M. Hirsch - UCL, MPI-IS

M. Hirsch
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M. Hirsch

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Pub Categories

High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (27)
Mathematics - Dynamical Systems (7)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (5)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (5)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (5)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (3)
Nuclear Theory (2)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (1)
Computer Science - Learning (1)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1)
Physics - Optics (1)
Computer Science - Software Engineering (1)
Statistics - Machine Learning (1)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (1)
Computer Science - Graphics (1)
Nuclear Experiment (1)
Mathematics - Optimization and Control (1)
Mathematics - Probability (1)
Physics - Space Physics (1)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By M. Hirsch

Recently, several discriminative learning approaches have been proposed for effective image restoration, achieving convincing trade-off between image quality and computational efficiency. However, these methods require separate training for each restoration task (e.g. Read More

We study a left right (LR) extension of the Standard Model (SM) where the Dark Matter (DM) candidate is composed of a set of fermionic Majorana triplets. The DM is stabilized by a remnant $Z_{2}$ symmetry from the breaking of the LR group to the SM. Two simple scenarios where the DM particles plus a certain set of extra fields lead to gauge coupling unification with a low LR scale are explored. Read More

Single image super-resolution is the task of inferring a high-resolution image from a single low-resolution input. Traditionally, the performance of algorithms for this task is measured using pixel-wise reconstruction measures such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) which have been shown to correlate poorly with the human perception of image quality. As a result, algorithms minimizing these metrics tend to produce oversmoothed images that lack high-frequency textures and do not look natural despite yielding high PSNR values. Read More

We discuss contributions to neutrinoless double beta ($0\nu\beta\beta$) decay involving vector bosons. The starting point is a list of all possible vector representations that may contribute to $0\nu\beta\beta$ decay via $d=9$ or $d=11$ operators at tree-level. We then identify gauge groups which contain these vectors in the adjoint representation. Read More

Let X be a subset of R^n whose interior is connected and dense in X, ordered by a polyhedral cone in R^n with nonempty interior. Let T be a monotone homeomorphism of X whose periodic points are dense. Then T is periodic. Read More

We analyze the impact of QCD corrections on limits derived from neutrinoless double beta decay ($0\nu\beta\beta$). As demonstrated previously, the effect of the color-mismatch arising from loops with gluons linking the quarks from different color-singlet currents participating in the effective operators has a dramatic impact on the predictions for some particular Wilson coefficients. Here, we consider all possible contributions from heavy particle exchange, i. Read More

Recently it has been demonstrated that QCD corrections are numerically important for short-range mechanisms (SRM) of neutrinoless double beta decay ($0\nu\beta\beta$) mediated by heavy particle exchange. This is due to the effect of color mismatch for certain effective operators, which leads to mixing between different operators with vastly different nuclear matrix elements (NMEs). In this note we analyze the QCD corrections for long-range mechanisms (LRM), due to diagrams with light-neutrino exchange between a Standard Model (V-A)$\times$(V-A) and a beyond the SM lepton number violating vertex. Read More

Light field photography captures rich structural information that may facilitate a number of traditional image processing and computer vision tasks. A crucial ingredient in such endeavors is accurate depth recovery. We present a novel framework that allows the recovery of a high quality continuous depth map from light field data. Read More

Different models based on the extended $SU(3)_{C}\times SU(3)_{L}\times U(1)_{X}$ (331) gauge group have been proposed over the past four decades. Yet, despite being an active research topic, the status of lepton number in 331 models has not been fully addressed in the literature, and furthermore many of the original proposals can not explain the observed neutrino masses. In this paper we review the basic features of various 331 models, focusing on potential sources of lepton number violation. Read More

Lepton number violation is searched for at the LHC using same-sign leptons plus jets. The standard lore is that the ratio of same-sign lepton to opposite-sign lepton events, $R_{ll}$, is equal to $R_{ll}=1$ ($R_{ll}=0$) for Majorana (Dirac) neutrinos. We argue that for "quasi-Dirac" neutrinos, $R_{ll}$ can have any value between 0 and 1, the precise value being controlled by the mass splitting versus the width of the quasi-Dirac resonances. Read More

We present a neural network model approach for multi-frame blind deconvolution. The discriminative approach adopts and combines two recent techniques for image deblurring into a single neural network architecture. Our proposed hybrid-architecture combines the explicit prediction of a deconvolution filter and non-trivial averaging of Fourier coefficients in the frequency domain. Read More

The decay rate of neutrinoless double beta decay could be dominated by short-range diagrams involving heavy scalar particles ("topology-II" diagrams). Examples are diagrams with diquarks, leptoquarks or charged scalars. Here, we compare the discovery potential for lepton number violating signals at the LHC with constraints from dijet and leptoquark searches and the sensitivity of double beta decay experiments, using three example models. Read More

On a real ($\mathbb F=\mathbb R$) or complex ($\mathbb F=\mathbb C$) analytic connected 2-manifold $M$ with empty boundary consider two vector fields $X,Y$. We say that $Y$ {\it tracks} $X$ if $[Y,X]=fX$ for some continuous function $f\colon M\rightarrow\mathbb F$. Let $K$ be a compact subset of the zero set ${\mathsf Z}(X)$ such that ${\mathsf Z}(X)-K$ is closed, with nonzero Poincar\'e-Hopf index (for example $K={\mathsf Z}(X)$ when $M$ is compact and $\chi(M)\neq 0$) and let $\mathcal G$ be a finite-dimensional Lie algebra of analytic vector fields on $M$. Read More

Models based on the extended $SU(3)_{C}\times SU(3)_{L}\times U(1)_{X}$ (331) gauge group usually follow a common pattern: two families of left-handed quarks are placed in anti-triplet representations of the $SU(3)_{L}$ group; the remaining quark family, as well as the left-handed leptons, are assigned to triplets (or vice-versa). In this work we present a flipped 331 model where this scheme is reversed: all three quarks families are in the same representation and it is the lepton families which are discriminated by the gauge symmetry. We discuss fermion masses and mixing, as well as $Z'$ interactions, in a minimal model implementing this idea. Read More

We discuss the systematic decomposition of all dimension-7 (d=7) lepton number violating operators. These d=7 operators produce momentum enhanced contributions to the long-range part of the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude and thus are severely constrained by existing half-live limits. In our list of possible models one can find contributions to the long-range amplitude discussed previously in the literature, such as the left-right symmetric model or scalar leptoquarks, as well as some new models not considered before. Read More

Assume M is a 3-dimensional real manifold without boundary, A is an abelian Lie algebra of analytic vector fields on M, and X is an element of A. The following result is proved: If K is a locally maximal compact set of zeroes of X and the Poincar'e-Hopf index of X at K is nonzero, there is a point in K at which all the elements of A vanish. Read More

We present a feasibility study for a high frame rate, short baseline auroral tomographic imaging system useful for estimating parametric variations in the precipitating electron number flux spectrum of dynamic auroral events. Of particular interest are auroral substorms, characterized by spatial variations of order 100 m and temporal variations of order 10 ms. These scales are thought to be produced by dispersive Alfv\'en waves in the near-Earth magnetosphere. Read More

We present a supersymmetric left-right model which predicts gauge coupling unification close to the string scale and extra vector bosons at the TeV scale. The subtleties in constructing a model which is in agreement with the measured quark masses and mixing for such a low left-right breaking scale are discussed. It is shown that in the constrained version of this model radiative breaking of the gauge symmetries is possible and a SM-like Higgs is obtained. Read More

The decay rate of neutrinoless double beta ($0\nu\beta\beta$) decay contains terms from heavy particle exchange, which lead to dimension-9 (d=9) six fermion operators at low energies. Limits on the coefficients of these operators have been derived previously neglecting the running of the operators between the high-scale, where they are generated, and the energy scale of double beta decay, where they are measured. Here we calculate the leading order QCD corrections to all possible d=9 operators contributing to the $0\nu\beta\beta$ amplitude and use RGE running to calculate 1-loop improved limits. Read More

We use LHC dijet data to derive constraints on neutrinoless double beta decay. Upper limits on cross sections for the production of "exotic" resonances, such as a right-handed W boson or a diquark, can be converted into lower limits on the double beta decay half-life for fixed choices of other parameters. Constraints derived from run-I data are already surprisingly strong and complementary to results from searches using same-sign dileptons plus jets. Read More

Authors: The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration, T. Abbott, F. B. Abdalla, S. Allam, A. Amara, J. Annis, R. Armstrong, D. Bacon, M. Banerji, A. H. Bauer, E. Baxter, M. R. Becker, A. Benoit-Lévy, R. A. Bernstein, G. M. Bernstein, E. Bertin, J. Blazek, C. Bonnett, S. L. Bridle, D. Brooks, C. Bruderer, E. Buckley-Geer, D. L. Burke, M. T. Busha, D. Capozzi, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, F. J. Castander, C. Chang, J. Clampitt, M. Crocce, C. E. Cunha, C. B. D'Andrea, L. N. da Costa, R. Das, D. L. DePoy, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, J. P. Dietrich, S. Dodelson, P. Doel, A. Drlica-Wagner, G. Efstathiou, T. F. Eifler, B. Erickson, J. Estrada, A. E. Evrard, A. Fausti Neto, E. Fernandez, D. A. Finley, B. Flaugher, P. Fosalba, O. Friedrich, J. Frieman, C. Gangkofner, J. Garcia-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, D. W. Gerdes, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, G. Gutierrez, W. Hartley, M. Hirsch, K. Honscheid, E. M. Huff, B. Jain, D. J. James, M. Jarvis, T. Kacprzak, S. Kent, D. Kirk, E. Krause, A. Kravtsov, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, J. Kwan, O. Lahav, B. Leistedt, T. S. Li, M. Lima, H. Lin, N. MacCrann, M. March, J. L. Marshall, P. Martini, R. G. McMahon, P. Melchior, C. J. Miller, R. Miquel, J. J. Mohr, E. Neilsen, R. C. Nichol, A. Nicola, B. Nord, R. Ogando, A. Palmese, H. V. Peiris, A. A. Plazas, A. Refregier, N. Roe, A. K. Romer, A. Roodman, B. Rowe, E. S. Rykoff, C. Sabiu, I. Sadeh, M. Sako, S. Samuroff, C. Sánchez, E. Sanchez, H. Seo, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, E. Sheldon, R. C. Smith, M. Soares-Santos, F. Sobreira, E. Suchyta, M. E. C. Swanson, G. Tarle, J. Thaler, D. Thomas, M. A. Troxel, V. Vikram, A. R. Walker, R. H. Wechsler, J. Weller, Y. Zhang, J. Zuntz

We present the first constraints on cosmology from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), using weak lensing measurements from the preliminary Science Verification (SV) data. We use 139 square degrees of SV data, which is less than 3\% of the full DES survey area. Using cosmic shear 2-point measurements over three redshift bins we find $\sigma_8 (\Omega_{\rm m}/0. Read More

We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3. Read More

Let Y and X denote C^k vector fields on a possibly noncompact surface with empty boundary, k >0. Say that Y tracks X if the dynamical system it generates locally permutes integral curves of X. Let K be a locally maximal compact set of zeroes of X. Read More

The short-range part of the neutrinoless double beta amplitude is generated via the exchange of exotic particles, such as charged scalars, leptoquarks and/or diquarks. In order to give a sizeable contribution to the total decay rate, the masses of these exotics should be of the order of (at most) a few TeV. Here, we argue that these exotics could be the "light" (i. Read More

Smale's approach \cite{Smale80} to the classical two-players repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game is revisited here for $N$-players and Network games in the framework of Blackwell's approachability, stochastic approximations and differential inclusions. Read More

Interactions that manifest themselves as lepton number violating processes at low energies in combination with sphaleron transitions typically erase any preexisting baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In this article, we discuss the constraints obtained from an observation of neutrinoless double beta decay in this context. If a new physics mechanism of neutrinoless double beta decay other than the standard light neutrino exchange is observed, typical scenarios of high-scale baryogenesis will be excluded unless the baryon asymmetry is stabilized via some new mechanism. Read More

Transient short-period <100s oscillations have been found in the X-ray light curves of three novae during their SSS phase and in one persistent SSS. We pursue an observational approach to determine possible driving mechanisms and relations to fundamental system parameters such as the white dwarf mass. We performed a systematic search for short-period oscillations in all available XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray light curves of persistent SSS and novae during their SSS phase. Read More

Neutrinoless double beta decay allows to constrain lepton number violating extensions of the standard model. If neutrinos are Majorana particles, the mass mechanism will always contribute to the decay rate, however, it is not a priori guaranteed to be the dominant contribution in all models. Here, we discuss whether the mass mechanism dominates or not from the theory point of view. Read More

We systematically analyze the $d=5$ Weinberg operator at 2-loop order. Using a diagrammatic approach, we identify two different interesting categories of neutrino mass models: (i) Genuine 2-loop models for which both, tree-level and 1-loop contributions, are guaranteed to be absent. And (ii) finite 2-loop diagrams, which correspond to the 1-loop generation of some particular vertex appearing in a given 1-loop neutrino mass model, thus being effectively 2-loop. Read More

In software and hardware development MATLAB and Simulink are used to model cyber physical systems for many years, , especially in automation technology and the automotive industry. Compliance with the required product quality and project efficiency is facilitated by analyzing and transforming Simulink models. The existing API, provided by MATLAB is only suitable for programmatic changing of Simulink models. Read More

We describe a learning-based approach to blind image deconvolution. It uses a deep layered architecture, parts of which are borrowed from recent work on neural network learning, and parts of which incorporate computations that are specific to image deconvolution. The system is trained end-to-end on a set of artificially generated training examples, enabling competitive performance in blind deconvolution, both with respect to quality and runtime. Read More

We measure the weak-lensing masses and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters observed during the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey. This pathfinder study is meant to 1) validate the DECam imager for the task of measuring weak-lensing shapes, and 2) utilize DECam's large field of view to map out the clusters and their environments over 90 arcmin. We conduct a series of rigorous tests on astrometry, photometry, image quality, PSF modeling, and shear measurement accuracy to single out flaws in the data and also to identify the optimal data processing steps and parameters. Read More

Let $G$ be connected nilpotent Lie group acting locally on a real surface $M$. Let $\varphi$ be the local flow on $M$ induced by a $1$-parameter subgroup. Assume $K$ is a compact set of fixed points of $\varphi$ and $U$ is a neighborhood of $K$ containing no other fixed points. Read More

Measuring a non-zero value for the cross section of any lepton number violating (LNV) process would put a strong lower limit on the washout factor for the effective lepton number density in the early universe at times close to the electroweak phase transition and thus would lead to important constraints on any high-scale model for the generation of the observed baryon asymmetry based on LNV. In particular, for leptogenesis models with masses of the right-handed neutrinos heavier than the mass scale observed at the LHC, the implied large washout factors would lead to a violation of the out-of-equilibrium condition and exponentially suppress the net lepton number produced in such leptogenesis models. We thus demonstrate that the observation of LNV processes at the LHC results in the falsification of high-scale leptogenesis models. Read More

Sterile neutrinos with masses in the range (1-100) GeV, have been searched for in a variety of experiments. Here, we discuss the prospects to search for sterile neutrinos at the LHC using displaced vertices. Two different cases are discussed: (i) the standard model extended with sterile neutrinos and (ii) right-handed neutrinos in a left-right symmetric extension of the standard model. Read More

We construct a comprehensive list of non-supersymmetric standard model extensions with a low-scale LR-symmetric intermediate stage that may be obtained as simple low-energy effective theories within a class of renormalizable $SO(10)$ GUTs. Unlike the traditional "minimal" LR models many of our example settings support a perfect gauge coupling unification even if the LR scale is in the LHC domain at a price of only (a few copies of) one or two types of extra fields pulled down to the TeV-scale ballpark. We discuss the main aspects of a potentially realistic model building conforming the basic constraints from the quark and lepton sector flavour structure, proton decay limits, etc. Read More

Let X be an analytic vector field on a real or complex 2-manifold, and K a compact set of zeros of X whose fixed point index is not zero. Let A denote the Lie algebra of analytic vector fields Y on M such that at every point of M the values of X and [X,Y] are linearly dependent. Then the vector fields in A have a common zero in K. Read More

Kepler's immense photometric precision to date was maintained through satellite stability and precise pointing. In this white paper, we argue that image modeling--fitting the Kepler-downlinked raw pixel data--can vastly improve the precision of Kepler in pointing-degraded two-wheel mode. We argue that a non-trivial modeling effort may permit continuance of photometry at 10-ppm-level precision. Read More

In today's mailing, Hogg et al. propose image modeling techniques to maintain 10-ppm-level precision photometry in Kepler data with only two working reaction wheels. While these results are relevant to many scientific goals for the repurposed mission, all modeling efforts so far have used a toy model of the Kepler telescope. Read More

Cosmic shear is a powerful probe of cosmological parameters, but its potential can be fully utilised only if galaxy shapes are measured with great accuracy. Two major effects have been identified which are likely to account for most of the bias for maximum likelihood methods in recent shear measurement challenges. Model bias occurs when the true galaxy shape is not well represented by the fitted model. Read More

The minimal seesaw extension of the Standard SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) Model requires two electroweak singlet fermions in order to accommodate the neutrino oscillation parameters at tree level. Here we consider a next to minimal extension where light neutrino masses are generated radiatively by two electroweak fermions: one singlet and one triplet under SU(2). These should be odd under a parity symmetry and their mixing gives rise to a stable weakly interactive massive particle (WIMP) dark matter candidate. Read More

Lepton number violation (LNV) mediated by short range operators can manifest itself in both neutrinoless double beta decay and in processes with same sign dilepton final states at the LHC. We derive limits from existing LHC data at $\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV and compare the discovery potential of the forthcoming $\sqrt{s}=14$ TeV phase of the LHC with the sensitivity of current and future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments, assuming the short-range part of the decay amplitude dominates. We focus on the first of two possible topologies triggered by one fermion and two bosons in the intermediate state. Read More

We compare the discovery potential of the LHC for lepton number violating (LNV) signals with the sensitivity of current and future double beta decay experiments, assuming 0\nu\beta\beta decay is dominated by heavy particle exchange. We consider charged scalar, leptoquark and diquark mechanisms of 0\nu\beta\beta-decay, covering the 0\nu\beta\beta-decay operators with both, the smallest and largest, possible rates. We demonstrate, if 0\nu\beta\beta-decay were found with a half-life below $10^{26}-10^{27}$ ys a positive signal should show up at the LHC, except for some particular cases of the leptoquark mechanism, and vice versa, if the LHC does not find any hints for LNV, a "short-range" explanation for a finite 0\nu\beta\beta-decay half-life will be ruled out in most cases. Read More

We establish a link between Fourier optics and a recent construction from the machine learning community termed the kernel mean map. Using the Fraunhofer approximation, it identifies the kernel with the squared Fourier transform of the aperture. This allows us to use results about the invertibility of the kernel mean map to provide a statement about the invertibility of Fraunhofer diffraction, showing that imaging processes with arbitrarily small apertures can in principle be invertible, i. Read More

We present and describe im3shape, a new publicly available galaxy shape measurement code for weak gravitational lensing shear. im3shape performs a maximum likelihood fit of a bulge-plus-disc galaxy model to noisy images, incorporating an applied point spread function. We detail challenges faced and choices made in its design and implementation, and then discuss various limitations that affect this and other maximum likelihood methods. Read More

We construct lists of supersymmetric models with extended gauge groups at intermediate steps, all of which are based on SO(10) unification. We consider three different kinds of setups: (i) The model has exactly one additional intermediate scale with a left-right (LR) symmetric group; (ii) SO(10) is broken to the LR group via an intermediate Pati-Salam (PS) scale; and (iii) the LR group is broken into $SU(3)_{c} \times SU(2)_{L} \times U(1)_{R} \times U(1)_{B-L}$, before breaking to the SM group. We use sets of conditions, which we call the "sliding mechanism", which yield unification with the extended gauge group(s) allowed at arbitrary intermediate energy scales. Read More

We discuss the systematic decomposition of the dimension nine neutrinoless double beta decay operator, focusing on mechanisms with potentially small contributions to neutrino mass, while being accessible at the LHC. We first provide a (d=9 tree-level) complete list of diagrams for neutrinoless double beta decay. From this list one can easily recover all previously discussed contributions to the neutrinoless double beta decay process, such as the celebrated mass mechanism or "exotics", such as contributions from left-right symmetric models, R-parity violating supersymmetry and leptoquarks. Read More

We study a supersymmetric version of the seesaw mechanism type-III considering two variants of the model: a minimal version for explaining neutrino data with only two copies of 24-plet superfields and a model with three generations of 24-plets. The latter predicts in general rates for $\mu\to e\gamma$ inconsistent with experimental data. However, this bound can be evaded if certain special conditions within the neutrino sector are fulfilled. Read More

We consider supersymmetric models in which sneutrinos are viable dark matter candidates. These are either simple extensions of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with additional singlet superfields, such as the inverse or linear seesaw, or a model with an additional U(1) group. All of these models can accomodate the observed small neutrino masses and large mixings. Read More