# M. Mark - Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck

## Contact Details

NameM. Mark |
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AffiliationInstitut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck |
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CityInnsbruck |
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CountryAustria |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Other (16) Physics - Atomic Physics (14) Quantum Physics (9) Physics - Classical Physics (2) Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (2) Physics - Optics (1) Physics - General Physics (1) Physics - History of Physics (1) Physics - Materials Science (1) |

## Publications Authored By M. Mark

The concept of a roton, a special kind of elementary excitation, forming a minimum of energy at finite momentum, has been essential to understand the properties of superfluid $^4$He. In quantum liquids, rotons arise from strong interparticle interactions, whose microscopic description remains debated. In the realm of highly-controllable quantum gases, a roton mode has been predicted to emerge due to dipolar interparticle interactions despite of their weakly-interacting character. Read More

In a joint experimental and theoretical effort, we report on the formation of a macro-droplet state in an ultracold bosonic gas of erbium atoms with strong dipolar interactions. By precise tuning of the s-wave scattering length below the so-called dipolar length, we observe a smooth crossover of the ground state from a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) to a dense macro-droplet state of more than $10^4$ atoms. Based on the study of collective excitations and loss features, we quantitative prove that quantum fluctuations stabilize the ultracold gas far beyond the instability threshold imposed by mean-field interactions. Read More

**Authors:**M. Arenz, M. Babutzka, M. Bahr, J. P. Barrett, S. Bauer, M. Beck, A. Beglarian, J. Behrens, T. Bergmann, U. Besserer, J. Blümer, L. I. Bodine, K. Bokeloh, J. Bonn, B. Bornschein, L. Bornschein, S. Büsch, T. H. Burritt, S. Chilingaryan, T. J. Corona, L. De Viveiros, P. J. Doe, O. Dragoun, G. Drexlin, S. Dyba, S. Ebenhöch, K. Eitel, E. Ellinger, S. Enomoto, M. Erhard, D. Eversheim, M. Fedkevych, A. Felden, S. Fischer, J. A. Formaggio, F. Fränkle, D. Furse, M. Ghilea, W. Gil, F. Glück, A. Gonzalez Urena, S. Görhardt, S. Groh, S. Grohmann, R. Grössle, R. Gumbsheimer, M. Hackenjos, V. Hannen, F. Harms, N. Hauÿmann, F. Heizmann, K. Helbing, W. Herz, S. Hickford, D. Hilk, B. Hillen, T. Höhn, B. Holzapfel, M. Hötzel, M. A. Howe, A. Huber, A. Jansen, N. Kernert, L. Kippenbrock, M. Kleesiek, M. Klein, A. Kopmann, A. Kosmider, A. Kovalík, B. Krasch, M. Kraus, H. Krause, M. Krause, L. Kuckert, B. Kuffner, L. La Cascio, O. Lebeda, B. Leiber, J. Letnev, V. M. Lobashev, A. Lokhov, E. Malcherek, M. Mark, E. L. Martin, S. Mertens, S. Mirz, B. Monreal, K. Müller, M. Neuberger, H. Neumann, S. Niemes, M. Noe, N. S. Oblath, A. Off, H. -W. Ortjohann, A. Osipowicz, E. Otten, D. S. Parno, P. Plischke, A. W. P. Poon, M. Prall, F. Priester, P. C. -O. Ranitzsch, J. Reich, O. Rest, R. G. H. Robertson, M. Röllig, S. Rosendahl, S. Rupp, M. Rysavy, K. Schlösser, M. Schlösser, K. Schönung, M. Schrank, J. Schwarz, W. Seiler, H. Seitz-Moskaliuk, J. Sentkerestiova, A. Skasyrskaya, M. Slezak, A. Spalek, M. Steidl, N. Steinbrink, M. Sturm, M. Suesser, H. H. Telle, T. Thümmler, N. Titov, I. Tkachev, N. Trost, A. Unru, K. Valerius, D. Venos, R. Vianden, S. Vöcking, B. L. Wall, N. Wandkowsky, M. Weber, C. Weinheimer, C. Weiss, S. Welte, J. Wendel, K. L. Wierman, J. F. Wilkerson, D. Winzen, J. Wolf, S. Wüstling, M. Zacher, S. Zadoroghny, M. Zboril

**Category:**Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors

The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the beta-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium beta-decay. An integral energy analysis will be performed by an electro-static spectrometer (Main Spectrometer), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m^3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120000 individual parts. Read More

We report on the experimental implementation of tunable occupation-dependent tunneling in a Bose-Hubbard system of ultracold atoms via time-periodic modulation of the on-site interaction energy. The tunneling rate is inferred from a time-resolved measurement of the lattice site occupation after a quantum quench. We demonstrate coherent control of the tunneling dynamics in the correlated many-body system, including full suppression of tunneling as predicted within the framework of Floquet theory. Read More

Einstein's relativity theory appears to be very accurate, but at times equally puzzling. On the one hand, electromagnetic radiation must have zero rest mass in order to propagate at the speed of light, but on the other hand, since it definitely carries momentum and energy, it has non-zero inertial mass. Hence, by the principle of equivalence, it must have non-zero gravitational mass, and so, light must be heavy. Read More

The Hubbard model underlies our understanding of strongly correlated materials. While its standard form only comprises interaction between particles at the same lattice site, its extension to encompass long-range interaction, which activates terms acting between different sites, is predicted to profoundly alter the quantum behavior of the system. We realize the extended Bose-Hubbard model for an ultracold gas of strongly magnetic erbium atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Read More

We show that for ultracold magnetic lanthanide atoms chaotic scattering emerges due to a combination of anisotropic interaction potentials and Zeeman coupling under an external magnetic field. This scattering is studied in a collaborative experimental and theoretical effort for both dysprosium and erbium. We present extensive atom-loss measurements of their dense magnetic Feshbach resonance spectra, analyze their statistical properties, and compare to predictions from a random-matrix-theory inspired model. Read More

We probe the excitation spectrum of an ultracold one-dimensional Bose gas of Cesium atoms with repulsive contact interaction that we tune from the weakly to the strongly interacting regime via a magnetic Feshbach resonance. The dynamical structure factor, experimentally obtained using Bragg spectroscopy, is compared to integrability-based calculations valid at arbitrary interactions and finite temperatures. Our results unequivocally underly the fact that hole-like excitations, which have no counterpart in higher dimensions, actively shape the dynamical response of the gas. Read More

In a combined experimental and theoretical effort, we demonstrate a novel type of dipolar system made of ultracold bosonic dipolar molecules with large magnetic dipole moments. Our dipolar molecules are formed in weakly bound Feshbach molecular states from a sample of strongly magnetic bosonic erbium atoms. We show that the ultracold magnetic molecules can carry very large dipole moments and we demonstrate how to create and characterize them, and how to change their orientation. Read More

We report on a design of a compact laser system composed of an extended cavity diode laser with high passive stability and a pre-filter Fabri-Perot cavity. The laser is frequency stabilized relative to the cavity using a serrodyne technique with a correction bandwidth of $\geq 6$ MHz and a dynamic range of $\geq 700$ MHz. The free running laser system has a power spectral density (PSD) $\leq 100$ Hz$^{2}$/Hz centered mainly in the acoustic frequency range. Read More

We study the dynamics of bosonic atoms in a tilted one-dimensional optical lattice and report on the first direct observation of density-induced tunneling. We show that the interaction affects the time evolution of the doublon oscillation via density-induced tunneling and pinpoint its density- and interaction-dependence. The experimental data for different lattice depths are in good agreement with our theoretical model. Read More

The deformation of a Fermi surface is a fundamental phenomenon leading to a plethora of exotic quantum phases. Understanding these phases, which play crucial roles in a wealth of systems, is a major challenge in atomic and condensed-matter physics. Here, we report on the observation of a Fermi surface deformation in a degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of erbium atoms. Read More

We report on the observation of a large anisotropy in the rethermalization dynamics of an ultracold dipolar Fermi gas driven out of equilibrium. Our system consists of an ultracold sample of strongly magnetic $^{167}$Er fermions, spin-polarized in the lowest Zeeman sublevel. In this system, elastic collisions arise purely from universal dipolar scattering. Read More

Quantum tunneling constitutes one of the most fundamental processes in nature. We observe resonantly-enhanced long-range quantum tunneling in one-dimensional Mott-insulating Hubbard chains that are suddenly quenched into a tilted configuration. Higher-order many-body tunneling processes occur over up to five lattice sites when the tilt per site is tuned to integer fractions of the Mott gap. Read More

Atomic and molecular samples reduced to temperatures below 1 microkelvin, yet still in the gas phase, afford unprecedented energy resolution in probing and manipulating how their constituent particles interact with one another. For simple atoms, such as alkalis, scattering resonances are extremely well-characterized. However, ultracold physics is now poised to enter a new regime, where far more complex species can be cooled and studied, including magnetic lanthanide atoms and even molecules. Read More

We report on the creation of a degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of erbium atoms. We force evaporative cooling in a fully spin-polarized sample down to temperatures as low as 0.2 times the Fermi temperature. Read More

We study atomic Bloch oscillations in an ensemble of one-dimensional tilted superfluids in the Bose-Hubbard regime. For large values of the tilt, we observe interaction-induced coherent decay and matter-wave quantum phase revivals of the Bloch oscillating ensemble. We analyze the revival period dependence on interactions by means of a Feshbach resonance. Read More

We have measured and analyzed the hyperfine structure of two lines, one at 583nm and one at 401nm, of the only stable fermionic isotope of atomic erbium as well as determined its isotope shift relative to the four most-abundant bosonic isotopes. Our work focuses on the J->J+1 laser cooling transitions from the [Xe] 4f12 6s2 (3H6) ground state to two levels of the excited [Xe] 4f12 6s6p configuration, which are of major interest for experiments on quantum degenerate dipolar Fermi gases. From a fit to the observed spectra of the strong optical transition at 401nm we find that the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine constants for the excited state are Ae/h=-100. Read More

We study non-equilibrium dynamics for an ensemble of tilted one-dimensional atomic Bose-Hubbard chains after a sudden quench to the vicinity of the transition point of the Ising paramagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic quantum phase transition. The quench results in coherent oscillations for the orientation of effective Ising spins, detected via oscillations in the number of doubly-occupied lattice sites. We characterize the quench by varying the system parameters. Read More

We show that the Lorentz force law, F^L_1=q_1(E+v_1xB) being the charge on particle 1 interacting with the electromagnetic fields due to all other particles, can be written in a pure field form F^L_1=-\nabla_1 U^{EM}. In this expression U^{EM} is the total electromagnetic energy of the system of particle 1 and all other particles. In deriving this result we review the old but not widely known results that Maxwell's equations follow uniquely from Special Relativity, and that the Lorentz force law follows from applying Hamilton's variational principle to this result. Read More

**Category:**Physics - Atomic Physics

We report on the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation of erbium atoms and on the observation of magnetic Feshbach resonances at low magnetic field. By means of evaporative cooling in an optical dipole trap, we produce pure condensates of $^{168}$Er, containing up to $7 \times 10^{4}$ atoms. Feshbach spectroscopy reveals an extraordinary rich loss spectrum with six loss resonances already in a narrow magnetic-field range up to 3 G. Read More

We report on the experimental realization of a robust and efficient magneto-optical trap for erbium atoms, based on a narrow cooling transition at 583nm. We observe up to $N=2 \times 10^{8}$ atoms at a temperature of about $T=15 \mu K$. This simple scheme provides better starting conditions for direct loading of dipole traps as compared to approaches based on the strong cooling transition alone, or on a combination of a strong and a narrow kHz transition. Read More

We prepare and study a metastable attractive Mott insulator state formed with bosonic atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Starting from a Mott insulator with Cs atoms at weak repulsive interactions, we use a magnetic Feshbach resonance to tune the interactions to large attractive values and produce a metastable state pinned by attractive interactions with a lifetime on the order of 10 seconds. We probe the (de-)excitation spectrum via lattice modulation spectroscopy, measuring the interaction dependence of two- and three-body bound state energies. Read More

We investigate local three-body correlations for bosonic particles in three and one dimensions as a function of the interaction strength. The three-body correlation function g(3) is determined by measuring the three-body recombination rate in an ultracold gas of Cs atoms. In three dimensions, we measure the dependence of g(3) on the gas parameter in a BEC, finding good agreement with the theoretical prediction accounting for beyond-mean-field effects. Read More

We perform precision measurements on a Mott-insulator quantum state of ultracold atoms with tunable interactions. We probe the dependence of the superfluid-to-Mott-insulator transition on the interaction strength and explore the limits of the standard Bose-Hubbard model description. By tuning the on-site interaction energies to values comparable to the interband separation, we are able to quantitatively measure number-dependent shifts in the excitation spectrum caused by effective multi-body interactions. Read More

We demonstrate the temporal Talbot effect for trapped matter waves using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. We investigate the phase evolution of an array of essentially non-interacting matter waves and observe matter-wave collapse and revival in the form of a Talbot interference pattern. By using long expansion times, we image momentum space with sub-recoil resolution, allowing us to observe fractional Talbot fringes up to 10th order. Read More

**Authors:**Romain Véxiau

^{1}, Nadia Bouloufa

^{2}, Mireille Aymar

^{3}, Johann Georg Danzl

^{4}, Manfred J Mark

^{5}, Hans-Christoph Naegerl

^{6}, Olivier Dulieu

^{7}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}LAC,

^{2}LAC,

^{3}LAC,

^{4}LAC,

^{5}LAC,

^{6}LAC,

^{7}LAC

The present paper aims at finding optimal parameters for trapping of Cs$_2$ molecules in optical lattices, with the perspective of creating a quantum degenerate gas of ground-state molecules. We have calculated dynamic polarizabilities of Cs$_2$ molecules subject to an oscillating electric field, using accurate potential curves and electronic transition dipole moments. We show that for some particular wavelengths of the optical lattice, called "magic wavelengths", the polarizability of the ground-state molecules is equal to the one of a Feshbach molecule. Read More

We have studied the transition from two to three dimensions in a low temperature weakly interacting $^6$Li Fermi gas. Below a critical atom number, $N_{2D}$, only the lowest transverse vibrational state of a highly anisotropic oblate trapping potential is occupied and the gas is two-dimensional. Above $N_{2D}$ the Fermi gas enters the quasi-2D regime where shell structure associated with the filling of individual transverse oscillator states is apparent. Read More

We produce an ultracold and dense sample of rovibronic ground state Cs_2 molecules close to the regime of quantum degeneracy, in a single hyperfine level, in the presence of an optical lattice. The molecules are individually trapped, in the motional ground state of an optical lattice well, with a lifetime of 8 s. For preparation, we start with a zero-temperature atomic Mott-insulator state with optimized double-site occupancy and efficiently associate weakly-bound dimer molecules on a Feshbach resonance. Read More

Ultracold atomic physics offers myriad possibilities to study strongly correlated many-body systems in lower dimensions. Typically, only ground state phases are accessible. Using a tunable quantum gas of bosonic cesium atoms, we realize and control in one dimensional geometry a highly excited quantum phase that is stabilized in the presence of attractive interactions by maintaining and strengthening quantum correlations across a confinement-induced resonance. Read More

One of the most remarkable results of quantum mechanics is the fact that many-body quantum systems may exhibit phase transitions even at zero temperature. Quantum fluctuations, deeply rooted in Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and not thermal fluctuations, drive the system from one phase to another. Typically, the relative strength of two competing terms in the system's Hamiltonian is changed across a finite critical value. Read More

We report on the observation of confinement-induced resonances in strongly interacting quantum-gas systems with tunable interactions for one- and two-dimensional geometry. Atom-atom scattering is substantially modified when the s-wave scattering length approaches the length scale associated with the tight transversal confinement, leading to characteristic loss and heating signatures. Upon introducing an anisotropy for the transversal confinement we observe a splitting of the confinement-induced resonance. Read More

We show that short-range pair correlations in a strongly interacting Fermi gas follow a simple universal law described by Tan's relations. This is achieved through measurements of the static structure factor which displays a universal scaling proportional to the ratio of Tan's contact to the momentum $C/q$. Bragg spectroscopy of ultracold $^6$Li atoms from a periodic optical potential is used to measure the structure factor for a wide range of momenta and interaction strengths, providing broad confirmation of this universal law. Read More

Particles in a perfect lattice potential perform Bloch oscillations when subject to a constant force, leading to localization and preventing conductivity. For a weakly-interacting Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of Cs atoms, we observe giant center-of-mass oscillations in position space with a displacement across hundreds of lattice sites when we add a periodic modulation to the force near the Bloch frequency. We study the dependence of these "super" Bloch oscillations on lattice depth, modulation amplitude, and modulation frequency and show that they provide a means to induce linear transport in a dissipation-free lattice. Read More

We report on the observation of an elementary exchange process in an optically trapped ultracold sample of atoms and Feshbach molecules. We can magnetically control the energetic nature of the process and tune it from endoergic to exoergic, enabling the observation of a pronounced threshold behavior. In contrast to relaxation to more deeply bound molecular states, the exchange process does not lead to trap loss. Read More

**Authors:**Johann G. Danzl

^{1}, Manfred J. Mark

^{2}, Elmar Haller

^{3}, Mattias Gustavsson

^{4}, Russell Hart

^{5}, Jesus Aldegunde

^{6}, Jeremy M. Hutson

^{7}, Hanns-Christoph Naegerl

^{8}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Zentrum fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck,

^{2}Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Zentrum fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck,

^{3}Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Zentrum fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck,

^{4}Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Zentrum fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck,

^{5}Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Zentrum fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck,

^{6}Department of Chemistry, University of Durham,

^{7}Department of Chemistry, University of Durham,

^{8}Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Zentrum fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck

**Category:**

Control over all internal and external degrees of freedom of molecules at the level of single quantum states will enable a series of fundamental studies in physics and chemistry. In particular, samples of ground-state molecules at ultralow temperatures and high number densities will allow novel quantum-gas studies and future applications in quantum information science. However, high phase-space densities for molecular samples are not readily attainable as efficient cooling techniques such as laser cooling are lacking. Read More

We discuss our recent observation of an atom-dimer Efimov resonance in an ultracold mixture of Cs atoms and Cs_2 Feshbach molecules [Nature Phys. 5, 227 (2009)]. We review our experimental procedure and present additional data involving a non-universal g-wave dimer state, to contrast our previous results on the universal s-wave dimer. Read More

We study collisions in an optically trapped, pure sample of ultracold Cs$_2$ molecules in various internal states. The molecular gas is created by Feshbach association from a near-degenerate atomic gas, with adjustable temperatures in the nanokelvin range. We identify several narrow loss resonances, which point to the coupling to more complex molecular states and may be interpreted as Feshbach resonances in dimer-dimer interactions. Read More

We demonstrate efficient transfer of ultracold molecules into a deeply bound rovibrational level of the singlet ground state potential in the presence of an optical lattice. The overall molecule creation efficiency is 25%, and the transfer efficiency to the rovibrational level |v=73,J=2> is above 80%. We find that the molecules in |v=73,J=2> are trapped in the optical lattice, limited by optical excitation by the lattice light. Read More

The phenomenon of matter wave interference lies at the heart of quantum physics. It has been observed in various contexts in the limit of non-interacting particles as a single particle effect. Here we observe and control matter wave interference whose evolution is driven by interparticle interactions. Read More

One possibility for the creation of ultracold, high-phase-space-density quantum gases of molecules in the rovibrational ground state relies on first associating weakly-bound molecules from quantum-degenerate atomic gases on a Feshbach resonance and then transfering the molecules via several steps of coherent two-photon stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) into the rovibronic ground state. Here, in ultracold samples of Cs_2 Feshbach molecules produced out of ultracold samples of Cs atoms, we observe several optical transitions to deeply bound rovibrational levels of the excited 0_u^+ molecular potentials with high resolution. At least one of these transitions, although rather weak, allows efficient STIRAP transfer into the deeply bound vibrational level |v=73> of the singlet X ^1Sigma_g^+ ground state potential, as recently demonstrated. Read More

One possible way to produce ultracold, high-phase-space-density quantum gases of molecules in the rovibronic ground state is given by molecule association from quantum-degenerate atomic gases on a Feshbach resonance and subsequent coherent optical multi-photon transfer into the rovibronic ground state. In ultracold samples of Cs_2 molecules, we observe two-photon dark resonances that connect the intermediate rovibrational level |v=73,J=2> with the rovibrational ground state |v=0,J=0> of the singlet $X^1\Sigma_g^+$ ground state potential. For precise dark resonance spectroscopy we exploit the fact that it is possible to efficiently populate the level |v=73,J=2> by two-photon transfer from the dissociation threshold with the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique. Read More

The field of few-body physics has originally been motivated by understanding nuclear matter. New model systems to experimentally explore few-body quantum systems can now be realized in ultracold gases with tunable interactions. Albeit the vastly different energy regimes of ultracold and nuclear matter (peV as compared to MeV), few-body phenomena are universal for near-resonant two-body interactions. Read More

We create an ultracold dense quantum gas of ground state molecules bound by more than 1000 wavenumbers by stimulated two-photon transfer of molecules associated on a Feshbach resonance from a Bose-Einstein condensate of cesium atoms. The transfer efficiency exceeds 80%. In the process, the initial loose, long-range electrostatic bond of the Feshbach molecule is coherently transformed into a tight chemical bond. Read More

We study inelastic collisions in a pure, trapped sample of Feshbach molecules made of bosonic cesium atoms in the quantum halo regime. We measure the relaxation rate coefficient for decay to lower-lying molecular states and study the dependence on scattering length and temperature. We identify a pronounced loss minimum with varying scattering length along with a further suppression of loss with decreasing temperature. Read More

We report on the control of interaction-induced dephasing of Bloch oscillations for an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice under the influence of gravity. When tuning the strength of the interaction towards zero by means of a Feshbach resonance, the dephasing time is increased from a few to more than twenty thousand Bloch oscillation periods. We quantify the dephasing in terms of the width of the quasi-momentum distribution and measure its dependence on time for different values of the scattering length. Read More

We experimentally demonstrate Cs2 Feshbach molecules well above the dissociation threshold, which are stable against spontaneous decay on the timescale of one second. An optically trapped sample of ultracold dimers is prepared in an l-wave state and magnetically tuned into a region with negative binding energy. The metastable character of these molecules arises from the large centrifugal barrier in combination with negligible coupling to states with low rotational angular momentum. Read More

We explore the rich internal structure of Cs_2 Feshbach molecules. Pure ultracold molecular samples are prepared in a CO_2-laser trap, and a multitude of weakly bound states is populated by elaborate magnetic-field ramping techniques. Our methods use different Feshbach resonances as input ports and various internal level crossings for controlled state transfer. Read More

We report on the realization of a time-domain `St\"uckelberg interferometer', which is based on the internal state structure of ultracold Feshbach molecules. Two subsequent passages through a weak avoided crossing between two different orbital angular momentum states in combination with a variable hold time lead to high-contrast population oscillations. This allows for a precise determination of the energy difference between the two molecular states. Read More

Three interacting particles form a system which is well known for its complex physical behavior. A landmark theoretical result in few-body quantum physics is Efimov's prediction of a universal set of weakly bound trimer states appearing for three identical bosons with a resonant two-body interaction. Surprisingly, these states even exist in the absence of a corresponding two-body bound state and their precise nature is largely independent of the particular type of the two-body interaction potential. Read More