# M. Malheiro - Department of Physics, University of Maryland at College Park, USA

## Contact Details

NameM. Malheiro |
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AffiliationDepartment of Physics, University of Maryland at College Park, USA |
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CityCollege Park |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesNuclear Theory (31) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (13) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (12) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (11) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (11) Astrophysics (7) Quantum Physics (4) High Energy Physics - Theory (4) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (2) Mathematical Physics (2) Mathematics - Functional Analysis (2) Mathematics - Complex Variables (2) Nuclear Experiment (1) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (1) |

## Publications Authored By M. Malheiro

The sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays ($E\gtrsim10^{19}$ eV) is still an open question in astroparticle physics and in the last years some efforts were made to understand its origin. In this work we consider white dwarf pulsars (WDPs) as possible sources of these ultra energetic particles. If some Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) are considered as white dwarf pulsars, these sources can achieve large electromagnetic potentials on its surface and possibly accelerate particle almost of speed of light and with energies $E \sim 10^{20-21}$ eV. Read More

We investigate the possibility that some SGRs/AXPs could be canonical rotation-powered pulsars using realistic NS structure parameters instead of fiducial values. We show that realistic NS parameters lowers the estimated value of the magnetic field and radiation efficiency, $L_X/\dot{E}_{\rm rot}$, with respect to estimates based on fiducial NS parameters. We show that nine SGRs/AXPs can be described as canonical pulsars driven by the NS rotational energy, for $L_X$ computed in the soft (2--10~keV) X-ray band. Read More

In this work, we study the properties of magnetized white dwarfs taking into account possible instabilities due to electron capture and pycnonuclear fusion reactions in the cores of such objects. The structure of white dwarfs is obtained by solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations with a poloidal magnetic field in a fully general relativistic approach. The stellar interior is composed of a regular crystal lattice made of carbon ions immersed in a degenerate relativistic electron gas. Read More

The influence of the anisotropy in the equilibrium and stability of strange stars is investigated through the numerical solution of the hydrostatic equilibrium equation and the radial oscillation equation, both modified from their original version to include this effect. The strange matter inside the quark stars is described by the MIT bag model equation of state. For the anisotropy two different kinds of local anisotropic $\sigma=p_t-p_r$ are considered, where $p_t$ and $p_r$ are respectively the tangential and the radial pressure: one that is null at the star's surface defined by $p_r(R)=0$, and one that is nonnull on at the surface, namely, $\sigma_s=0$ and $\sigma_s\neq0$. Read More

There is a host of alternative theories of gravitation in the literature, among them the $f(R,T)$ recently elaborated by Harko and collaborators. In these theories the $R$ and $T$ are respectively the Ricci scalar and the trace of the energy momentum tensor. There is already in literature a series of studies of different forms of the $f(R,T)$ functions as well as their cosmological consequences. Read More

The Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely $B\gtrsim10^{14}$ G, and for that reason are known as Magnetars. However, in the last years some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields $B\sim(10^{12}-10^{13})$ G have been detected, challenging the Magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-Ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Read More

In the 70's Smith and Tassie, and Bell and Ruegg independently found SU(2) symmetries of the Dirac equation with scalar and vector potentials. These symmetries, known as pseudospin and spin symmetries, have been extensively researched and applied to several physical systems. Twenty years after, in 1997, the pseudospin symmetry has been revealed by Ginocchio as a relativistic symmetry of the atomic nuclei when it is described by relativistic mean field hadronic models. Read More

In this article we study the hydrostatic equilibrium configuration of neutron stars and strange stars, whose fluid pressure is computed from the equations of state $p=\omega\rho^{5/3}$ and $p=0.28(\rho-4{\cal B})$, respectively, with $\omega$ and ${\cal B}$ being constants and $\rho$ the energy density of the fluid. We start by deriving the hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the $f(R,T)$ theory of gravity, with $R$ and $T$ standing for the Ricci scalar and trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively. Read More

The hydrostatic equilibrium and the stability against radial perturbation of charged strange quark stars composed of a charged perfect fluid are studied. For this purpose, it is considered that the perfect fluid follows the MIT bag model equation of state and the radial charge distribution follows a power-law. The hydrostatic equilibrium and the stability of charged strange stars are investigated through the numerical solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the Chandrasekhar's pulsation equation, being these equations modified from their original form to include the electrical charge. Read More

This paper considers model spaces in an $H_p$ setting. The existence of unbounded functions and the characterisation of maximal functions in a model space are studied, and decomposition results for Toeplitz kernels, in terms of model spaces, are established. Read More

We show that the magnitude of the order parameters in Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model, given by the quark condensate and the Polyakov loop, can be used as a criterium to clearly identify, without ambiguities, phases and boundaries of the strongly interacting matter, namely, the broken/restored chiral symmetry, and confinement/deconfinement regions. This structure is represented by the projection of the order parameters in the temperature-chemical potential plane, which allows a clear identification of pattern changes in the phase diagram. Such a criterium also enables the emergence of a quarkyonic phase even in the two-flavor system. Read More

The luminosity function (LF) statistics applied to the BATSE GRBs (sources of GUSBAD catalog) is the theme approached in this work. The LF is a strong statistical tool to extract useful information from astrophysical samples, where the key point of this statistical analysis is in the detector sensitivity, where we have performed careful analysis. We applied the tool of the LF statistics to three GRB classes predicted by the Fireshell model. Read More

SGRs/AXPs are considered a subclass of pulsars powered by magnetic energy and not by rotation, as normal radio pulsars. They are understood as strongly magnetized neutron star, with large periods of rotation $P\sim(2-12)$ s, and large spin-down, with typical $\dot{P}\sim(10^{-13}-10^{-10})$ s/s in contrast to $\dot{P}\sim10^{-15}$ s for ordinary pulsars. Their persistent X-ray luminosity, as well as the bursts and flares typical of these sources, are instead believed to be powered by the decay of their ultrastrong magnetic field. Read More

In this work we present the features of the hadron-quark phase transition diagrams in which the pions are included in the system. To construct such diagrams we use two different models in the description of the hadronic and quark sectors. At the quark level, we consider two distinct parametrizations of the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) models. Read More

Over the last decade, observational evidence has mounted that SGRs/AXPs belong to a particular class of pulsars. Furthermore, fast and very magnetic white dwarfs have been observed, and recently two SGRs with low magnetic fields $B\sim(10^{12}-10^{13})$ G, namely SGR 0418+5729 and Swift J1822.3-1606 were discovered with a period of $P\sim9. Read More

**Authors:**J. G. Coelho, R. M. Marinho, M. Malheiro, R. Negreiros, D. L. Cáceres, J. A. Rueda, R. Ruffini

Massive, highly magnetized white dwarfs with fields up to $10^9$ G have been observed and theoretically used for the description of a variety of astrophysical phenomena. Ultramagnetized white dwarfs with uniform interior fields up to $10^{18}$ G, have been recently purported to obey a new maximum mass limit, $M_{\rm max}\approx 2.58~M_\odot$, which largely overcomes the traditional Chandrasekhar value, $M_{\rm Ch}\approx 1. Read More

SGRs/AXPs are assumed to be a class of neutron stars (NS) powered by magnetic energy and not by rotation, as normal radio pulsars. However, the recent discovery of radio-pulsed emission in four of this class of sources, where the spin-down rotational energy lost $\dot{E}_{\rm rot}$ is larger than the X-ray luminosity $L_X$ during the quiescent state - as in normal pulsars - opens the question of the nature of these radio AXPs in comparison to the others of this class. In this work, we show that the radio AXPs obey a linear log-log relation between $L_X$ and $\dot{E}_{\rm rot}$, very similar to the one of normal X-ray pulsars, a correlation not seen for the others SGRs/AXPs. Read More

We derive the node structure of the radial functions which are solutions of the Dirac equation with scalar $S$ and vector $V$ confining central potentials, in the conditions of exact spin or pseudospin symmetry, i.e., when one has $V=\pm S+C$, where $C$ is a constant. Read More

The Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) are some of the most interesting groups of pulsars that have been intensively studied in the recent years. They are understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong magnetic fields, namely $B\gtrsim10^{14}$ G. However, in the last two years two SGRs with low magnetic fields $B\sim(10^{12}-10^{13})$ G have been detected. Read More

Some of the most interesting types of astrophysical objects that have been intensively studied in the recent years are the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) seen usually as neutron stars pulsars with super strong magnetic fields. However, in the last two years two SGRs with low magnetic fields have been detected. Moreover, fast and very magnetic white dwarf pulsars have also been observed in the last years. Read More

We estimate the vector interaction strength of the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) parametrizations, assuming that its transition curves should be as close as possible of the recently studied RMF-PNJL hadron-quark phase diagrams. Such diagrams are obtained matching relativistic mean-field hadronic models, and the PNJL quark ones. By using this method we found for the magnitude of the vector interaction, often treated as a free parameter, a range of 7. Read More

In this work we study the hadron-quark phase transition matching relativistic hadrodynamical mean-field models (in the hadronic phase) with the more updated versions of the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models (on the quark side). Systematic comparisons are performed showing that the predicted hadronic phases of the matching named as RMF-PNJL, are larger than the confined phase obtained exclusively by the Polyakov quark models. This important result is due to the effect of the nuclear force that causes more resistance of hadronic matter to isothermal compressions. Read More

SGR 0418+5729 is a "Rosetta Stone" for deciphering the energy source of Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs). We show a model based on canonical physics and astrophysics for SGRs and AXPs powered by massive highly magnetized rotating white dwarfs (WDs), in total analogy with pulsars powered by rotating neutron stars (NSs). We predict for SGR 0418+5729 a lower limit for its spin-down rate, $\dot{P} \geq L_X P^3/(4\pi^2 I)=1. Read More

A new concept of meromorphic $\Sigma$-factorization, for H\"{o}lder continuous functions defined on a contour $\Gamma$ that is the pullback of $\dot{\mathbb{R}}$ (or the unit circle) in a Riemann surface $\Sigma$ of genus 1, is introduced and studied, and its relations with holomorphic $\Sigma$-factorization are discussed. It is applied to study and solve some scalar Riemann-Hilbert problems in $\Sigma$ and vectorial Riemann-Hilbert problems in $\mathbb{C}$, including Wiener-Hopf matrix factorization, as well as to study some properties of a class of Toeplitz operators with $2 \times 2$ matrix symbols. Read More

In this work we study the electric charge effect on the cross section production of charged mini black holes (MBH) in accelerators. We analyze the charged MBH solution using the {\it fat brane} approximation in the context of the ADD model. The maximum charge-mass ratio condition for the existence of a horizon radius is discussed. Read More

Spin and pseudospin symmetries in the spectra of nucleons and antinucleons are studied in a relativistic mean-field theory with scalar and vector Woods-Saxon potentials, in which the strength of the latter is allowed to change. We observe that, for nucleons and antinucleons, the spin symmetry is of perturbative nature and it is almost an exact symmetry in the physical region for antinucleons. The opposite situation is found in the pseudospin symmetry case, which is better realized for nucleons than for antinucleons, but is of dynamical nature and cannot be viewed in a perturbative way both for nucleons and antinucleons. Read More

We investigate the hadron-quark phase transition inside neutron stars and obtain mass-radius relations for hybrid stars. The equation of state for the quark phase using the standard NJL model is too soft leading to an unstable star and suggesting a modification of the NJL model by introducing a momentum cutoff dependent on the chemical potential. However, even in this approach, the instability remains. Read More

In this work we study the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the SU (2) version with repulsive vector coupling and apply it to quark stellar matter. We discuss the influence of the vector interaction on the equation of state (EoS) and study quark stars that are composed of pure quark matter with two flavors. We show that, increasing the vector coupling, we obtain more massive stars with larger radii for the same central energy density. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}San Diego State University,

^{2}San Diego State University,

^{3}Instituto Tecnologico da Aeronautica,

^{4}Weizmann Institute

The possible existence of compact stars made of absolutely stable strange quark matter--referred to as strange stars--was pointed out by E. Witten almost a quarter of a century ago. One of the most amazing features of such objects concerns the possible existence of ultra-strong electric fields on their surfaces, which, for ordinary strange matter, is around $10^{18}$ V/cm. Read More

The direct detection of gravitational waves will provide valuable astrophysical information about many celestial objects. The most promising sources of gravitational waves are neutron stars and black holes. These objects emit waves in a very wide spectrum of frequencies determined by their quasi-normal modes oscillations. Read More

By using a parametrization of the non-linear Walecka model which takes into account the binding energy of different hyperons, we present a study of particle production yields measured in central Au-Au collision at RHIC. Two sets of different hyperon-meson coupling constants are employed in obtaining the hadron production and chemical freeze-out parameters. These quantities show a weak dependence on the used hyperon-meson couplings. Read More

Relativistic models can be successfully applied to the description of compact star properties in nuclear astrophysics as well as to nuclear matter and finite nuclei properties, these studies taking place at low and moderate temperatures. Nevertheless, all results are model dependent and so far it is unclear whether some of them should be discarded. Moreover, in the regime of hot hadronic matter very few calculations exist using these relativistic models, in particular when applied to particle yields in heavy ion collisions. Read More

We show that the conditions which originate the spin and pseudospin symmetries in the Dirac equation are the same that produce equivalent energy spectra of relativistic spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles in the presence of vector and scalar potentials. The conclusions do not depend on the particular shapes of the potentials and can be important in different fields of physics. When both scalar and vector potentials are spherical, these conditions for isospectrality imply that the spin-orbit and Darwin terms of either the upper component or the lower component of the Dirac spinor vanish, making it equivalent, as far as energy is concerned, to a spin-0 state. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}San Diego State University,

^{2}San Diego State University,

^{3}San Diego State University,

^{4}Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil

With central densities way above the density of atomic nuclei, neutron stars contain matter in one of the densest forms found in the universe. Depending of the density reached in the cores of neutron stars, they may contain stable phases of exotic matter found nowhere else in space. This article gives a brief overview of the phases of ultra-dense matter predicted to exist deep inside neutron stars and discusses the equation of state associated with such matter. Read More

We solve the generalized relativistic harmonic oscillator in 1+1 dimensions, i.e., including a linear pseudoscalar potential and quadratic scalar and vector potentials which have equal or opposite signs. Read More

We review here the classical argument used to justify the electrical neutrality of stars and show that if the pressure and density of the matter and gravitational field inside the star are large, then a charge and a strong electric field can be present. For a neutron star with high pressure (~ 10^{33} to 10^{35} dynes /cm^2) and strong gravitational field (~ 10^{14} cm/s^2), these conditions are satisfied. The hydrostatic equation which arises from general relativity, is modified considerably to meet the requirements of the inclusion of the charge. Read More

The Walecka model contains essentially two parameters that are associated with the Lorentz scalar (S) and vector (V) interactions. These parameters are related to a two-body interaction consisting of S and V, imposing the condition that the two-body binding energy is fixed. We have obtained a set of different values for the nuclear matter binding energies at equilibrium densities. Read More

In this work we study the contribution of the isoscalar tensor coupling to the realization of pseudospin symmetry in nuclei. Using realistic values for the tensor coupling strength, we show that this coupling reduces noticeably the pseudospin splittings, especially for single-particle levels near the Fermi surface. By using an energy decomposition of the pseudospin energy splittings, we show that the changes in these splittings come by mainly through the changes induced in the lower radial wave function for the low-lying pseudospin partners, and by changes in the expectation value of the pseudospin-orbit coupling term for surface partners. Read More

In a recent study of a search for enhancements from the galactic center with muons at sea level using the TUPI muon telescope, we have found several ground level enhancements (GLEs) as very sharp peaks above the count rate background. This paper reports a consistent analysis of two GLEs observed in December 2003 and detected after an up-grade of the data acquisition system, which includes a noise filter and which allows us to verify that the GLEs are not mere background fluctuations. The main target of this study is a search for the origin of the GLEs. Read More

In general relativity all forms of energy contribute to gravity and not only just ordinary matter as in Newtonian Physics. This fact can be seen in the modified hydrostatic equilibrium equation for relativistic stars pervaded by magnetic (B) fields. It has an additional term coupled to the matter part as well as an anisotropic term which is purely of magnetic origin. Read More

We show that relativistic mean fields theories with scalar, $S$, and vector, $V$, quadratic radial potentials can generate a harmonic oscillator with exact pseudospin symmetry {\it and positive energy bound states} when $S=-V$. The eigenenergies are quite different from those of the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator. We also discuss a mechanism for perturbatively breaking this symmetry by introducing a tensor potential. Read More

We study Compton scattering in systems with A=1 and 2 using chiral perturbation theory up to fourth order. For the proton we fit the two undetermined parameters in the O(Q^4) $\gamma$p amplitude of McGovern to experimental data in the region $\omega,\sqrt{|t|} \leq 180$ MeV, obtaining a chi^2/d.o. Read More

In this work, we analyze the effect of charge in compact stars considering the limit of the maximum amount of charge they can hold. We find that the global balance of the forces allows a huge charge (~ 10^{20} Coulomb) to be present in a neutron star producing a very high electric field (~ 10^{21} V/m). We have studied the particular case of a polytropic equation of state and assumed that the charge distribution is proportional to the mass density. Read More

In this paper we will discuss charged stars with polytropic equation of state, where we will try to derive an equation analogous to the Lane-Emden equation. We will assume that these stars are spherically symmetric, and the electric field have only the radial component. First we will review the field equations for such stars and then we will proceed with the analog of the Lane-Emden equation for a polytropic Newtonian fluid and their relativistic equivalent. Read More

We investigate the isospin dependence of pseudospin symmetry in the chain of tin isotopes (from $^{120}$Sn until $^{170}$Sn). Using a Woods-Saxon parametrization of the nuclear potential for these isotopes we study in detail the effect of the vector-isovector $\rho$ and Coulomb potentials in the energy splittings of neutron and proton pseudospin partners in the isotopic chain. We conclude that the realization of nuclear pseudospin symmetry does not change considerably with the mass number, and is always favored for neutrons. Read More

A generalized relativistic harmonic oscillator for spin 1/2 particles is studied. The Dirac Hamiltonian contains a scalar $S$ and a vector $V$ quadratic potentials in the radial coordinate, as well as a tensor potential $U$ linear in $r$. Setting either or both combinations $\Sigma=S+V$ and $% \Delta=V-S$ to zero, analytical solutions for bound states of the corresponding Dirac equations are found. Read More

We study the effect of electric charge in compact stars assuming that the charge distribution is proportional to the mass density. The pressure and the density of the matter inside the stars are large, and the gravitational field is intense. This indicates that electric charge and a strong electric field can also be present. Read More

Strange quark matter in beta equilibrium at high densities is studied in a quark confinement model. Two equations of state are dynamically generated for the {\it same} set of model parameters used to describe the nucleon: one corresponds to a chiral restored phase with almost massless quarks and the other to a chiral broken phase. The chiral symmetric phase saturates at around five times the nuclear matter density. Read More

We investigate the role of the Coulomb and the vector-isovector $\rho$ potentials in the asymmetry of the neutron and proton pseudospin splittings in nuclei. To this end, we solve the Dirac equation for the nucleons using central vector and scalar potentials with Woods-Saxon shape and $Z$ and $N-Z$ dependent Coulomb and $\rho$ potentials added to the vector potential. We study the effect of these potentials on the energy splittings of proton and neutron pseudospin partners along a Sn isotopic chain. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Instituto de Fisica, UFF, Niteroi, Brazil,

^{2}Instituto de Fisica, UFF, Niteroi, Brazil,

^{3}Instituto de Fisica, UFF, Niteroi, Brazil,

^{4}Instituto de Fisica, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,

^{5}Instituto de Fisica, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

Recent studies show that for central collisions the rising of the incident energy from AGS to RHIC decreases the value of the chemical potential in the Hadron-QGP phase diagram. Thus, the formation of QGP at RHIC energies in central collisions may be expected to occur at very small values of the chemical potential. Using many different relativistic mean-field hadronic models (RMF) at this regime we show that the critical temperature for the Hadron-QGP transition is hadronic model independent. Read More