M. Luty - Editor

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Name
M. Luty
Affiliation
Editor
City
Missoula
Country
United States

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (41)
 
High Energy Physics - Theory (25)
 
High Energy Physics - Experiment (10)
 
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (4)
 
Astrophysics (3)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2)
 
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (2)
 
High Energy Physics - Lattice (1)
 
Quantum Physics (1)

Publications Authored By M. Luty

We argue that conformal invariance in flat spacetime implies Weyl invariance in a general curved background metric for all unitary theories in spacetime dimensions $d \leq 10$. We also study possible curvature corrections to the Weyl transformations of operators, and show that these are absent for operators of sufficiently low dimensionality and spin. We identify a class of consistent curvature corrections proportional to the Weyl tensor (Cotton tensor in $d = 3$). Read More

This paper presents two methods to compute scale anomaly coefficients in conformal field theories (CFTs), such as the c anomaly in four dimensions, in terms of the CFT data. We first use Euclidean position space to show that the anomaly coefficient of a four-point function can be computed in the form of an operator product expansion (OPE), namely a weighted sum of OPE coefficients squared. We compute the weights for scale anomalies associated with scalar operators and show that they are not positive. Read More

The discovery of a 125 GeV Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider strongly motivates direct searches for additional Higgs bosons. In a type I two Higgs doublet model there is a large region of parameter space at $\tan\beta > 5$ that is currently unconstrained experimentally. We show that the process $gg \to H \to A Z \to ZZh$ can probe this region, and can be the discovery mode for an extended Higgs sector at the LHC. Read More

We argue that all consistent 4D quantum field theories obey a spacetime-averaged weak energy inequality $\langle T^{00} \rangle \ge -C/L^4$, where $L$ is the size of the smearing region, and $C$ is a positive constant that depends on the theory. If this condition is violated, the theory has states that are indistinguishable from states of negative total energy by any local measurement, and we expect instabilities or other inconsistencies. We apply this condition to 4D conformal field theories, and find that it places constraints on the OPE coefficients of the theory. Read More

We present a mechanism that allows a large Higgsino mass without large fine-tuning. The Higgs is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson (PNGB) of the global symmetry breaking pattern $SO(5) \to SO(4)$. Because of the PNGB nature of the light Higgs, the $SO(5)$ invariant Higgsino mass does not directly contribute to the Higgs mass. Read More

We study the phenomenology of models of electroweak symmetry breaking where the Higgs potential is dominated by a positive quadratic term destabilized by a tadpole arising from the coupling to an "auxiliary" Higgs sector. The auxiliary Higgs sector can be either perturbative or strongly coupled, similar to technicolor models. Since electroweak symmetry breaking is driven by a tadpole, the cubic and quartic Higgs couplings can naturally be significantly smaller than their values in the standard model. Read More

Effective WIMP models are minimal extensions of the standard model that explain the relic density of dark matter by the ``WIMP miracle.'' In this paper we consider the phenomenology of effective WIMPs with trilinear couplings to leptons and a new ``lepton partner'' particle. The observed relic abundance fixes the strength of the cubic coupling, so the parameters of the models are defined by the masses of the WIMP and lepton partner particles. Read More

This paper addresses the question of whether there are 4D Lorentz invariant unitary quantum field theories with scale invariance but not conformal invariance. An important loophole in the arguments of Luty-Polchinski-Rattazzi and Dymarsky-Komargodski-Schwimmer-Theisen is that trace of the energy-momentum tensor $T$ could be a generalized free field. In this paper we rule out this possibility. Read More

These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 3, on the Energy Frontier, discusses the program of research with high-energy colliders. Read More

We give a non-perturbative proof that any 4D unitary and Lorentz-invariant quantum field theory with a conserved scale current is in fact conformally invariant. We show that any scale invariant theory (unitary or not) must have either a vanishing anomaly for global scale transformations or an operator of spin 2 and dimension 2. Neither of these possibilities is allowed for unitary theories, proving the result. Read More

The 'WIMP miracle' for the relic abundance of thermal dark matter motivates weak scale dark matter with renormalizable couplings to standard model particles. We study minimal models with such couplings that explain dark matter as a thermal relic. The models contain a singlet dark matter particle with cubic renormalizable couplings between standard model particles and 'partner' particles with the same gauge quantum numbers as the standard model particle. Read More

In this paper we study a new class of supersymmetric models that can explain a 125 GeV Higgs without fine-tuning. These models contain additional `auxiliary Higgs' fields with large tree-level quartic interaction terms but no Yukawa couplings. These have electroweak-breaking vacuum expectation values, and contribute to the VEVs of the MSSM Higgs fields either through an induced quartic or through an induced tadpole. Read More

The entanglement entropy associated with a spatial boundary in quantum field theory is UV divergent, with the leading term proportional to the area of the boundary. For a class of quantum states defined by a path integral, the Callan-Wilczek formula gives a geometrical definition of the entanglement entropy. We show that, for this class of quantum states, the entanglement entropy is rendered UV-finite by precisely the counterterms required to cancel the UV divergences in the gravitational effective action. Read More

We propose a framework for natural breaking of electroweak symmetry in supersymmetric models, where elementary Higgs fields are semi-perturbatively coupled to a strong superconformal sector. The Higgs VEVs break conformal symmetry in the strong sector at the TeV scale, and the strong sector in turn gives important contributions to the Higgs potential, giving rise to a kind of Higgs bootstrap. A Higgs with mass $125\GeV$ can be accommodated without any fine tuning. Read More

We study the possible IR and UV asymptotics of 4D Lorentz invariant unitary quantum field theory. Our main tool is a generalization of the Komargodski-Schwimmer proof for the $a$-theorem. We use this to rule out a large class of renormalization group flows that do not asymptote to conformal field theories in the UV and IR. Read More

In extended Higgs sectors, heavy Higgs bosons can decay via cascades to a light Higgs boson plus $W$ and $Z$ bosons. We study signals of such sectors at the Tevatron and LHC that result from resonant production of a heavy $H^0$ followed by the decay $H^0 \to H^\pm W^\mp$ with $H^+ \to W^+ h^0 \to W^+ b\bar{b}$ or $H^+ \to t\bar{b} \to W^+ b\bar{b}$. The final states have the same particle content as that of $t\bar{t}$ production, but with a resonant structure that can be used to distinguish signal events from background events. Read More

Particle physics models with more than one Higgs boson occur in many frameworks for physics beyond the standard model, including supersymmetry, technicolor, composite Higgs, and "little Higgs" models. If the Higgs sector contains couplings stronger than electroweak gauge couplings, there will be heavy Higgs particles that decay to lighter Higgs particles plus heavy particles such as $W$, $Z$, and $t$. This motivates searches for final states involving multiple $W$, $Z$, $t$, and $\bar{b}b$ pairs. Read More

In supersymmetric theories with a strong conformal sector, soft supersymmetry breaking naturally gives rise to confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in the strong sector at the TeV scale. We construct and analyze models where such a sector dynamically breaks electroweak symmetry, and take the first steps in studying their phenomenology. We consider two scenarios, one where the strong dynamics induces vacuum expectation values for elementary Higgs fields, and another where the strong dynamics is solely responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. Read More

In supersymmetric theories with a strong conformal sector, soft supersymmetry breaking at the TeV scale naturally gives rise to confinement and chiral symmetry breaking at the same scale. We investigate models where such a sector dynamically breaks electroweak symmetry. We consider two scenarios, one where the strong dynamics induces vacuum expectation values for elementary Higgs fields, and another where the strong dynamics is solely responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. Read More

2011May
Authors: Daniele Alves1, Nima Arkani-Hamed2, Sanjay Arora3, Yang Bai4, Matthew Baumgart5, Joshua Berger6, Matthew Buckley7, Bart Butler8, Spencer Chang9, Hsin-Chia Cheng10, Clifford Cheung11, R. Sekhar Chivukula12, Won Sang Cho13, Randy Cotta14, Mariarosaria D'Alfonso15, Sonia El Hedri16, Rouven Essig17, Jared A. Evans18, Liam Fitzpatrick19, Patrick Fox20, Roberto Franceschini21, Ayres Freitas22, James S. Gainer23, Yuri Gershtein24, Richard Gray25, Thomas Gregoire26, Ben Gripaios27, Jack Gunion28, Tao Han29, Andy Haas30, Per Hansson31, JoAnne Hewett32, Dmitry Hits33, Jay Hubisz34, Eder Izaguirre35, Jared Kaplan36, Emanuel Katz37, Can Kilic38, Hyung-Do Kim39, Ryuichiro Kitano40, Sue Ann Koay41, Pyungwon Ko42, David Krohn43, Eric Kuflik44, Ian Lewis45, Mariangela Lisanti46, Tao Liu47, Zhen Liu48, Ran Lu49, Markus Luty50, Patrick Meade51, David Morrissey52, Stephen Mrenna53, Mihoko Nojiri54, Takemichi Okui55, Sanjay Padhi56, Michele Papucci57, Michael Park58, Myeonghun Park59, Maxim Perelstein60, Michael Peskin61, Daniel Phalen62, Keith Rehermann63, Vikram Rentala64, Tuhin Roy65, Joshua T. Ruderman66, Veronica Sanz67, Martin Schmaltz68, Stephen Schnetzer69, Philip Schuster70, Pedro Schwaller71, Matthew D. Schwartz72, Ariel Schwartzman73, Jing Shao74, Jessie Shelton75, David Shih76, Jing Shu77, Daniel Silverstein78, Elizabeth Simmons79, Sunil Somalwar80, Michael Spannowsky81, Christian Spethmann82, Matthew Strassler83, Shufang Su84, Tim Tait85, Brooks Thomas86, Scott Thomas87, Natalia Toro88, Tomer Volansky89, Jay Wacker90, Wolfgang Waltenberger, Itay Yavin, Felix Yu, Yue Zhao, Kathryn Zurek
Affiliations: 1Editor, 2Editor, 3Editor, 4Editor, 5Editor, 6Editor, 7Editor, 8Editor, 9Editor, 10Editor, 11Editor, 12Editor, 13Editor, 14Editor, 15Editor, 16Editor, 17Editor, 18Editor, 19Editor, 20Editor, 21Editor, 22Editor, 23Editor, 24Editor, 25Editor, 26Editor, 27Editor, 28Editor, 29Editor, 30Editor, 31Editor, 32Editor, 33Editor, 34Editor, 35Editor, 36Editor, 37Editor, 38Editor, 39Editor, 40Editor, 41Editor, 42Editor, 43Editor, 44Editor, 45Editor, 46Editor, 47Editor, 48Editor, 49Editor, 50Editor, 51Editor, 52Editor, 53Editor, 54Editor, 55Editor, 56Editor, 57Editor, 58Editor, 59Editor, 60Editor, 61Editor, 62Editor, 63Editor, 64Editor, 65Editor, 66Editor, 67Editor, 68Editor, 69Editor, 70Editor, 71Editor, 72Editor, 73Editor, 74Editor, 75Editor, 76Editor, 77Editor, 78Editor, 79Editor, 80Editor, 81Editor, 82Editor, 83Editor, 84Editor, 85Editor, 86Editor, 87Editor, 88Editor, 89Editor, 90Editor

This document proposes a collection of simplified models relevant to the design of new-physics searches at the LHC and the characterization of their results. Both ATLAS and CMS have already presented some results in terms of simplified models, and we encourage them to continue and expand this effort, which supplements both signature-based results and benchmark model interpretations. A simplified model is defined by an effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of a small number of new particles. Read More

If R hadrons are discovered at the LHC, investigation of their properties will be of paramount importance. One important question is how much of the R-hadron mass is due to electroweak symmetry breaking, i.e. Read More

We construct a complete, realistic, and natural UV completion of minimal conformal technicolor that explains the origin of quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. As in "bosonic technicolor", we embed conformal technicolor in a supersymmetric theory, with supersymmetry broken at a high scale. The exchange of heavy scalar doublets generates higher-dimension interactions between technifermions and quarks and leptons that give rise to quark and lepton masses at the TeV scale. Read More

We construct a simple and natural supersymmetric model where the dominant Higgs decay is h -> aa followed by a -> gg. In this case m_h < m_Z is compatible with all experimental searches, completely eliminating the fine tuning otherwise required to satisfy Higgs search limits. The model extends the MSSM with singlet Higgs fields as well as vector-like colored particles that mediate the decay a -> gg. Read More

Mixed anomaly and gauge mediation ("gaugomaly'' mediation) gives a natural solution to the SUSY flavor problem with a conventional LSP dark matter candidate. We present a minimal version of gaugomaly mediation where the messenger masses arise directly from anomaly mediation, automatically generating a messenger scale of order 50 TeV. We also describe a simple relaxation mechanism that gives rise to realistic mu and B mu terms. Read More

We study the minimal model of conformal technicolor, an SU(2) gauge theory near a strongly coupled conformal fixed point, with conformal symmetry softly broken by technifermion mass terms. Conformal symmetry breaking triggers chiral symmetry breaking in the pattern SU(4) -> Sp(4), which gives rise to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson that can act as a composite Higgs boson. The top quark is elementary, and the top and electroweak gauge loop contributions to the Higgs mass are cut off entirely by Higgs compositeness. Read More

Particles with TeV mass and strong self-interactions generically have the right annihilation cross section to explain an observed excess of cosmic electrons and positrons if the end-product of the annihilation is charged leptons. We present an explicit model of strongly-coupled TeV-scale dark matter whose relic abundance related to the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the observed universe. The B - L asymmetry of the standard model is transfered to the dark sector by an operator carrying standard model lepton number. Read More

Models in which the dark matter is very weakly coupled to the observable sector may explain the observed dark matter density, either as a "superWIMP" or as "asymmetric dark matter." Both types of models predict displaced vertices at colliders, with a rich variety of possible phenomenology. We classify the cases in which the decays can naturally occur inside particle detectors at the LHC, with particular focus on the nontrivial scenarios where the decaying particle is invisible. Read More

We argue that theories of strong electroweak symmetry breaking sector necessarily contain new spin 0 states at the TeV scale in the tbar-t and tbar-b/bbar-t channels, even if the third generation quarks are not composite at the TeV scale. These states couple sufficiently strongly to third generation quarks to have significant production at LHC via gg \to X or gb \to X. The existence of narrow resonances in QCD suggests that the strong electroweak breaking sector contains narrow resonances that decay to tbar-t or tbar-b/bbar-t, with significant branching fractions to 3 or more longitudinal W and Z bosons. Read More

We consider a simple class of models in which the relic density of dark matter is determined by the baryon asymmetry of the universe. In these models a $B - L$ asymmetry generated at high temperatures is transfered to the dark matter, which is charged under $B - L$. The interactions that transfer the asymmetry decouple at temperatures above the dark matter mass, freezing in a dark matter asymmetry of order the baryon asymmetry. Read More

Conformal technicolor is a paradigm for new physics at LHC that may solve the problems of strong electroweak symmetry breaking for quark masses and precision electroweak data. We give explicit examples of conformal technicolor theories based on a QCD-like sector. We suggest a practical method to test the conformal dynamics of these theories on the lattice. Read More

We consider extensions of the standard model containing additional heavy particles ("quirks") charged under a new unbroken non-abelian gauge group as well as the standard model. We assume that the quirk mass m is in the phenomenologically interesting range 100 GeV--TeV, and that the new gauge group gets strong at a scale Lambda < m. In this case breaking of strings is exponentially suppressed, and quirk production results in strings that are long compared to 1/Lambda. Read More

Long-lived colored particles with masses m > 200 GeV are allowed by current accelerator searches, and are predicted by a number of scenarios for physics beyond the standard model. We argue that such "heavy partons'' effectively have a geometrical cross section (of order 10 mb) for annihilation at temperatures below the QCD deconfinement transition. The annihilation process involves the formation of an intermediate bound state of two heavy partons with large orbital angular momentum. Read More

We present a consistent effective theory that violates the null energy condition (NEC) without developing any instabilities or other pathological features. The model is the ghost condensate with the global shift symmetry softly broken by a potential. We show that this system can drive a cosmological expansion with dH/dt > 0. Read More

In the context of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking, it is natural for vectorlike fields and singlets to have supersymmetry breaking masses of order 10 TeV, and therefore act as messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We show that this can give rise to phenomenologically viable spectra compatible with perturbative gauge coupling unification. The minimal model interpolates continuously between pure anomaly mediation and gauge mediation with a messenger scale of order 10 TeV. Read More

Theories that spontaneously break Lorentz invariance also violate diffeomorphism symmetries, implying the existence of extra degrees of freedom and modifications of gravity. In the minimal model (``ghost condensation'') with only a single extra degree of freedom at low energies, the scale of Lorentz violation cannot be larger than about M ~ 100GeV due to an infrared instability in the gravity sector. We show that Lorentz symmetry can be broken at much higher scales in a non-minimal theory with additional degrees of freedom, in particular if Lorentz symmetry is broken by the vacuum expectation value of a vector field. Read More

These lectures give an introduction to the problem of finding a realistic and natural extension of the standard model based on spontaneously broken supersymmetry. Topics discussed at some length include the effective field theory paradigm, coupling constants as superfield spurions, gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, and anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking, including an extensive introduction to supergravity relevant for phenomenology. Read More

We investigate the universal low-energy dynamics of the simplest Higgs phase for gravity, `ghost condensation.' We show that the nonlinear dynamics of the `ghostone' field dominate for all interesting gravitational sources. Away from caustic singularities, the dynamics is equivalent to the irrotational flow of a perfect fluid with equation of state p \propto \rho^2, where the fluid particles can have negative mass. Read More

We point out that the flavor problem in theories with dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking can be effectively decoupled if the physics above the TeV scale is strongly conformal, and the electroweak order parameter has a scaling dimension d = 1 + epsilon with epsilon \simeq 1/few. There are many restrictions on small values of epsilon: for epsilon << 1, electroweak symmetry breaking requires a fine-tuning similar to that of the standard model; large-N conformal field theories (including those obtained from the AdS/CFT correspondence) require fine-tuning for d < 2; `walking technicolor' theories cannot have d < 2, according to gap equation analyses. However, strong small-N conformal field theories with epsilon \simeq 1/few avoid all these constraints, and can give rise to natural dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking with a top quark flavor scale of order 10^{1/epsilon} TeV, large enough to decouple flavor. Read More

We study the universal low-energy dynamics associated with the spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance down to spatial rotations. The effective Lagrangian for the associated Goldstone field can be uniquely determined by the non-linear realization of a broken time diffeomorphism symmetry, up to some overall mass scales. It has previously been shown that this symmetry breaking pattern gives rise to a Higgs phase of gravity, in which gravity is modified in the infrared. Read More

We propose a theoretically consistent modification of gravity in the infrared, which is compatible with all current experimental observations. This is an analog of Higgs mechanism in general relativity, and can be thought of as arising from ghost condensation--a background where a scalar field \phi has a constant velocity, <\dot\phi> = M^2. The ghost condensate is a new kind of fluid that can fill the universe, which has the same equation of state, \rho = -p, as a cosmological constant, and can hence drive de Sitter expansion of the universe. Read More

We investigate the possibility that supersymmetry is not a fundamental symmetry of nature, but emerges as an accidental approximate global symmetry at low energies. This can occur if the visible sector is non-supersymmetric at high scales, but flows toward a strongly-coupled superconformal fixed point at low energies; or, alternatively, if the visible sector is localized near the infrared brane of a warped higher-dimensional spacetime with supersymmetry broken only on the UV brane. These two scenarios are related by the AdS/CFT correspondence. Read More

We compute the supergravity loop contributions to the visible sector scalar masses in the simplest 5D `brane-world' model. Supersymmetry is assumed to be broken away from the visible brane and the contributions are UV finite due to 5D locality. We perform the calculation with N = 1 supergraphs, using a formulation of 5D supergravity in terms of N = 1 superfields. Read More

The model of Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati (DGP) gives a simple geometrical setup in which gravity becomes 5-dimensional at distances larger than a length scale \lambda_{DGP}. We show that this theory has strong interactions at a length scale \lambda_3 ~ (\lambda_{DGP}^2 / M_P)^{1/3}. If \lambda_{DGP} is of order the Hubble length, then the theory loses predictivity at distances shorter than \lambda_3 ~ 1000 km. Read More

We construct an explicit 5-dimensional supergravity model that realizes the "no scale" mechanism for supersymmetry breaking with no unstable moduli. Supersymmetry is broken by a constant superpotential localized on a brane, and the radion is stabilized by Casimir energy from supergravity and massive hypermultiplets. If the standard model gauge and matter fields are localized on a brane, then visible sector supersymmetry breaking is dominated by gravity loops and flavor-violating hypermultiplet loops, and gaugino masses are smaller than scalar masses. Read More

We give a formulation of linearized minimal 5-dimensional supergravity in N = 1 superspace. Infinitesimal local 5D diffeomorphisms, local 5D Lorentz transformations, and local 5D supersymmetry are all realized as off-shell superfield transformations. Compactification on an S^1 / Z_2 orbifold and couplings to brane-localized supermultiplets are very simple in this formalism. Read More

It is generally believed that weak scale supersymmetry implies weak scale supergravity, in the sense that the masses of the gravitino and gravitationally coupled moduli have masses below 100 TeV. This paper presents a realistic framework for supersymmetry breaking in the hidden sector in which the masses of the gravitino and gravitational moduli can be much larger. This cleanly eliminates the cosmological problems of hidden sector models. Read More

We present a simple general framework for realistic models of supersymmetry breaking driven by anomaly mediation. We consider a 5-dimensional "brane universe" where the visible and hidden sectors are localized on different branes, and the standard model gauge bosons propagate in the bulk. In this framework there can be charged scalar messengers that have contact interactions with the hidden sector, either localized in the hidden sector or in the bulk. Read More

We present a simple four-dimensional model in which anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking naturally dominates. The central ingredient is that the hidden sector is near a strongly-coupled infrared fixed-point for several decades of energy below the Planck scale. Strong renormalization effects then sequester the hidden sector from the visible sector. Read More

We study supergravity models in four dimensions where the hidden sector is superconformal and strongly-coupled over several decades of energy below the Planck scale, before undergoing spontaneous breakdown of scale invariance and supersymmetry. We show that large anomalous dimensions can suppress Kahler contact terms between the hidden and visible sectors, leading to models in which the hidden sector is "sequestered" and anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking can naturally dominate, thus solving the supersymmetric flavor problem. We construct simple, explicit models of the hidden sector based on supersymmetric QCD in the conformal window. Read More