M. Kriener

M. Kriener
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M. Kriener

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Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (19)
Physics - Superconductivity (17)
Physics - Materials Science (5)
Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (4)
Physics - Other (1)
Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (1)

Publications Authored By M. Kriener

We report magnetic and thermodynamic properties of a $4d^1$ (Mo$^{5+}$) magnetic insulator MoOPO$_4$ single crystal, which realizes a $J_1$-$J_2$ Heisenberg spin-$1/2$ model on a stacked square lattice. The specific-heat measurements show a magnetic transition at 16 K which is also confirmed by magnetic susceptibility, ESR, and neutron diffraction measurements. Magnetic entropy deduced from the specific heat corresponds to a two-level degree of freedom per Mo$^{5+}$ ion, and the effective moment from the susceptibility corresponds to the spin-only value. Read More

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important concept for understanding physics ranging from the elementary particles to states of matter. For example, the superconducting state breaks global gauge symmetry, and unconventional superconductors can break additional symmetries. In particular, spin rotational symmetry is expected to be broken in spin-triplet superconductors. Read More

We present a study on the modification of the electronic structure and hole-doping effect for the layered dichalcogenide WSe_2 with a multi-valley band structure, where Ta is doped on the W site along with a partial substitution of Te for its lighter counterpart Se. By means of band-structure calculations and specific-heat measurements, the introduction of Te is theoretically and experimentally found to change the electronic states in WSe_2. While in WSe_2 the valence-band maximum is located at the Gamma point, the introduction of Te raises the bands at the K point with respect to the Gamma point. Read More

Superconducting CuxBi2Se3 has attracted significant attention as a candidate topological superconductor. Besides inducing superconductivity, the introduction of Cu atoms to this material has also been observed to produce a number of unusual features in DC transport and magnetic susceptibility measurements. To clarify the effect of Cu doping, we have performed a systematic optical spectroscopic study of the electronic structure of CuxBi2Se3 as a function of Cu doping. Read More

The superconductor Sn_{1-x}In_{x}Te is a doped topological crystalline insulator and has become important as a candidate topological superconductor, but its superconducting phase diagram is poorly understood. By measuring about 50 samples of high-quality, vapor-grown single crystals, we found that the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature Tc on the In content x presents a qualitative change across the critical doping xc ~ 3.8%, at which a structural phase transition takes place. Read More

We report the systematic investigation of the specific heat of the noncentrosymmetric supercon- ductor Li2(Pd1-xPtx)3B as a function of x. There is a large deviation of the phononic specific heat from the conventional Debye specific heat for Pt-rich samples. In contrast with the fully-gapped con- ventional behavior for small x, a power-law temperature dependence of the electronic specific heat is observed even at x = 0. Read More

We report superconducting properties of AgSnSe2 which is a conventional type-II superconductor in the very dirty limit due to intrinsically strong electron scatterings. While this material is an isotropic three-dimensional (3D) superconductor with a not-so-short coherence length where strong vortex fluctuations are NOT expected, we found that the magnetic-field-induced resistive transition at fixed temperatures becomes increasingly broader toward zero temperature and, surprisingly, that this broadened transition is taking place largely ABOVE the upper critical field determined thermodynamically from the specific heat. This result points to the existence of an anomalous metallic state possibly caused by quantum phase fluctuations in a strongly-disordered 3D superconductor. Read More

Quasiparticle dynamics on the topological surface state of Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and superconducting CuxBi2Se3 are studied by 7 eV laser-based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We find strong mode-couplings in the Dirac-cone surface states at energies of ~3 and ~15-20 meV, which leads to an exceptionally large coupling constant of ~3, which is one of the strongest ever reported for any material. This result is compatible with the recent observation of a strong Kohn anomaly in the surface phonon dispersion of Bi2Se3, but it appears that the theoretically proposed "spin-plasmon" excitations realized in helical metals are also playing an important role. Read More

CuxBi2Se3 was recently found to be likely the first example of a time-reversal-invariant topological superconductor accompanied by helical Majorana fermions on the surface. Here we present that progressive Cu intercalation into this system introduces significant disorder and leads to an anomalous suppression of the superfluid density which was obtained from the measurements of the lower critical field. At the same time, the transition temperature T_c is only moderately suppressed, which agrees with a recent prediction for the impurity effect in this class of topological superconductors bearing strong spin-orbit coupling. Read More

The superconducting Cu_xBi_2Se_3 is an electron-doped topological insulator and is a prime candidate of the topological superconductor which still awaits discovery. The electrochemical intercalation technique for synthesizing Cu_xBi2Se3 offers good control of restricting Cu into the van-der-Waals gap and yields samples with shielding fractions of up to ~50%. We report essential details of this synthesis technique and present the established superconducting phase diagram of T_c vs x, along with a diagram of the shielding fraction vs x. Read More

A topological superconductor (TSC) is characterized by the topologically-protected gapless surface state that is essentially an Andreev bound state consisting of Majorana fermions. While a TSC has not yet been discovered, the doped topological insulator CuxBi2Se3, which superconducts below ~3 K, has been predicted to possess a topological superconducting state. We report that the point-contact spectra on the cleaved surface of superconducting CuxBi2Se3 present a zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) which signifies unconventional superconductivity. Read More

The H-T phase diagram and several superconducting parameters for Li_2(Pd_{1-x}Pt_x)_3B have been determined as a function of cation substitution x. Notably, the coherence length may be linear in platinum concentration. Despite the superconducting pairing state and band structure apparently changing fundamentally, the H-T phase diagram is essentially unchanged. Read More

The superconductivity recently found in the doped topological insulator Cu_xBi_2Se_3 offers a great opportunity to search for a topological superconductor. We have successfully prepared a single-crystal sample with a large shielding fraction and measured the specific-heat anomaly associated with the superconductivity. The temperature dependence of the specific heat suggests a fully-gapped, strong-coupling superconducting state, but the BCS theory is not in full agreement with the data, which hints at a possible unconventional pairing in Cu_xBi_2Se_3. Read More

We have performed spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of Bi2Te3 and present the first direct evidence for the existence of the out-of-plane spin component on the surface state of a topological insulator. We found that the magnitude of the out-of-plane spin polarization on a hexagonally deformed Fermi surface (FS) of Bi2Te3 reaches maximally 25% of the in-plane counterpart while such a sizable out-of-plane spin component does not exist in the more circular FS of TlBiSe2, indicating that the hexagonal deformation of the FS is responsible for the deviation from the ideal helical spin texture. The observed out-of-plane polarization is much smaller than that expected from existing theory, suggesting that an additional ingredient is necessary for correctly understanding the surface spin polarization in Bi2Te3. Read More

We report crystallographic, specific heat, transport, and magnetic properties of the recently discovered noncentrosymmetric 5d-electron superconductors CaIrSi3 (Tc = 3.6 K) and CaPtSi3 (Tc = 2.3 K). Read More

In 2007, type-I superconductivity in heavily boron-doped silicon carbide was discovered. The question arose, if it is possible to achieve a superconducting phase by introducing dopants different from boron. Recently, aluminum-doped silicon carbide was successfully found to superconduct by means of resistivity and DC magnetization measurements. Read More

The discoveries of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond, silicon and silicon carbide renewed the interest in the ground states of charge-carrier doped wide-gap semiconductors. Recently, aluminium doping in silicon carbide successfully yielded a metallic phase from which at high aluminium concentrations superconductivity emerges. Here, we present a specific-heat study on superconducting aluminium-doped silicon carbide. Read More

The discoveries of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond (C:B) in 2004 and silicon (Si:B) in 2006 renew the interest in the superconducting state of semiconductors. Charge-carrier doping of wide-gap semiconductors leads to a metallic phase from which upon further doping superconductivity can emerge. Recently, we discovered superconductivity in a closely related system: heavily-boron doped silicon carbide (SiC:B). Read More

In 2004 the discovery of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond (C:B) led to an increasing interest in the superconducting phases of wide-gap semiconductors. Subsequently superconductivity was found in heavily boron-doped cubic silicon (Si:B) and recently in the stochiometric ''mixture'' of heavily boron-doped silicon carbide (SiC:B). The latter system surprisingly exhibits type-I superconductivity in contrast to the type-II superconductors C:B and Si:B. Read More

We present a combined study of the thermal expansion and the thermal conductivity of the perovskite series RCoO_3 with R = La, Nd, Pr and Eu. The well-known spin-state transition in LaCoO_3 is strongly affected by the exchange of the R ions due to their different ionic radii, i.e. Read More

The discoveries of superconductivity in the heavily-boron doped semiconductors diamond (C:B) in 2004 and silicon (Si:B) in 2006 have renewed the interest in the physics of the superconducting state of doped semiconductors. Recently, we discovered superconductivity in the closely related ''mixed'' system heavily boron-doped silcon carbide (SiC:B). Interestingly, the latter compound is a type-I superconductor whereas the two aforementioned materials are type-II. Read More

We report thermal-expansion, lattice-constant, and specific-heat data of the series La_1-xA_xCoO_3 for 0<= x <= 0.30 with A = Ca, Sr, and Ba. For the undoped compound LaCoO_3 the thermal-expansion coefficient alpha(T) exhibits a pronounced maximum around T=50K caused by a temperature-driven spin-state transition from a low-spin state of the Co^{3+$ ions at low towards a higher spin state at higher temperatures. Read More

The magnetic correlations in the charge- and orbital-ordered manganite La(0.5)Sr(1.5)MnO(4) have been studied by elastic and inelastic neutron scattering techniques. Read More

A detailed analysis of the crystal structure in RETiO3 with RE = La, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Y reveals an intrinsic coupling between orbital degrees of freedom and the lattice which cannot be fully attributed to the structural deformation arising from bond-length mismatch. The TiO6 octahedra in this series are all irregular with the shape of the distortion depending on the RE ionic radius. These octahedron distortions vary more strongly with temperature than the tilt and rotation angles. Read More

We report thermal-expansion and specific-heat data of the series La_1-xCa_xCoO_3 for 0 <= x <= 0.3. For x = 0 the thermal-expansion coefficient alpha(T) features a pronounced maximum around T = 50 K caused by a temperature-dependent spin-state transition from a low-spin state (S=0) at low temperatures towards a higher spin state of the Co^3+ ions. Read More

We have studied the influence of a magnetic field on the thermodynamic properties of Ca$_{2-x}$Sr$_{x}$RuO$_4$ in the intermediate metallic region with tilt and rotational distortions ($0.2\leq x \leq 0.5$). Read More

We have studied the thermal conductivity $\kappa$ on single crystalline samples of the antiferromagnetic monolayer cuprates R$_2$CuO$_4$ with R = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd. For a heat current within the CuO$_2$ planes, i.e. Read More

We present measurements of the in-plane kappa_ab and out-of-plane kappa_c thermal conductivity of Pr2CuO4 and Gd2CuO4 single crystals. The anisotropy gives strong evidence for a large contribution of magnetic excitations to kappa_ab i.e. Read More

We report on the magnetic, thermodynamic and optical properties of the quasi-one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets TiOCl and TiOBr, which have been discussed as spin-Peierls compounds. The observed deviations from canonical spin-Peierls behavior, e.g. Read More

We present a study of the thermal conductivity k and the thermopower S of single crystals of La_{1-x}Sr_xCoO_3 with 0<= x <= 0.3. For all Sr concentrations La_{1-x}Sr_xCoO_3 has rather low k values, whereas S strongly changes as a function of x. Read More

The crystal structure of Ca_{2-x}Sr_xRuO_4 with 0.2 < x < 1.0 has been studied by diffraction techniques and by high resolution capacitance dilatometry as a function of temperature and magnetic field. Read More

We present a study of the structure, the electric resistivity, the magnetic susceptibility, and the thermal expansion of La$_{1-x}$Eu$_x$CoO$_3$. LaCoO$_3$ shows a temperature-induced spin-state transition around 100 K and a metal-insulator transition around 500 K. Partial substitution of La$^{3+}$ by the smaller Eu$^{3+}$ causes chemical pressure and leads to a drastic increase of the spin gap from about 190 K in LaCoO$_3$ to about 2000 K in EuCoO$_3$, so that the spin-state transition is shifted to much higher temperatures. Read More

We present an investigation of the influence of structural distortions in charge-carrier doped \lmco by substituting La$^{3+}$ with alkaline earth metals of strongly different ionic sizes, that is M = Ca$^{2+}$, Sr$^{2+}$, and Ba$^{2+}$, respectively. We find that both, the magnetic properties and the resistivity change non-monotonously as a function of the ionic size of M. Doping \lmco with M = Sr$^{2+}$ yields higher transition temperatures to the ferromagnetically ordered states and lower resistivities than doping with either Ca$^{2+}$ or Ba$^{2+}$ having a smaller or larger ionic size than Sr$^{2+}$, respectively. Read More

We present measurements of the magnetic susceptibility and of the thermal expansion of a LaCoO$_3$ single crystal. Both quantities show a strongly anomalous temperature dependence. Our data are consistently described in terms of a spin-state transition of the Co$^{3+}$ ions with increasing temperature from a low-spin ground state to an intermediate-spin state without (100K - 500K) and with (>500K) orbital degeneracy. Read More