# Luiz H. Santos - Department of Physics, Harvard University

## Contact Details

NameLuiz H. Santos |
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AffiliationDepartment of Physics, Harvard University |
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CityCambridge |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (18) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (6) High Energy Physics - Theory (5) Physics - Superconductivity (3) Quantum Physics (3) Physics - Other (1) Physics - Materials Science (1) Mathematics - Optimization and Control (1) |

## Publications Authored By Luiz H. Santos

We introduce and study a geometric acceleration for the Douglas--Rachford method called the Circumcentered-Douglas-Rachford method. This method iterates by taking the intersection of bisectors of reflection steps for solving certain classes of feasibility problems. The convergence analysis is established for best approximation problems involving two (affine) subspaces and both our theoretical and numerical results compare favorably to the original Douglas-Rachford method. Read More

The single-layered ruthenate Sr$_2$RuO$_4$ has attracted a great deal of interest as a spin-triplet superconductor with an order parameter that may potentially break time reversal invariance and host half-quantized vortices with Majorana zero modes. While the actual nature of the superconducting state is still a matter of controversy, it has long been believed that it condenses from a metallic state that is well described by a conventional Fermi liquid. In this work we use a combination of Fourier transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy (FT-STS) and momentum resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (M-EELS) to probe interaction effects in the normal state of Sr$_2$RuO$_4$. Read More

We explore a scenario where local interactions form one-dimensional gapped interfaces between a pair of distinct chiral two-dimensional topological states - referred to as phases 1 and 2 - such that each gapped region terminates at a domain wall separating the chiral gapless edge states of these phases. We show that this type of T-junction supports point-like fractionalized excitations obeying parafermion statistics, thus implying that the one-dimensional gapped interface forms an effective topological parafermionic wire possessing a non-trivial ground state degeneracy. The physical properties of the anyon condensate that gives rise to the gapped interface are investigated. Read More

Bosonic symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states are gapped disordered phases of matter possessing symmetry-preserving boundary excitations. It has been proposed that, at long wavelengths, the universal properties of an SPT system are captured by an effective non-linear sigma model field theory in the presence of a quantized topological theta-term. By studying lattice models of bosonic SPT states, we are able to identify, in their Euclidean path integral formulation, (discrete) Berry phases that hold relevant physical information on the nature of the SPT ground states. Read More

Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases of matter have been the focus of many recent theoretical investigations, but controlled mechanisms for engineering them have so far been elusive. In this work, we demonstrate that by driving interacting spin systems periodically in time and tuning the available parameters, one can realize lattice models for bosonic SPT phases in the limit where the driving frequency is large. We provide concrete examples of this construction in one and two dimensions, and discuss signatures of these phases in stroboscopic measurements of local observables. Read More

A platform for constructing microscopic Hamiltonians describing bosonic symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states is presented. The Hamiltonians we consider are examples of frustration-free Rokhsar-Kivelson models, which are known to be in one-to-one correspondence with classical stochastic systems in the same spatial dimensionality. By exploring this classical-quantum mapping, we are able to construct a large class of microscopic models which, in a closed manifold, have a non-degenerate gapped symmetric ground state describing the universal properties of SPT states. Read More

We review various features of interacting Abelian topological phases of matter in two spatial dimensions, placing particular emphasis on fractional Chern insulators (FCIs) and fractional topological insulators (FTIs). We highlight aspects of these systems that challenge the intuition developed from quantum Hall physics - for instance, FCIs are stable in the limit where the interaction energy scale is much larger than the band gap, and FTIs can possess fractionalized excitations in the bulk despite the absence of gapless edge modes. Read More

We analyze a hydrodynamical model of a polar fluid in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime. We explore a spacetime symmetry -- volume preserving diffeomorphisms -- to construct an effective description of this fluid in terms of a topological BF theory. The two degrees of freedom of the BF theory are associated to the mass (charge) flows of the fluid and its polarization vorticities. Read More

The boundary of symmetry-protected topological states (SPTs) can harbor new quantum anomaly phenomena. In this work, we characterize the bosonic anomalies introduced by the 1+1D non-onsite-symmetric gapless edge modes of 2+1D bulk bosonic SPTs with a generic finite Abelian group symmetry (isomorphic to $G=\prod_i Z_{N_i}=Z_{N_1} \times Z_{N_2} \times Z_{N_3} \times .. Read More

When deriving a formula for the Hall conductivity of interacting electrons in Phys. Rev. B 86, 165133, we have relied on an unjustified implicit assumption that a certain gauge choice could be made. Read More

It is known as a purely quantum effect that a magnetic flux affects the real physics of a particle, such as the energy spectrum, even if the flux does not interfere with the particle's path - the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Here we examine an Aharonov-Bohm effect on a many-body wavefunction. Specifically, we study this many-body effect on the gapless edge states of a bulk gapped phase protected by a global symmetry (such as $\mathbb{Z}_{N}$) - the symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states. Read More

A formula for the Hall conductivity of interacting electrons is given under the assumption that the ground state manifold is N_gs-fold degenerate and discrete translation symmetry is neither explicitly nor spontaneously broken. Read More

We review the classification of all the 36 possible gap-opening instabilities in graphene, i.e., the 36 relativistic masses of the two-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian when the spin, valley, and superconducting channels are included. Read More

We generalize the noncommutative relations obeyed by the guiding centers in the two-dimensional quantum Hall effect to those obeyed by the projected position operators in three-dimensional (3D) topological band insulators. The noncommutativity in 3D space is tied to the integral over the 3D Brillouin zone of a Chern-Simons invariant in momentum-space. We provide an example of a model on the cubic lattice for which the chiral symmetry guarantees a macroscopic number of zero-energy modes that form a perfectly flat band. Read More

**Authors:**Xuetao Zhu

^{1}, Luiz Santos

^{2}, Colin Howard

^{3}, R. Sankar

^{4}, Fangcheng Chou

^{5}, Claudio Chamon

^{6}, Michael El-Batanouny

^{7}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Department of Physics, Boston University,

^{2}Department of Physics, Harvard University,

^{3}Department of Physics, Boston University,

^{4}Center of Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University,

^{5}Center of Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University,

^{6}Department of Physics, Boston University,

^{7}Department of Physics, Boston University

In this letter we report measurements of the coupling between Dirac fermion quasiparticles (DFQs) and phonons on the (001) surface of the strong topological insulator Bi2Se3. While most contemporary investigations of this coupling have involved examining the temperature dependence of the DFQ self-energy via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements, we employ inelastic helium atom scattering to explore, for the first time, this coupling from the phonon perspective. Using a Hilbert transform, we are able to obtain the imaginary part of the phonon self-energy associated with a dispersive surface phonon branch identified in our previous work [1] as having strong interactions with the DFQs. Read More

The quintessential two-dimensional lattice model that describes the competition between the kinetic energy of electrons and their short-range repulsive interactions is the repulsive Hubbard model. We study a time-reversal symmetric variant of the repulsive Hubbard model defined on a planar lattice: Whereas the interaction is unchanged, any fully occupied band supports a quantized spin Hall effect. We show that at 1/2 filling of this band, the ground state develops spontaneously and simultaneously Ising ferromagnetic long-range order and a quantized charge Hall effect when the interaction is sufficiently strong. Read More

We provide an effective description of fractional topological insulators that include the fractional quantum spin Hall effect by considering the time-reversal symmetric pendant to the topological quantum field theories that encode the Abelian fractional quantum Hall liquids. We explain the hierarchical construction of such a theory and establish for it a bulk-edge correspondence by deriving the equivalent edge theory for chiral bosonic fields. Further, we compute the Fermi-Bose correlation functions of the edge theory and provide representative ground state wave functions for systems described by the bulk theory. Read More

We present a class of time-reversal-symmetric fractional topological liquid states in two dimensions that support fractionalized excitations. These are incompressible liquids made of electrons, for which the charge Hall conductance vanishes and the spin Hall conductance needs not be quantized. We then analyze the stability of edge states in these two-dimensional topological fluids against localization by disorder. Read More

We present a simple prescription to flatten isolated Bloch bands with non-zero Chern number. We first show that approximate flattening of bands with non-zero Chern number is possible by tuning ratios of nearest-neighbor and next-nearest neighbor hoppings in the Haldane model and, similarly, in the chiral-pi-flux square lattice model. Then we show that perfect flattening can be attained with further range hoppings that decrease exponentially with distance. Read More

A counting formula for computing the number of (Majorana) zero modes bound to topological point defects is evaluated in a gradient expansion for systems with charge-conjugation symmetry. This semi-classical counting of zero modes is applied to some examples that include graphene and a chiral p-wave superconductor in two-dimensional space. In all cases, we explicitly relate the counting of zero modes to Chern numbers. Read More

We argue that the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian of p_x+ip_y superconductor in two dimensions can be derived from the relativistic Jackiw-Rossi model by taking the limit of large Zeeman magnetic field and chemical potential. In particular, the existence of a fermion zero mode bound to a vortex in the p_x+ip_y superconductor can be understood as a remnant of that in the Jackiw-Rossi model. In three dimensions, the nonrelativistic limit of the Jackiw-Rebbi model leads to a "p+is" superconductor in which spin-triplet p-wave and spin-singlet s-wave pairings coexist. Read More

Dispersionless bands, such as Landau levels, serve as a good starting point for obtaining interesting correlated states when interactions are added. With this motivation in mind, we study a variety of dispersionless ("flat") band structures that arise in tight-binding Hamiltonians defined on hexagonal and kagome lattices with staggered fluxes. The flat bands and their neighboring dispersing bands have several notable features: (a) Flat bands can be isolated from other bands by breaking time reversal symmetry, allowing for an extensive degeneracy when these bands are partially filled; (b) An isolated flat band corresponds to a critical point between regimes where the band is electron-like or hole-like, with an anomalous Hall conductance that changes sign across the transition; (c) When the gap between a flat band and two neighboring bands closes, the system is described by a single spin-1 conical-like spectrum, extending to higher angular momentum the spin-1/2 Dirac-like spectra in topological insulators and graphene; and (d) some configurations of parameters admit two isolated parallel flat bands, raising the possibility of exotic "heavy excitons"; (e) We find that the Chern number of the flat bands, in all instances that we study here, is zero. Read More

The fermion-doubling problem can be an obstacle to getting half-a-qubit in two-dimensional fermionic tight-binding models in the form of Majorana zero modes bound to the core of superconducting vortices. We argue that the number of such Majorana zero modes is determined by a Z_2 x Z_2 topological charge for a family of two-dimensional fermionic tight-binding models ranging from noncentrosymmetric materials to graphene. This charge depends on the dimension of the representation (i. Read More

We study the superconducting instabilities of a single species of two-dimensional Rashba-Dirac fermions, as it pertains to the surface of a three-dimensional time-reversal symmetric topological band insulators. We also discuss the similarities as well as the differences between this problem and that of superconductivity in two-dimensional time-reversal symmetric noncentrosymmetric materials with spin-orbit interactions. The superconducting order parameter has both s-wave and p-wave components, even when the superconducting pair potential only transfers either pure singlets or pure triplets pairs of electrons in and out of the condensate, a corollary to the non-conservation of spin due to the spin-orbit coupling. Read More

The matrix model formulation of two dimensional string theory has been shown to admit time dependent classical solutions whose closed string duals are geodesically incomplete space-times with space-like boundaries. We investigate some aspects of the dynamics of fermions in one such background. We show that even though the background solution appears pathological, the time evolution of the system is smooth in terms of open string degrees of freedom, viz. Read More