# M. Bleicher - Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

## Contact Details

NameM. Bleicher |
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AffiliationFrankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main, Germany |
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CityFrankfurt am Main |
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CountryGermany |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesNuclear Theory (42) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (40) Nuclear Experiment (15) High Energy Physics - Theory (5) High Energy Physics - Experiment (4) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (2) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (2) Physics - Medical Physics (1) Physics - Atomic Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By M. Bleicher

The hadronic phase in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions has a large influence on final state observables like multiplicity, flow and $p_t$ spectra, as studied in the UrQMD approach. In this model one assumes that a non-equilibrium decoupling phase follows a fluid dynamical description of the high density phase. Hadrons are produced assuming local thermal equilibrium and dynamically decouple during the hadronic rescattering until the particles are registered in the detectors. Read More

In this paper we present the status of the physics of Planck scale black holes with particular reference to their conjectured production in particle accelerator experiments at the terascale. After reviewing some open issues of fundamental interactions and introducing the physics in the large extra-dimensional scenario, we present the expected signatures left by a microscopic black hole in a particle detector. The final part of the paper is devoted to the latest experimental bounds on the sought black hole signals. Read More

There are excellent opportunities to produce excited heavy hyper residues in relativistic hadron and peripheral heavy-ion collisions. We investigate the disintegration of such residues into hyper nuclei via evaporation of baryons and light clusters and their fission. Previously these processes were well known for normal nuclei as the decay channels at low excitation energies. Read More

The polarization of $\Lambda$ hyperons from relativistic flow vorticity is studied in peripheral heavy ion reactions at FAIR and NICA energies, just above the threshold of the transition to the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Previous calculations at higher energies with larger initial angular momentum, predicted significant $\Lambda$ polarization based on the classical vorticity term in the polarization, while relativistic modifications decreased the polarization and changed its structure in the momentum space. At the lower energies studied here, we see the same effect namely that the relativistic modifications decrease the polarization arising from the initial shear flow vorticity. Read More

Dilepton production in heavy-ion collisions at various energies is studied using coarse-grained transport simulations. Microscopic output from the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model is hereby put on a grid of space-time cells which allows to extract the local temperature and chemical potential in each cell via an equation of state. The dilepton emission is then calculated applying in-medium spectral functions from hadronic many-body theory and partonic production rates based on lattice calculations. Read More

We present an improved version of the ECHO-QGP numerical code, which self-consistently includes for the first time the effects of electromagnetic fields within the framework of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). We discuss results of its application in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity of the plasma. After reviewing the relevant covariant $3\!+\!1$ formalisms, we illustrate the implementation of the evolution equations in the code and show the results of several tests aimed at assessing the accuracy and robustness of the implementation. Read More

Various contenders for a complete theory of quantum gravity are at odds with each other. This is in particular seen in the ways they relate to information and black holes, and how to effectively treat quantization of the background spacetime. Modern perspectives on black hole evaporation suggest that quantum gravity effects in the near-horizon region can perturb the local geometry. Read More

We demonstrate that underlying assumptions concerning the structure of constituent parton Fock states in hadrons make a strong impact on the predictions of hadronic interaction models for forward hadron spectra and for long-range correlations between central and forward hadron production. Our analysis shows that combined studies of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider by central and forward-looking detectors have a rich potential for discriminating between the main model approaches. Read More

**Authors:**A. S. Botvina

^{1}, K. K. Gudima

^{2}, J. Steinheimer

^{3}, M. Bleicher

^{4}, J. Pochodzalla

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Frankfurt U., FIAS, ITP & Moscow, INR,

^{2}Kishinev, IAP,

^{3}Frankfurt U., FIAS,

^{4}Frankfurt U., FIAS, ITP,

^{5}Mainz U., HIM, IKP

In relativistic ion collisions there are excellent opportunities to produce and investigate hyper-nuclei. We have systematically studied the formation of hypernuclear spectator residues in peripheral heavy-ion collisions with the transport DCM and UrQMD models. The hyperon capture was calculated within the potential and coalescence approaches. Read More

We study the correlation between the distributions of the net-charge, net-kaon, net-baryon and net-proton number at hadronization and after the final hadronic decoupling by simulating ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions with the hybrid version of the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. We find that due to the hadronic rescattering these distributions are not strongly correlated. The calculated change of the correlation, during the hadronic expansion stage, does not support the recent paradigm, namely that the measured final moments of the experimentally observed distributions do give directly the values of those distributions at earlier times, when the system had been closer to the QCD crossover. Read More

**Authors:**P. Batyuk, D. Blaschke, M. Bleicher, Yu. B. Ivanov, Iu. Karpenko, S. Merts, M. Nahrgang, H. Petersen, O. Rogachevsky

We present a new event generator based on the three-fluid hydrodynamics approach for the early stage of the collision, followed by a particlization at the hydrodynamic decoupling surface to join to a microscopic transport model, UrQMD, to account for hadronic final state interactions. We present first results for nuclear collisions of the FAIR/NICA energy scan program (Au+Au collisions, $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=4-11$ GeV). We address the directed flow of protons and pions as well as the proton rapidity distribution for two model EoS, one with a first order phase transition the other with a crossover type softening at high densities. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}U. Florence,

^{2}FIAS Frankfurt,

^{3}U. Frankfurt,

^{4}FIAS Frankfurt

We compare the reconstructed hadronization conditions in relativistic nuclear collisions in the nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy range 4.7-2760 GeV in terms of temperature and baryon-chemical potential with lattice QCD calculations, by using hadronic multiplicities. We obtain hadronization temperatures and baryon chemical potentials with a fit to measured multiplicities by correcting for the effect of post-hadronization rescattering. Read More

We present the first predictions for sub-threshold open charm and charmonium production in nuclear collisions. The production mechanism is driven by multi-step scatterings of nucleons and their resonance states, accumulating sufficient energy for the production of $J/\Psi$, $\Lambda_c + \overline{D}$ and $D+\overline{D}$. Our results are of particular importance for the CBM experiment at FAIR, as they indicate that already at the SIS100 accelerator one can expect a significant number of charmed hadrons to be produced. Read More

Dilepton production in heavy-ion collisions at collider energies - i.e., for the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) - is studied within an approach that uses coarse-grained transport simulations to calculate thermal dilepton emission applying in-medium spectral functions from hadronic many-body theory and partonic production rates based on lattice calculations. Read More

Two scenarios for cluster production have since long been discussed in the literature: i) direct emission of the clusters from a (grand canonical) thermal source or ii) subsequent formation of the clusters by coalescence of single nucleons. While both approaches have been successfully applied in the past it has not yet been clarified which of the two mechanisms dominates the cluster production. We propose to use recently developed event-by-event techniques to study particle multiplicity fluctuations on nuclear clusters and employ this analysis to the deuteron number fluctuations to disentangle the two production mechanisms. Read More

In the present work we study the effect of unparticle modified static potentials on the energy levels of the hydrogen atom. By using Rayleigh-Schr\"odinger perturbation theory, we obtain the energy shift of the ground state and we compare it with experimental data. Bounds on the unparticle energy scale $\Lambda_\mathcal{U}$ as a function of the scaling dimension $d_\mathcal{U}$ and the coupling constant $\lambda$ are derived. Read More

We study the details and time dependence of particle production in nuclear collisions at a fixed target beam energy of $E_{\mathrm{lab}}= 1.76$ A GeV with the UrQMD transport model. We find that the previously proposed production mechanism for multi strange hadrons, $\phi$ and $\Xi$, are possible due to secondary interactions of incoming nuclei of the projectile and target with already created nuclear resonances, while the Fermi momenta of the nuclei play only a minor role. Read More

We demonstrate that a substantial part of the present uncertainties in model predictions for the average maximum depth of cosmic ray-induced extensive air showers is related to very high energy pion-air collisions. Our analysis shows that the position of the maximum of the muon production profile in air showers is strongly sensitive to the properties of such interactions. Therefore, the measurements of the maximal muon production depth by cosmic ray experiments provide a unique opportunity to constrain the treatment of pion-air interactions at very high energies and to reduce thereby model-related uncertainties for the shower maximum depth. Read More

A state-of-the-art 3+1 dimensional cascade + viscous hydro + cascade model vHLLE+UrQMD has been applied to heavy ion collisions in RHIC Beam Energy Scan range $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=7.7\dots 200$ GeV. Based on comparison to available experimental data it was estimated that an effective value of shear viscosity over entropy density ratio $\eta/s$ in hydrodynamic stage has to decrease from $\eta/s=0. Read More

We argue that the observation of the color transparency effect in the semiexclusive $A(\pi^-,l^+ l^-)$ process is important for determining whether it is possible to extract the generalized parton distributions of the nucleon from the elementary reaction $\pi^- p \to l^+ l^- n$ at $p_{\rm lab}=15-20$ GeV/c at small $|t|$ and large invariant mass of the dilepton pair $l^+ l^-$. Assuming that the transverse size of the pionic $q \bar q$ pair in the hard interaction point is similar to the one in the reaction $\gamma^* p\to \pi^+ n$ studied at JLab we predict large color transparency effects in the discussed kinematic range. We also suggest that the semiexclusive $\rho^0$ production in $\pi^-$-induced reactions in the same beam momentum region may provide new information on the dynamics of the interaction in the non-vacuum channel, while the $J/\psi$ production can be used to get information on $J/\psi N$ total interaction cross section. Read More

We present calculations of dilepton and photon spectra for the energy range $E_{\text{lab}}=2-35$ $A$GeV which will be available for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Anti-Proton and Ion Research (FAIR). The same energy regime will also be covered by phase II of the Beam Energy Scan at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC-BES). Coarse-grained dynamics from microscopic transport calculations of the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model is used to determine temperature and chemical potentials, which allows for the use of dilepton and photon-emission rates from equilibrium quantum-field theory calculations. Read More

The present day experimental data on the $X(3872)$ decays do not allow to make clear conclusions on the dominating structure of this state. We discuss here an alternative way to study its structure by means of the two-step $\bar D^*$ (or $D$) production in $\bar p A$ reactions. If this process is mediated by $X(3872)$, the characteristic narrow peaks of the $\bar D^*$ (or $D$) distributions in the light cone momentum fraction at small transverse momenta will appear. Read More

The higher moments of the net charge distributions, e.g. the skewness and kurtosis, are studied within an infinite hadronic matter calculation in a transport approach. Read More

We apply the phenomenological Reggeon Field Theory framework to investigate the relative importance of perturbative and nonperturbative multiparton correlations for the treatment of double parton scattering (DPS) in proton-proton collisions. We obtain a significant correction to the so-called effective cross section for DPS due to nonperturbative parton splitting. When combined with the corresponding perturbative contribution, this results in a rather weak energy and transverse momentum dependence of the effective cross section, in agreement with experimental observations at the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider. Read More

We explore the influence of deuteron formation in the late stage of nucleus-nucleus reactions on the fluctuations observed in the final net-proton yields around midrapidity. At each investigated energy, the produced (anti-)proton yield at chemical freeze-out is assumed to fluctuate according to a Poisson distribution and in each event the probability for deuteron formation by coalescence is proportional to $(dN_{\mathrm{proton}}/dy)^2$. The protons that are then clustered in deuterons are usually not included in the experimental measurement of the net-proton fluctuations, therefore, we subtract these clustered protons from the final state proton number for the calculation of the net-proton fluctuations (the same is done in the anti-proton sector). Read More

We study the production of hadronic resonances and their interaction in the partonic and hadronic medium using the EPOS3 model, which employs the UrQMD model for the description of the hadronic phase. We investigate the centrality dependence of the yields and momentum distributions for various resonances (rho(770),K(892),phi(1020),Delta(1232),Sigma(1385),Lambda(1520),Xi(1530) and their antiparticles) in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN= 2.76 TeV. Read More

We report on the application of a cascade + viscous hydro + cascade model for heavy ion collisions in the RHIC Beam Energy Scan range, $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=6.3\dots200$ GeV. By constraining model parameters to reproduce the data we find that the effective(average) value of the shear viscosity over entropy density ratio $\eta/s$ decreases from 0. Read More

We calculate dilepton spectra in heavy-ion collisions using a coarse-graining approach to the simulation of the created medium with the UrQMD transport model. This enables the use of dilepton-production rates evaluated in equilibrium quantum-field theory at finite temperatures and chemical potentials. Read More

The Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model supplemented by potentials for both pre-formed hadrons and confined baryons (called UrQMD/M) are used to describe rapidity distributions of both the E895 proton data at AGS energies and the NA49 net proton data at SPS energies. With the help of a coalescence afterburner using only one parameter set of ($R_0$, $P_0$)=(3.8 fm, 0. Read More

Dilepton invariant-mass spectra for heavy-ion collisions at SIS 18 and BEVALAC energies are calculated using a coarse-grained time evolution from the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model. The coarse-graining of the microscopic simulations enables to calculate thermal dilepton emission rates by application of in-medium spectral functions from equilibrium quantum-field theoretical calculations. The results show that extremely high baryon chemical potentials dominate the evolution of the created hot and dense fireball. Read More

We present a possible explanation for the deep sub-threshold, $\phi$ and $\Xi^-$ production yields measured with the HADES experiment in Ar+KCl reactions at $E_{\mathrm{lab}}=1.76$ A GeV and present predictions for Au+Au reactions at $E_{\mathrm{lab}}=1.23$ A GeV. Read More

These proceedings present recent results from transport-hydrodynamics-hybrid models for heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies. The main focus is on the absorption of (anti-)protons in the hadronic afterburner stage of the reaction, di-lepton production at SPS and heavy quark dynamics. Read More

The major goals of heavy ion research are to explore the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and to investigate the properties of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), a new state of matter created at high temperatures and/or densities. Collective anisotropic flow is one of the most promising observables to gain insights about the properties of the system created in relativistic heavy ion reactions. The current status of the beam energy dependence of the first three Fourier coefficients of the azimuthal distribution of the produced particles $v_1$ to $v_3$ within hybrid transport plus hydrodynamics approaches are summarized. Read More

Due to their penetrating nature, electromagnetic probes, i.e., lepton-antilepton pairs (dileptons) and photons are unique tools to gain insight into the nature of the hot and dense medium of strongly-interacting particles created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, including hints to the nature of the restoration of chiral symmetry of QCD. Read More

Currently, the structure of the $X(3872)$ meson is unknown. Different competing models of the $c\bar c$ exotic state $X(3872)$ exist, including the possibilities that this state is either a mesonic molecule with dominating $D^0 \bar D^{*0} +c.c. Read More

Dilepton production in heavy-ion collisions at top SPS energy is investigated within a coarse-graining approach that combines an underlying microscopic evolution of the nuclear reaction with the application of medium-modified spectral functions. Extracting local energy and baryon density for a grid of small space-time cells and going to each cell's rest frame enables to determine local temperature and chemical potential by application of an equation of state. This allows for the calculation of thermal dilepton emission. Read More

Hybrid approaches based on relativistic hydrodynamics and transport theory have been successfully applied for many years for the dynamical description of heavy ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies. In this work a new viscous hybrid model employing the hadron transport approach UrQMD for the early and late non-equilibrium stages of the reaction, and 3+1 dimensional viscous hydrodynamics for the hot and dense quark-gluon plasma stage is introduced. This approach includes the equation of motion for finite baryon number, and employs an equation of state with finite net-baryon density to allow for calculations in a large range of beam energies. Read More

**Authors:**A. S. Botvina

^{1}, J. Steinheimer

^{2}, E. Bratkovskaya

^{3}, M. Bleicher

^{4}, J. Pochodzalla

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,

^{2}Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,

^{3}Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,

^{4}Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,

^{5}Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz, Germany

Within a combined approach we investigate the main features of the production of hyper-fragments in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The formation of hyperons is modelled within the UrQMD and HSD transport codes. To describe the hyperon capture by nucleons and nuclear residues a coalescence of baryons (CB) model was developed. Read More

We investigate dilepton production in transport-based approaches and show that the baryon couplings of the $\rho$ meson represent the most important ingredient for understanding the measured dilepton spectra. At SIS energies, the baryon resonances naturally play a major role and affect already the vacuum spectra via Dalitz-like contributions, which can be captured well in transport simulations. Recent pion-beam measurements at GSI will help to constrain the properties of the involved resonances further. Read More

We use a coarse-graining approach to extract local thermodynamic properties from simulations with a microscopic transport model by averaging over a large ensemble of events. Setting up a grid of small space-time cells and going into each cell's rest frame allows to determine baryon and energy density. With help of an equation of state we get the corresponding temperature $T$ and baryon-chemical potential $\mu_{\mathrm{B}}$. Read More

Coarse-grained output from transport calculations is used to determine thermal dilepton emission rates by applying medium-modified spectral functions from thermal quantum field theoretical models. By averaging over an ensemble of events generated with the UrQMD transport model, we extract the local thermodynamic properties at each time step of the calculation. With an equation of state the temperature $T$ and chemical potential $\mu_{\mathrm{B}}$ can be determined. Read More

The production of charmonia in the antiproton-nucleus reactions at $p_{\rm lab}=3-10$ GeV/c is studied within the Glauber model and the generalized eikonal approximation. The main reaction channel is charmonium formation in an antiproton-proton collision. The target mass dependence of the charmonium transparency ratio allows to determine the charmonium-nucleon cross section. Read More

We investigate dilepton production in transport-based approaches and show that the baryon couplings of the $\rho$ meson represent the most important ingredient for understanding the measured dilepton spectra. At low energies (of a few GeV), the baryon resonances naturally play a larger role and affect already the vacuum spectra via Dalitz-like contributions, which can be captured well in an on-shell-transport scheme. At higher energies, the baryons mostly affect the in-medium self energy of the $\rho$, which is harder to tackle in transport models and requires advanced techniques. Read More

Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to $1000$ km/s. We discuss possible mechanisms contributing to these kicks in a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Anomalies of the underlying microscopic theory result in chiral transport terms in the hydrodynamic description, and we identify these as explanation for the drastic acceleration. Read More

We present results on deep sub threshold hyperon production in nuclear collisions, with the UrQMD transport model. Introducing anti-kaon+baryon and hyperon+hyperon strangeness exchange reactions we obtain a good description of experimental data on single strange hadron production in Ar+KCl reactions at $E_{lab}=1.76$ A GeV. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}U. Florence,

^{2}FIAS Frankfurt,

^{3}U. Florence,

^{4}FIAS, Frankfurt,

^{5}U. and FIAS Frankfurt

We present an analysis of hadronic multiplicities measured in Pb-Pb collisions at \sqrt s_{NN} = 2.76 TeV as a function of the collision centrality within the statistical hadronization model. Evidence is found of a dependence of the chemical freeze-out temperature as a function of centrality, with a slow rise from central to peripheral collisions, which we interpret as an effect of post-hadronization inelastic scatterings. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,

^{2}Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,

^{3}Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,

^{4}Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

**Category:**Physics - Medical Physics

Beams of $^{4}$He and $^{16}$O nuclei are considered for ion-beam cancer therapy as alternative options to protons and $^{12}$C nuclei. Spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) distributions of physical dose and relative biological effectiveness for 10% survival are calculated by means of our Geant4-based Monte Carlo model for Heavy Ion Therapy (MCHIT) and the modified microdosimetric kinetic model. The depth distributions of cell survival fractions are calculated for $^{1}$H, $^{4}$He, $^{12}$C and $^{16}$O for tissues with normal (HSG cells), low and high radiosensitivity. Read More

We discuss several new developments in the field of strange and heavy flavor physics in high energy heavy ion collisions. As shown by many recent theoretical works, heavy flavored particles give us a unique opportunity to study the properties of systems created in these collisions. Two in particular important aspects, the production of (multi) strange hypernuclei and the properties of heavy flavor mesons, are at the core of several future facilities and will be discussed in detail. Read More

We review the basic ideas about man-made quantum mechanical black holes. We start by an overview of the proposed attempts to circumvent the hierarchy problem. We study the phenomenological implications of a strong gravity regime at the terascale and we focus on the issue of microscopic black holes. Read More

The sign change of the slope of the directed flow of baryons has been predicted as a signal for a first order phase transition within fluid dynamical calculations. Recently, the directed flow of identified particles has been measured by the STAR collaboration in the beam energy scan (BES) program. In this article, we examine the collision energy dependence of directed flow $v_1$ in fluid dynamical model descriptions of heavy ion collisions for $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=3-20$ GeV. Read More