# Luca Trevisan

## Contact Details

NameLuca Trevisan |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesComputer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (14) Computer Science - Computational Complexity (12) Mathematics - Combinatorics (5) Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (5) Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics (5) Mathematics - Spectral Theory (4) Statistics - Machine Learning (2) Computer Science - Information Theory (1) Mathematics - Information Theory (1) Mathematics - Metric Geometry (1) Mathematics - Probability (1) Quantum Physics (1) Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (1) |

## Publications Authored By Luca Trevisan

We present a simple distributed algorithm that, given a regular graph consisting of two communities (or clusters), each inducing a good expander and such that the cut between them has sparsity $1/\mbox{polylog}(n)$, recovers the two communities. More precisely, upon running the protocol, every node assigns itself a binary label of $m = \Theta(\log n)$ bits, so that with high probability, for all but a small number of outliers, nodes within the same community are assigned labels with Hamming distance $o(m)$, while nodes belonging to different communities receive labels with Hamming distance at least $m/2 - o(m)$. We refer to such an outcome as a "community sensitive labeling" of the graph. Read More

In recent years, researchers proposed several algorithms that compute metric quantities of real-world complex networks, and that are very efficient in practice, although there is no worst-case guarantee. In this work, we propose an axiomatic framework to analyze the performances of these algorithms, by proving that they are efficient on the class of graphs satisfying certain axioms. Furthermore, we prove that the axioms are verified asymptotically almost surely by several probabilistic models that generate power law random graphs, such as the In recent years, researchers proposed several algorithms that compute metric quantities of real-world complex networks, and that are very efficient in practice, although there is no worst-case guarantee. Read More

In this paper, we prove an almost-optimal hardness for Max $k$-CSP$_R$ based on Khot's Unique Games Conjecture (UGC). In Max $k$-CSP$_R$, we are given a set of predicates each of which depends on exactly $k$ variables. Each variable can take any value from $1, 2, \dots, R$. Read More

Given an underlying graph, we consider the following \emph{dynamics}: Initially, each node locally chooses a value in $\{-1,1\}$, uniformly at random and independently of other nodes. Then, in each consecutive round, every node updates its local value to the average of the values held by its neighbors, at the same time applying an elementary, local clustering rule that only depends on the current and the previous values held by the node. We prove that the process resulting from this dynamics produces a clustering that exactly or approximately (depending on the graph) reflects the underlying cut in logarithmic time, under various graph models that exhibit a sparse balanced cut, including the stochastic block model. Read More

We consider the following distributed consensus problem: Each node in a complete communication network of size $n$ initially holds an \emph{opinion}, which is chosen arbitrarily from a finite set $\Sigma$. The system must converge toward a consensus state in which all, or almost all nodes, hold the same opinion. Moreover, this opinion should be \emph{valid}, i. Read More

We show that for any odd $k$ and any instance of the Max-kXOR constraint satisfaction problem, there is an efficient algorithm that finds an assignment satisfying at least a $\frac{1}{2} + \Omega(1/\sqrt{D})$ fraction of constraints, where $D$ is a bound on the number of constraints that each variable occurs in. This improves both qualitatively and quantitatively on the recent work of Farhi, Goldstone, and Gutmann (2014), which gave a \emph{quantum} algorithm to find an assignment satisfying a $\frac{1}{2} + \Omega(D^{-3/4})$ fraction of the equations. For arbitrary constraint satisfaction problems, we give a similar result for "triangle-free" instances; i. Read More

We develop a polynomial time $\Omega\left ( \frac 1R \log R \right)$ approximate algorithm for Max 2CSP-$R$, the problem where we are given a collection of constraints, each involving two variables, where each variable ranges over a set of size $R$, and we want to find an assignment to the variables that maximizes the number of satisfied constraints. Assuming the Unique Games Conjecture, this is the best possible approximation up to constant factors. Previously, a $1/R$-approximate algorithm was known, based on linear programming. Read More

Given a random permutation $f: [N] \to [N]$ as a black box and $y \in [N]$, we want to output $x = f^{-1}(y)$. Supplementary to our input, we are given classical advice in the form of a pre-computed data structure; this advice can depend on the permutation but \emph{not} on the input $y$. Classically, there is a data structure of size $\tilde{O}(S)$ and an algorithm that with the help of the data structure, given $f(x)$, can invert $f$ in time $\tilde{O}(T)$, for every choice of parameters $S$, $T$, such that $S\cdot T \ge N$. Read More

In this paper, we investigate the validity of the Unique Games Conjecture when the constraint graph is the boolean hypercube. We construct an almost optimal integrality gap instance on the Hypercube for the Goemans-Williamson semidefinite program (SDP) for Max-2-LIN$(\mathbb{Z}_2)$. We conjecture that adding triangle inequalities to the SDP provides a polynomial time algorithm to solve Unique Games on the hypercube. Read More

We study a \emph{Plurality-Consensus} process in which each of $n$ anonymous agents of a communication network initially supports an opinion (a color chosen from a finite set $[k]$). Then, in every (synchronous) round, each agent can revise his color according to the opinions currently held by a random sample of his neighbors. It is assumed that the initial color configuration exhibits a sufficiently large \emph{bias} $s$ towards a fixed plurality color, that is, the number of nodes supporting the plurality color exceeds the number of nodes supporting any other color by $s$ additional nodes. Read More

Let G=(V,E) be an undirected graph, lambda_k be the k-th smallest eigenvalue of the normalized laplacian matrix of G. There is a basic fact in algebraic graph theory that lambda_k > 0 if and only if G has at most k-1 connected components. We prove a robust version of this fact. Read More

We prove a structure theorem for the feasible solutions of the Arora-Rao-Vazirani SDP relaxation on low threshold rank graphs and on small-set expanders. We show that if G is a graph of bounded threshold rank or a small-set expander, then an optimal solution of the Arora-Rao-Vazirani relaxation (or of any stronger version of it) can be almost entirely covered by a small number of balls of bounded radius. Then, we show that, if k is the number of balls, a solution of this form can be rounded with an approximation factor of O(sqrt {log k}) in the case of the Arora-Rao-Vazirani relaxation, and with a constant-factor approximation in the case of the k-th round of the Sherali-Adams hierarchy starting at the Arora-Rao-Vazirani relaxation. Read More

In the {\em nonuniform sparsest cut} problem, given two undirected graphs $G$ and $H$ over the same set of vertices $V$, we want to find a cut $(S,V-S)$ that minimizes the ratio between the fraction of $G$-edges that are cut and the fraction of $H$-edges that are cut. The ratio (which is at most 1 in an optimal solution) is called the {\em sparsity} of the cut. In the {\em uniform sparsest cut} problem, $H$ is a clique over $V$. Read More

Let \phi(G) be the minimum conductance of an undirected graph G, and let 0=\lambda_1 <= \lambda_2 <=... Read More

We prove that the diameter of any unweighted connected graph G is O(k log n/lambda_k), for any k>= 2. Here, lambda_k is the k smallest eigenvalue of the normalized laplacian of G. This solves a problem posed by Gil Kalai. Read More

Kolla and Tulsiani [KT07,Kolla11} and Arora, Barak and Steurer [ABS10] introduced the technique of subspace enumeration, which gives approximation algorithms for graph problems such as unique games and small set expansion; the running time of such algorithms is exponential in the threshold-rank of the graph. Guruswami and Sinop [GS11,GS12], and Barak, Raghavendra, and Steurer [BRS11] developed an alternative approach to the design of approximation algorithms for graphs of bounded threshold-rank, based on semidefinite programming relaxations in the Lassere hierarchy and on novel rounding techniques. These algorithms are faster than the ones based on subspace enumeration and work on a broad class of problems. Read More

We present an iterative approach to constructing pseudorandom generators, based on the repeated application of mild pseudorandom restrictions. We use this template to construct pseudorandom generators for combinatorial rectangles and read-once CNFs and a hitting set generator for width-3 branching programs, all of which achieve near-optimal seed-length even in the low-error regime: We get seed-length O(log (n/epsilon)) for error epsilon. Previously, only constructions with seed-length O(\log^{3/2} n) or O(\log^2 n) were known for these classes with polynomially small error. Read More

Spectral partitioning is a simple, nearly-linear time, algorithm to find sparse cuts, and the Cheeger inequalities provide a worst-case guarantee for the quality of the approximation found by the algorithm. Local graph partitioning algorithms [ST08,ACL06,AP09] run in time that is nearly linear in the size of the output set, and their approximation guarantee is worse than the guarantee provided by the Cheeger inequalities by a polylogarithmic $\log^{\Omega(1)} n$ factor. It has been a long standing open problem to design a local graph clustering algorithm with an approximation guarantee close to the guarantee of the Cheeger inequalities and with a running time nearly linear in the size of the output. Read More

A basic fact in spectral graph theory is that the number of connected components in an undirected graph is equal to the multiplicity of the eigenvalue zero in the Laplacian matrix of the graph. In particular, the graph is disconnected if and only if there are at least two eigenvalues equal to zero. Cheeger's inequality and its variants provide an approximate version of the latter fact; they state that a graph has a sparse cut if and only if there are at least two eigenvalues that are close to zero. Read More

We present a general approach to study the flooding time (a measure of how fast information spreads) in dynamic graphs (graphs whose topology changes with time according to a random process). We consider arbitrary converging Markovian dynamic graph process, that is, processes in which the topology of the graph at time $t$ depends only on its topology at time $t-1$ and which have a unique stationary distribution. The most well studied models of dynamic graphs are all Markovian and converging. Read More

A basic fact in algebraic graph theory is that the number of connected components in an undirected graph is equal to the multiplicity of the eigenvalue 1 in the normalized adjacency matrix of the graph. In particular, the graph is disconnected if and only if there are at least two eigenvalues equal to 1. Cheeger's inequality provides an "approximate" version of the latter fact, and it states that a graph has a sparse cut (it is "almost disconnected") if and only if there are at least two eigenvalues that are close to one. Read More

We describe a new approximation algorithm for Max Cut. Our algorithm runs in $\tilde O(n^2)$ time, where $n$ is the number of vertices, and achieves an approximation ratio of $.531$. Read More

Green, Tao and Ziegler prove ``Dense Model Theorems'' of the following form: if R is a (possibly very sparse) pseudorandom subset of set X, and D is a dense subset of R, then D may be modeled by a set M whose density inside X is approximately the same as the density of D in R. More generally, they show that a function that is majorized by a pseudorandom measure can be written as a sum of a bounded function having the same expectation plus a function that is ``indistinguishable from zero.'' This theorem plays a key role in the proof of the Green-Tao Theorem that the primes contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. Read More

We survey the average-case complexity of problems in NP. We discuss various notions of good-on-average algorithms, and present completeness results due to Impagliazzo and Levin. Such completeness results establish the fact that if a certain specific (but somewhat artificial) NP problem is easy-on-average with respect to the uniform distribution, then all problems in NP are easy-on-average with respect to all samplable distributions. Read More

In combinatorics, the probabilistic method is a very powerful tool to prove the existence of combinatorial objects with interesting and useful properties. Explicit constructions of objects with such properties are often very difficult, or unknown. In computer science, probabilistic algorithms are sometimes simpler and more efficient than the best known deterministic algorithms for the same problem. Read More

Gowers introduced, for d\geq 1, the notion of dimension-d uniformity U^d(f) of a function f: G -> \C, where G is a finite abelian group and \C are the complex numbers. Roughly speaking, if U^d(f) is small, then f has certain "pseudorandomness" properties. We prove the following property of functions with large U^d(f). Read More

We survey results on the hardness of approximating combinatorial optimization problems. Read More

Error-correcting codes and related combinatorial constructs play an important role in several recent (and old) results in computational complexity theory. In this paper we survey results on locally-testable and locally-decodable error-correcting codes, and their applications to complexity theory and to cryptography. Locally decodable codes are error-correcting codes with sub-linear time error-correcting algorithms. Read More