer, M. de Gruttola, A. Elagin, R. Essig, L. Everett, E. Feng, K. Fujii, J. Gainer, Y. Gao, I. Gogoladze, S. Gori, R. Goncalo, N. Graf, C. Grojean, S. Guindon, H. Haber, T. Han, G. Hanson, R. Harnik, S. Heinemeyer, U. Heintz, J. Hewett, Y. Ilchenko, A. Ishikawa, A. Ismail, V. Jain, P. Janot, S. Kanemura, S. Kawada, R. Kehoe, M. Klute, A. Kotwal, K. Krueger, G. Kukartsev, K. Kumar, J. Kunkle, M. Kurata, I. Lewis, Y. Li, L. Linssen, E. Lipeles, R. Lipton, T. Liss, J. List, T. Liu, Z. Liu, I. Low, T. Ma, P. Mackenzie, B. Mellado, K. Melnikov, A. Miyamoto, G. Moortgat-Pick, G. Mourou, M. Narain, H. Neal, J. Nielsen, N. Okada, H. Okawa, J. Olsen, H. Ono, P. Onyisi, N. Parashar, M. Peskin, F. Petriello, T. Plehn, C. Pollard, C. Potter, K. Prokofiev, M. Rauch, T. Rizzo, T. Robens, V. Rodriguez, P. Roloff, R. Ruiz, V. Sanz, J. Sayre, Q. Shafi, G. Shaughnessy, M. Sher, F. Simon, N. Solyak, J. Strube, J. Stupak, S. Su, T. Suehara, T. Tanabe, T. Tajima, V. Telnov, J. Tian, S. Thomas, M. Thomson, K. Tsumura, C. Un, M. Velasco, C. Wagner, S. Wang, S. Watanuki, G. Weiglein, A. Whitbeck, K. Yagyu, W. Yao, H. Yokoya, S. Zenz, D. Zerwas, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhou

This report summarizes the work of the Energy Frontier Higgs Boson working group of the 2013 Community Summer Study (Snowmass). We identify the key elements of a precision Higgs physics program and document the physics potential of future experimental facilities as elucidated during the Snowmass study. We study Higgs couplings to gauge boson and fermion pairs, double Higgs production for the Higgs self-coupling, its quantum numbers and $CP$-mixing in Higgs couplings, the Higgs mass and total width, and prospects for direct searches for additional Higgs bosons in extensions of the Standard Model. Read More

Until now the discussion on perfect security for steganographic systems has remained confined within the realm of mathematicians and information theory experts whose concise and symbolic representation of their philosophies, postulates, and inference thereafter has made it hard for the na\"ive academics to have an insight of the concepts. This paper is an endeavor not only to appraise on the limitations of one of such pioneer comprehensions but also to illustrate a pitfall in another scheme that asserts on having perfect security without the use of public or secret key. Goals set are accomplished through contrasting test results of a steganographic scheme that exploits English words with corresponding acronyms for hiding bits of secret information in chat - a preferred way to exchange messages these days. Read More

Almost all data collected at the LHC during the 7 and 8 TeV runs has now been analysed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. Its consistency with the Standard Model (SM) predictions has cornered the CP-conserving two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) into the SM limit, sin (\beta -\alpha) = 1. However, there are still allowed regions of the 2HDM parameter space away from this limit. Read More

Since the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC and the measurement of many of its branching ratios, there have been numerous studies exploring the restrictions these results place on the parameter space of two Higgs doublet models. We extend these results to include the full data set and study the expected sensitivity that can be obtained with 300 and 3000 inverse femptobarn of integrated luminosity. We consider searches for a heavy Standard Model Higgs boson, with a mass ranging from 200 to 400 GeV, and show that the non-observation of such a Higgs boson can substantially narrow the allowed regions of parameter space in two Higgs doublet models. Read More

We confront the most common version of the CP-conserving 2HDM with LHC data, taking into account all previously available experimental data. We also discuss the scenario where the 125 GeV Higgs discovered at the LHC is the lightest neutral scalar of a particular CP-violating 2HDM. In this scenario we focus on what data can already tell us about the amount of mixing between CP-even and CP-odd states. Read More

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We perform a detailed study of a specific Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) with a U(1) gauge symmetry, instead of a typical Z2 discrete symmetry, containing a very light gauge boson Z' (GeV scale or below). The Standard Model (SM) fermions do not carry U(1) charges, but induced couplings to the Z' (called the dark Z) are generated through mixing with the SM neutral gauge bosons. Such a light Z' could explain some astrophysical anomalies as well as the muon g-2 deviation, and has been the subject of great experimental interest. Read More

In this talk, prospects for the charged Higgs in non-SUSY models are reviewed, in view of LHC results (as of October, 2012). The four models (Type I, Type II, lepton-specific and flipped) without tree level flavor-changing neutral currents are discussed. Updates for the case in which the charged Higgs is lighter than the top, leading to production in top decays, are presented along with expectations for the future. Read More

LHC has reported tantalizing hints for a Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV decaying into two photons. We focus on two-Higgs-doublet Models, and study the interesting possibility that the heavier scalar (H) has been seen, with the lightest scalar (h) having thus far escaped detection. Non-observation of h at LEP severely constrains the parameter-space of two-Higgs-doublet models. Read More

We study the implications for Two Higgs Doublet Models of the recent announcement at the LHC giving a tantalizing hint for a Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV decaying into two photons. We require that the experimental result be within a factor of two of the theoretical Standard Model prediction, and analyze the type I and type II models as well as the lepton-specific and flipped models, subject to this requirement. It is assumed that there is no new physics other than two Higgs doublets. Read More

We consider collider signatures of the exceptional supersymmetric (SUSY) standard model (E6SSM). This E6 inspired SUSY model is based on the SM gauge group together with an extra U(1) gauge symmetry under which right--handed neutrinos have zero charge. To ensure anomaly cancellation and gauge coupling unification the low energy matter content of the E6SSM involve extra exotic matter beyond the MSSM. Read More

We study the decays of the lightest Higgs boson within the exceptional supersymmetric (SUSY) standard model (E6SSM). The E6SSM predicts three families of Higgs-like doublets plus three SM singlets that carry U(1)_{N} charges. One family of Higgs-like doublets and one SM singlet develop vacuum expectation values. Read More

We discuss theoretical and phenomenological aspects of two-Higgs-doublet extensions of the Standard Model. In general, these extensions have scalar mediated flavour changing neutral currents which are strongly constrained by experiment. Various strategies are discussed to control these flavour changing scalar currents and their phenomenological consequences are analysed. Read More

In a recently proposed neutrinophilic two-Higgs doublet model, the low-energy (sub-MeV) effective theory consists of a real scalar with a vev of O(0.1) eV and three Dirac neutrinos. Other models could lead to the same low energy theory. Read More

We observe an insulator-to-metal (I-M) transition in crystalline silicon doped with sulfur to non- equilibrium concentrations using ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting and rapid resolidification. This I-M transition is due to a dopant known to produce only deep levels at equilibrium concentrations. Temperature-dependent conductivity and Hall effect measurements for temperatures T > 1. Read More

We propose an orbifolded, warped, extra dimension scenario in which the visible brane is not parallel to the hidden brane. This leads automatically to Lorentz violation in the visible, four dimensional world. The background solution to the Einstein equations is a function of a parameter that can be identified with the amount of 'tilting' of the brane. Read More

We study the nonstandard decays of the lightest Higgs state within the Exceptional Supersymmetric Standard Model (E6SSM). We argued that the SM--like Higgs boson can decay predominantly into dark matter particles while its branching ratios into SM particles varies from 2% to 4%. This scenario also implies the presence of other relatively light Inert chargino and neutralino states in the particle spectrum with masses below 200 GeV. Read More

The Exceptional Supersymmetric (SUSY) Standard Model predicts three families of Higgs doublets plus three Higgs singlets, where one family develops vacuum expectation values (VEVs), while the remaining two which do not are called Inert. The model can account for the dark matter relic abundance if the two lightest Inert neutralinos, identified as the (next-to) lightest SUSY particles ((N)LSPs), have masses close to half the Z mass. In this case we find that the usual SM-like Higgs boson decays more than 95% of the time into either LSPs or NLSPs. Read More

In the leptophilic model, one Higgs doublet couples to quarks and another couples to leptons. We study the supersymmetric version of this model, concentrating on the tightly constrained Higgs sector, which has four doublets. Constraints from perturbativity, unitarity, and LEP bounds are considered. Read More

Digitization of analogue signals has opened up new avenues for information hiding and the recent advancements in the telecommunication field has taken up this desire even further. From copper wire to fiber optics, technology has evolved and so are ways of covert channel communication. By "Covert" we mean "anything not meant for the purpose for which it is being used". Read More

Motivated by large nu_mu-nu_tau flavor mixing, we consider mu-tau production at hadron colliders via dimension-6 effective operators, which can be attributed to new physics in the flavor sector at a higher scale Lambda. Current bounds on many of these operators from low energy experiments are very weak or nonexistent, and they may lead to clean mu+tau- and mu-tau+ signals at hadron colliders. At the Tevatron with 8 inverse femtobarns, one can exceed current bounds for most operators, with most 2 sigma sensitivities being in the 6-24 TeV range. Read More

New models have recently been proposed in which a second Higgs doublet couples only to the lepton doublets and right-handed neutrinos, yielding Dirac neutrino masses. The vacuum value of this second "nu-Higgs" doublet is made very small by means of a very softly-broken $Z_2$ or U(1) symmetry. The latter is technically natural and avoids fine-tuning and very light scalars. Read More

We study the effects of a fourth generation t-prime quark in various extensions of the standard model. In the Randall-Sundrum model, the decay t-prime -> t Z has a large branching ratio that could be detected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We also look at the two-Higgs doublet models I, II and III, and note that, in the latter, the branching ratio of t-prime -> t H, where H is a Higgs scalar or pseudoscalar, is huge and we discuss detection at the LHC. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Yale,

^{2}William and Mary

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with three generations of fermions, there is a stringent upper bound on the mass of the lightest neutral Higgs h, and the mass of the charged Higgs H^+, must be close (within tens of GeV) to the heavier neutral Higgs, H, and the pseudoscalar Higgs A. In this Brief Report, we show that in the four generation MSSM, the upper bound on the h mass is much higher, as high as 400 GeV, and H^+ is generally much heavier than the A, allowing the H^+ -> A W^+ decay, potentially changing search strategies for both the charged Higgs and the pseudoscalar. The H mass, on the other hand, remains within tens of GeV of the charged Higgs mass. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}St Mary's, MD,

^{2}William and Mary,

^{3}William and Mary

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We study the effects of a fourth generation t' quark in various extensions of the standard model. In the Randall-Sundrum model, the decay t'--> t Z has a large branching ratio that could be detected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We also look at the two-Higgs doublet models I, II and III, and note that, in the latter, the branching ratio of t' --> t H, where H is a Higgs scalar or pseudoscalar, is huge and we discuss detection at the LHC. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}William-Mary Coll.,

^{2}William-Mary Coll.,

^{3}Concordia Univ.

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

A sequential fourth generation of quarks and leptons is allowed by precision electroweak constraints if the mass splitting between the heavy quarks is between 50 and 80 GeV. Although heavy quarks can be easily detected at the LHC, it is very difficult to detect a sequential heavy charged lepton, L, due to large backgrounds. Should the L mass be above 250 GeV, it can not be pair-produced at a 500 GeV ILC. Read More

We describe higher-dimensional theories whose low-energy 4D descriptions contain larger gauge or global symmetry groups. As an example, we construct a Higgsless SU(2) x U(1) model of electroweak symmetry breaking. The 5D SU(2) gauge invariance contains both the weak SU(2) gauge group and a custodial symmetry that protects the rho parameter. Read More

The existing bounds from CDF on the masses of the fourth generation quarks, t' and b', are reexamined. The bound of 256 GeV on the t' mass assumes that the primary decay of the t' is into q+W, which is not the case for a substantial region of parameter space. The bound of 268 GeV on the b' mass assumes that the branching ratio for b' --> b+Z is very large, which is not only not true for much of parameter space, but is {\em never} true for b' masses above 255 GeV. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}William and Mary,

^{2}William and Mary

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

This paper has been withdrawn by the authors due to a coding error and a missed diagram. The calculation has been completely redone, with very different results, and with an additional author, and will be submitted to the arxiv shortly. Read More

We observe several interesting phenomena in a technicolor-like model of electroweak symmetry breaking based on the D4-D8-D8bar system of Sakai and Sugimoto. The benefit of holographic models based on D-brane configurations is that both sides of the holographic duality are well understood. We find that the lightest technicolor resonances contribute negatively to the Peskin-Takeuchi S-parameter, but heavy resonances do not decouple and lead generically to large, positive values of S, consistent with standard estimates in QCD-like theories. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}William and Mary,

^{2}William and Mary,

^{3}William and Mary

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parameterized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are nineteen dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10^{-11} and 10^{-32}; the remaining parameter, k_tr, is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10^{-4}. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}William and Mary,

^{2}William and Mary

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

If the lowest lying Kaluza-Klein states in Randall-Sundrum (RS1) models have masses in the 10-100 TeV range, direct production of these states at the LHC or ILC is impossible, and electroweak precision measurements may not be sufficiently sensitive. We address the possibility that high-precision measurements of top pair production at the ILC may provide the first evidence of these states. We consider RS1 models with fermions on and off the brane, with bulk left and right handed mass terms, discuss brane kinetic terms and calculate corrections to top pair production in these models. Read More

The multiple point principle (MPP) is applied to the non--supersymmetric two-Higgs doublet extension of the Standard Model (SM). The existence of a large set of degenerate vacua at some high energy scale caused by the MPP results in a few relations between Higgs self-coupling constants which can be examined at future colliders. The numerical analysis reveals that these MPP conditions constrain the mass of the SM--like Higgs boson to lie below 180 GeV for a wide set of MPP scales $\Lambda$ and $\tan\beta$. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}The College of William & Mary,

^{2}The College of William & Mary

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We study previously unconsidered 3-3-1 models which are characterized by each lepton generation having a different representation under the gauge group. Flavor-changing neutral currents in the lepton sector occur in these models. To satisfy constraints on mu to 3e decays, the Z' must be heavier than 2 to 40 TeV, depending on the model and assignments of the leptons. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}William and Mary,

^{2}William and Mary

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

In models with universal extra dimensions, the isosinglet Kaluza-Klein (KK) quarks, q^1, have very narrow widths, of O(5-10) MeV, and will thus hadronize. Studies of KK-quarkonia, \bar{q}^1 q^1, show very sharp resonances and dramatic signatures at the Linear Collider. In this Brief Report, we consider the possibility of detecting KK-mesons, \bar{q}^1 q, and show that detection at a Linear Collider is unlikely. Read More

In brane world scenarios in which only gravity can propagate in the extra dimensions, effects on the gravitational force may be experimentally testable if there are two or three large extra dimensions. The strength of the force at distances smaller than the compactification radius will be sensitive to the volume of the extra dimensions, but the determination of the shape requires knowing the gravitational potential at intermediate scales. We determine the dependence of the potential vs. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Concordia Univ.,

^{2}Concordia Univ.,

^{3}William and Mary

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We present a complete analysis of the neutral fermion sector of supersymmetric E_6-inspired low energy models containing an extra SU(2), concentrating on the Alternate Left-Right and Inert models. We show that the R-parity conserving scenario always exhibits a large Dirac mass for \nu_L with maximal mixing with an isosinglet neutrino, and that R-parity violating scenarios do not change the picture other than allowing further mixing with another isosinglet. In order to recover Standard Model phenomenology, additional assumptions in the form of discrete symmetries and/or new interactions are needed. Read More