M. N. Kong - NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Pasadena, CA

M. N. Kong
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M. N. Kong
NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Pasadena, CA
United States

Pubs By Year

Pub Categories

Astrophysics (7)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (7)
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (4)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2)
Nuclear Experiment (2)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (1)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)
Physics - Soft Condensed Matter (1)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1)
Physics - Biological Physics (1)

Publications Authored By M. N. Kong

POLAR is space-borne detector designed for a precise measurement of gamma-ray polarization of the prompt emissions of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the energy range 50 keV - 500 keV. POLAR is a compact Compton polarimeter consisting of 40$\times$ 40 plastic scintillator bars read out by 25 multi-anode PMTs. In May 2015, we performed a series of tests of the POLAR flight model with 100\% polarized x-rays beams at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility beam-line ID11 aming to study thresholds, crosstalk between channels and responses of POLAR flight model to polarized X-ray beams. Read More

As a space-borne detector POLAR is designed to conduct hard X-ray polarization measurements of gamma-ray bursts on the statistically significant sample of events and with an unprecedented accuracy. During its development phase a number of tests, calibrations runs and verification measurements were carried out in order to validate instrument functionality and optimize operational parameters. In this article we present results on gain optimization togeter with verification data obtained in the course of broad laboratory and environmental tests. Read More

Gamma-ray polarimetry is a new powerful tool to study the processes responsible for the emission from astrophysical sources and the environments in which this emission takes place. Few successful polarimetric measurements have however been performed thus far in the gamma-ray energy band due to the difficulties involved. POLAR is a dedicated polarimeter designed to perform high precision measurements of the polarization of the emission from gamma-ray burst in the 50-500 keV energy range. Read More

This paper describes how the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) is extending open source software components to develop new services. In August 2015, KOA deployed a program interface to discover public data from all instruments equipped with an imaging mode. The interface complies with version 2 of the Simple Imaging Access Protocol (SIAP), under development by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), which defines a standard mechanism for discovering images through spatial queries. Read More

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the strongest explosions in the universe which might be associated with creation of black holes. Magnetic field structure and burst dynamics may influence polarization of the emitted gamma-rays. Precise polarization detection can be an ultimate tool to unveil the true GRB mechanism. Read More

In spite of extensive observations and numerous theoretical studies in the past decades several key questions related with Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) emission mechanisms are still to be answered. Precise detection of the GRB polarization carried out by dedicated instruments can provide new data and be an ultimate tool to unveil their real nature. A novel space-borne Compton polarimeter POLAR onboard the Chinese space station TG2 is designed to measure linear polarization of gamma-rays arriving from GRB prompt emissions. Read More

Affiliations: 1W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, HI, USA, 2W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, HI, USA, 3W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, HI, USA, 4W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, HI, USA, 5NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Pasadena, CA, 6NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Pasadena, CA, 7NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Pasadena, CA, 8NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Pasadena, CA, 9NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Pasadena, CA

A collaboration between the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) in Hawaii and the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) in California, the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) was commissioned in 2004 to archive observing data from WMKO, which operates two classically scheduled 10 m ground-based telescopes. Read More

Microscopic self-propelled swimmers capable of autonomous navigation through complex environments provide appealing opportunities for localization, pick-up and delivery of micro-and nanoscopic objects. Inspired by motile cells and bacteria, man-made microswimmers have been fabricated, and their motion in patterned surroundings has been experimentally studied. We propose to use self-driven artificial microswimmers for separation of binary mixtures of colloids. Read More

Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) have several types according to dominance of starburst or AGN component. We made stellar population analysis for a sample of 160 ULIRGs to study the evolution of ULIRGs. We found that the dominance of intermediate-age and old stellar populations increases along the sequence of HII-like ULIRGs, Seyfert-HII composite ULIRGs, and Seyfert 2 ULIRGs. Read More

Estimating black hole masses of blazars is still a big challenge. Because of the contamination of jets, using the previously suggested size -- continuum luminosity relation can overestimate the broad line region (BLR) size and black hole mass for radio-loud AGNs, including blazars. We propose a new relation between the BLR size and $H_{\beta}$ emission line luminosity and present evidences for using it to get more accurate black hole masses of radio-loud AGNs. Read More

Affiliations: 1California Institute of Technology;, 2California Institute of Technology;, 3California Institute of Technology;, 4California Institute of Technology;, 5California Institute of Technology;, 6California Institute of Technology;, 7California Institute of Technology;, 8California Institute of Technology;, 9California Institute of Technology;, 10California Institute of Technology;, 11California Institute of Technology;, 12California Institute of Technology;, 13California Institute of Technology;, 14California Institute of Technology;, 15California Institute of Technology;, 16California Institute of Technology;, 17California Institute of Technology;

The NASA/IPAC/NExScI Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) is a general purpose stellar archive which supports NASA planet-finding and planet-characterization goals, stellar astrophysics, and the planning of NASA and other space missions. There are two principal components of NStED: a database of 140,000 nearby stars and exoplanet-hosting stars, and an archive dedicated to high precision photometric surveys for transiting exoplanets (NStED-ETSS). We present summaries of these components. Read More

Because of the contamination of jets, using the size -- continuum luminosity relation can overestimate the broad line region (BLR) size and black hole mass for radio-loud AGNs. We propose a new relation between the BLR size and $H_{\beta}$ emission line luminosity and present evidences for using it to get more accurate black hole masses of radio-loud AGNs. For extremely radio-loud AGNs such as blazars with weak/absent emission lines, we suggest to use the fundamental plane relation of their elliptical host galaxies to estimate the central velocity dispersions and black hole masses, if their host galaxies can be mapped. Read More


The relationship between the emission-line equivalent width and the continuum luminosity, so called the Baldwin effect, plays an important role in studying the physics of the broad line region of AGNs. Using the archived ultraviolet spectra obtained by IUE, HST, and HUT in 1978-2002, we investigated the intrinsic CIV Baldwin effect of a well-studied Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. Both its continuum flux and CIV emission-line flux varied about two orders of magnitude in more than two decades, making it one of the best targets for studying the slope variation of the Baldwin effect. Read More


The determination of the central black hole mass is crucial to the understanding of AGN physics. In this paper we briefly review some methods that are currently used to estimate the black hole mass of AGNs. Particularly we demonstrate the importance of two correlations: one between the black hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion and another one between the broad line region (BLR) size and the optical continuum luminosity. Read More

We derived the black hole fundamental plane relationship among the 1.4GHz radio luminosity (L_r), 0.1-2. Read More

Based on the measured sizes of broad line region of the reverberation-mapping AGN sample, two new empirical relations are introduced to estimate the central black hole masses of radio-loud high-redshift ($z > 0.5$) AGNs. First, using the archival $IUE/HST$ spectroscopy data at UV band for the reverberation-mapping objects, we obtained two new empirical relations between the BLR size and \Mg/\C emission line luminosity. Read More

An empirical relation between the broad line region (BLR) size and optical continuum luminosity is often adopted to estimate the BLR size and then the black hole mass of AGNs. However, optical luminosity may not be a good indicator of photoionizing luminosity for extremely radio-loud AGNs because the jets usually contribute significantly to the optical continuum. Therefore, the black hole masses derived for blazar-type AGNs with this method are probably overestimated. Read More

The configurational and melting properties of large two-dimensional clusters of charged classical particles interacting with each other via the Coulomb potential are investigated through the Monte Carlo simulation technique. The particles are confined by a harmonic potential. For a large number of particles in the cluster (N>150) the configuration is determined by two competing effects, namely in the center a hexagonal lattice is formed, which is the groundstate for an infinite 2D system, and the confinement which imposes its circular symmetry on the outer edge. Read More

Structural and static properties of a classical two-dimensional (2D) system consisting of a finite number of charged particles which are laterally confined by a parabolic potential are investigated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and the Newton optimization technique. This system is the classical analog of the well-known quantum dot problem. The energies and configurations of the ground and all metastable states are obtained. Read More

Affiliations: 1IPAC, 2IPAC, 3IPAC, 4IPAC, 5IPAC, 6U. Texas, 7U. Wyoming, 8Lowell Observatory, 9U. Illinois, 10IPAC, 11IPAC, 12NASA-ARC, 13Cornell University, 14U. Wyoming, NASA HQ, 15JPL
Category: Astrophysics

The nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946 was observed with ISO-CAM in the mid-infrared, achieving 7 arcsec resolution and sub-MJy/steradian sensitivity. Images taken with CAM filters LW2 (7 microns) and LW3 (15 microns) are analysed to determine the morphology of this galaxy and understand better the emission mechanisms. The mid-infrared emission follows an exponential disk with a scale length 75 arcsec. Read More