# Liqun Qi

## Contact Details

NameLiqun Qi |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesMathematics - Optimization and Control (15) Mathematics - Spectral Theory (14) Mathematics - Combinatorics (12) Mathematics - Numerical Analysis (6) Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (3) Mathematical Physics (3) Mathematics - Complex Variables (1) Quantum Physics (1) Mathematics - Rings and Algebras (1) |

## Publications Authored By Liqun Qi

This paper is concerned with solving some structured multi-linear systems, which are called tensor absolute value equations. This kind of absolute value equations is closely related to tensor complementarity problems and is a generalization of the well-known absolute value equations in the matrix case. We prove that tensor absolute value equations are equivalent to some special structured tensor complementary problems. Read More

We establish several sufficient conditions for the strong ellipticity of any fourth-order elasticity tensor in this paper. The first presented sufficient condition is an extension of positive definite matrices, which states that the strong ellipticity holds if the unfolding matrix of this fourth-order elasticity tensor can be modified into a positive definite one by preserving the summations of some corresponding entries. An alternating projection algorithm is proposed to verify whether an elasticity tensor satisfies the first condition or not. Read More

In this paper, we consider higher order paired symmetric tensors and strongly paired symmetric tensors. Elasticity tensors and higher order elasticity tensors in solid mechanics are strongly paired symmetric tensors. A (strongly) paired symmetric tensor is said to be positive definite if the homogeneous polynomial defined by it is positive definite. Read More

Hypergraph matching is a fundamental problem in computer vision. Mathematically speaking, it maximizes a polynomial objective function, subject to assignment constraints. In this paper, we reformulate the hypergraph matching problem as a sparse constrained tensor optimization problem. Read More

Third order tensors have wide applications in mechanics, physics and engineering. The most famous and useful third order tensor is the piezoelectric tensor, which plays a key role in the piezoelectric effect, first discovered by Curie brothers. On the other hand, the Levi-Civita tensor is famous in tensor calculus. Read More

A third order real tensor is called a piezoelectric-type tensor if it is partially symmetric with respect to its last two indices. The piezoelectric tensor is a piezoelectric-type tensor of dimension three. We introduce C-eigenvalues and C-eigenvectors for piezoelectric-type tensors. Read More

The $p$-spectral radius of a uniform hypergraph covers many important concepts, such as Lagrangian and spectral radius of the hypergraph, and is crucial for solving spectral extremal problems of hypergraphs. In this paper, we establish a spherically constrained maximization model and propose a first-order conjugate gradient algorithm to compute the $p$-spectral radius of a uniform hypergraph (CSRH). By the semialgebraic nature of the adjacency tensor of a uniform hypergraph, CSRH is globally convergent and obtains the global maximizer with a high probability. Read More

In this paper, we introduce a class of variational inequalities, where the involved function is the sum of an arbitrary given vector and a homogeneous polynomial defined by a tensor; and we call it the tensor variational inequality (TVI). The TVI is a natural extension of the affine variational inequality and the tensor complementarity problem. We show that a class of multi-person noncooperative games can be formulated as a TVI. Read More

A third-order three-dimensional symmetric traceless tensor, called the \emph{octupolar} tensor, has been introduced to study tetrahedratic nematic phases in liquid crystals. The octupolar \emph{potential}, a scalar-valued function generated on the unit sphere by that tensor, should ideally have four maxima capturing the most probable molecular orientations (on the vertices of a tetrahedron), but it was recently found to possess an equally generic variant with \emph{three} maxima instead of four. It was also shown that the irreducible admissible region for the octupolar tensor in a three-dimensional parameter space is bounded by a dome-shaped surface, beneath which is a \emph{separatrix} surface connecting the two generic octupolar states. Read More

A spin-$j$ state can be represented by a symmetric tensor of order $N=2j$ and dimension $4$. Here, $j$ can be a positive integer, which corresponds to a boson; $j$ can also be a positive half-integer, which corresponds to a fermion. In this paper, we introduce regularly decomposable tensors and show that a spin-$j$ state is classical if and only if its representing tensor is a regularly decomposable tensor. Read More

A doubly nonnegative matrix can be written as a Gramian matrix, and a completely positive matrix can therefore be written as a Gramian matrix of some nonnegative vectors. In this paper, we introduce Gramian tensors and study 2-dimension completely positive tensors and {0,1} CP tensors. Also investigated are the complete positive multi-hypergraph, a generalized form of a cp graph. Read More

**Category:**Mathematics - Spectral Theory

Moler matrices are named after the founder of MATLAB -- Cleve Moler, and form a class of test matrices in MATLAB. They are symmetric and positive definite, yet each Moler matrix has a very small positive eigenvalue. In this paper, we extend Moler matrices to Moler tensors and Moler-like tensors, and show that Moler tensors still have similar properties as Moler matrices. Read More

In this paper, the $m-$order infinite dimensional Hilbert tensor (hypermatrix) is intrduced to define an $(m-1)$-homogeneous operator on the spaces of analytic functions, which is called Hilbert tensor operator. The boundedness of Hilbert tensor operator is presented on Bergman spaces $A^p$ ($p>2(m-1)$). On the base of the boundedness, two positively homogeneous operators are introduced to the spaces of analytic functions, and hence the upper bounds of norm of such two operators are found on Bergman spaces $A^p$ ($p>2(m-1)$). Read More

The analytic connectivity, proposed as a substitute of the algebraic connectivity in the setting of hypergraphs, is an important quantity in spectral hypergraph theory. The definition of the analytic connectivity for a uniform hypergraph involves a series of optimization problems (POPs) associated with the Laplacian tensor of the hypergraph with nonnegativity constraints and a sphere constraint, which poses difficulties in computation. To reduce the involved computation, properties on the algebraic connectivity are further exploited, and several important structured uniform hypergraphs are shown to attain their analytic connectivities at vertices of the minimum degrees, hence admit a relatively less computation by solving a small number of POPs. Read More

Copositivity of tensors plays an important role in vacuum stability of a general scalar potential, polynomial optimization, tensor complementarity problem and tensor generalized eigenvalue complementarity problem. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for testing copositivity of high order tensors, and then present applications of the algorithm in physics and hypergraphs. For this purpose, we first give several new conditions for copositivity of tensors based on the representative matrix of a simplex. Read More

Properties of solutions of the tensor complementarity problem (TCP) for structured tensors have been investigated in recent literature. In this paper, we make further contributions on this problem. Specifically, we establish the solution existence results of the TCP on a general cone under reasonable conditions, and in particular, we prove that the TCP on the nonnegative cone with copositive tensors has one solution, where the notable copositivity is a weaker condition than the requirements (e. Read More

A connected $k$-uniform hypergraph with $n$ vertices and $m$ edges is called $r$-cyclic if $n=m(k-1)-r+1$. For $r=1$ or $2$, the hypergraph is simply called unicyclic or bicyclic. In this paper we investigate hypergraphs that attain larger spectral radii among all simple connected $k$-uniform unicyclic and bicyclic hypergraphs. Read More

Let $r\geq2$ and $r$ be even. An $r$-hypergraph $G$ on $n$ vertices is called odd-colorable if there exists a map $\varphi:[n]\rightarrow\lbrack r]$ such that for any edge $\{j_{1},j_{2},\cdots,j_{r}\}$ of $G$, we have $\varphi(j_{1})+\varphi(j_{2})+\cdot\cdot\cdot+\varphi(j_{r})\equiv r/2(\operatorname{mod}r).$ In this paper, we first determine that, if $r=2^{q}(2t+1)$ and $n\ge 2^{q}(2^{q}-1)r$, then the maximum chromatic number in the class of the odd-colorable $r$-hypergraphs on $n$ vertices is $2^q$, which answers a question raised by V. Read More

Let A(G) be the adjacency tensor (hypermatrix) of uniform hypergraph G. The maximum modulus of the eigenvalues of A(G) is called the spectral radius of G. In this paper, the conjecture of Fan et al. Read More

A symmetric tensor is called copositive if it generates a multivariate form taking nonnegative values over the nonnegative orthant. Copositive tensors have found important applications in polynomial optimization and tensor complementarity problems. In this paper, we consider copositivity detection of tensors both from theoretical and computational points of view. Read More

In this paper, we consider a class of $n$-person noncooperative games, where the utility function of every player is given by a homogeneous polynomial defined by the payoff tensor of that player, which is a natural extension of the bimatrix game where the utility function of every player is given by a quadratic form defined by the payoff matrix of that player. We will call such a problem the multilinear game. We reformulate the multilinear game as a tensor complementarity problem, a generalization of the linear complementarity problem; and show that finding a Nash equilibrium point of the multilinear game is equivalent to finding a solution of the resulted tensor complementarity problem. Read More

The spectral theory of higher-order symmetric tensors is an important tool to reveal some important properties of a hypergraph via its adjacency tensor, Laplacian tensor, and signless Laplacian tensor. Owing to the sparsity of these tensors, we propose an efficient approach to calculate products of these tensors and any vectors. Using the state-of-the-art L-BFGS approach, we develop a first-order optimization algorithm for computing H- and Z-eigenvalues of these large scale sparse tensors (CEST). Read More

In this note, we show that if a multidimensional sequence generates Hankel tensors and all the Hankel matrices, generated by this sequence, are positive semi-definite, then this sequence is a multidimensional moment sequence. Read More

In 1907, Oskar Perron showed that a positive square matrix has a unique largest positive eigenvalue with a positive eigenvector. This result was extended to irreducible nonnegative matrices by Geog Frobenius in 1912, and to irreducible nonnegative tensors and weakly irreducible nonnegative tensors recently. This result is a fundamental result in matrix theory and has found wide applications in probability theory, internet search engines, spectral graph and hypergraph theory, etc. Read More

Finding the maximum eigenvalue of a symmetric tensor is an important topic in tensor computation and numerical multilinear algebra. This paper is devoted to a semi-definite program algorithm for computing the maximum $H$-eigenvalue of a class of tensors with sign structure called $W$-tensors. The class of $W$-tensors extends the well-studied nonnegative tensors and essentially nonnegative tensors, and covers some important tensors arising naturally from spectral hypergraph theory. Read More

In this paper, we consider the tensor eigenvalue complementarity problem which is closely related to the optimality conditions for polynomial optimization, as well as a class of differential inclusions with nonconvex processes. By introducing an NCP-function, we reformulate the tensor eigenvalue complementarity problem as a system of nonlinear equations. We show that this function is strongly semismooth but not differentiable, in which case the classical smoothing methods cannot apply. Read More

Tensors are multidimensional analogs of matrices. In this paper, based on degree-theoretic ideas, we study homogeneous nonlinear complementarity problems induced by tensors. By specializing this to $Z$-tensors (which are tensors with non-positive off-diagonal entries), we describe various equivalent conditions for a $Z$-tensor to have the global solvability property. Read More

In this paper, we prove that all H$^+$(Z$^+$)-eigenvalues of each principal sub-tensor of a strictly semi-positive tensor are positive. We define two new constants associated with H$^+$(Z$^+$)eigenvalues of a strictly semi-positive tensor. With the help of these two constants, we establish upper bounds of an important quantity whose positivity is a necessary and sufficient condition for a general tensor to be a strictly semi-positive tensor. Read More

Completely positive graphs have been employed to associate with completely positive matrices for characterizing the intrinsic zero patterns. As tensors have been widely recognized as a higher-order extension of matrices, the multi-hypergraph, regarded as a generalization of graphs, is then introduced to associate with tensors for the study of complete positivity. To describe the dependence of the corresponding zero pattern for a special type of completely positive tensors--the $\{0,1\}$ completely positive tensors, the completely positive multi-hypergraph is defined. Read More

Balanced incomplete block designs (BIBDs) have wide applications in engineering, business and sciences. In this paper, for each (v, k, \lambda)-BIBD, we construct a strongly symmetric k-th order v-dimensional tensor. We call such a strongly symmetric tensor the characterization tensor of that BIBD, and the absolute value tensor of the characterization tensor the signless characterization tensor of that BIBD. Read More

We define two new constants associated with real eigenvalues of a P-tensor. With the help of these two constants, in the case of P-tensors, we establish upper bounds of two important quantities, whose positivity is a necessary and sufficient condition for a general tensor to be a P-tensor. Read More

The concepts of P- and P$_0$-matrices are generalized to P- and P$_0$-tensors of even and odd orders via homogeneous formulae. Analog to the matrix case, our P-tensor definition encompasses many important classes of tensors such as the positive definite tensors, the nonsingular M-tensors, the nonsingular H-tensors with positive diagonal entries, the strictly diagonally dominant tensors with positive diagonal entries, etc. As even-order symmetric PSD tensors are exactly even-order symmetric P$_0$-tensors, our definition of P$_0$-tensors, to some extent, can be regarded as an extension of PSD tensors for the odd-order case. Read More

In this paper, we introduce a unified framework of Tensor Higher-Degree Eigenvalue Complementarity Problem (THDEiCP), which goes beyond the framework of the typical Quadratic Eigenvalue Complementarity Problem (QEiCP) for matrices. First, we study some topological properties of higher-degree cone eigenvalues of tensors. Based upon the symmetry assumptions on the underlying tensors, we then reformulate THDEiCP as a weakly coupled homogeneous polynomial optimization problem, which might be greatly helpful for designing implementable algorithms to solve the problem under consideration numerically. Read More

Let $\mathcal{A(}G\mathcal{)},\mathcal{L(}G\mathcal{)}$ and $\mathcal{Q(}% G\mathcal{)}$ be the adjacency tensor, Laplacian tensor and signless Laplacian tensor of uniform hypergraph $G$, respectively. Denote by $\lambda (\mathcal{T})$ the largest H-eigenvalue of tensor $\mathcal{T}$. Let $H$ be a uniform hypergraph, and $H^{\prime}$ be obtained from $H$ by inserting a new vertex with degree one in each edge. Read More

In this paper, the geometry properties of Hankel form are studied, including their positive semi-definite (PSD) cone and sum-of-squares (SOS) cone. We denote them by $HPSD(m,n)$ and $HSOS(m,n)$, respectively. We show that both $HPSD(m,n)$ and $HSOS(m,n)$ are closed convex cones. Read More

In this paper, we show that if a lower-order Hankel tensor is positive semi-definite (or positive definite, or negative semi-definite, or negative definite, or SOS), then its associated higher-order Hankel tensor with the same generating vector, where the higher order is a multiple of the lower order, is also positive semi-definite (or positive definite, or negative semi-definite, or negative definite, or SOS, respectively). Furthermore, in this case, the extremal H-eigenvalues of the higher order tensor are bounded by the extremal H-eigenvalues of the lower order tensor, multiplied with some constants. Based on this inheritance property, we give a concrete sum-of-squares decomposition for each strong Hankel tensor. Read More

Finding the sparsest solutions to a tensor complementarity problem is generally NP-hard due to the nonconvexity and noncontinuity of the involved $\ell_0$ norm. In this paper, a special type of tensor complementarity problems with $Z$-tensors has been considered. Under some mild conditions, we show that to pursuit the sparsest solutions is equivalent to solving polynomial programming with a linear objective function. Read More

The concept of double nonnegativity of matrices is generalized to doubly nonnegative tensors by means of the nonnegativity of all entries and $H$-eigenvalues. This generalization is defined for tensors of any order (even or odd), while it reduces to the class of nonnegative positive semidefinite tensors in the even order case. We show that many nonnegative structured tensors, which are positive semidefinite in the even order case, are indeed doubly nonnegative as well in the odd order case. Read More

Large scale tensors, including large scale Hankel tensors, have many applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we propose an inexact curvilinear search optimization method to compute Z- and H-eigenvalues of $m$th order $n$ dimensional Hankel tensors, where $n$ is large. Owing to the fast Fourier transform, the computational cost of each iteration of the new method is about $\mathcal{O}(mn\log(mn))$. Read More

In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for an even order three dimensional strongly symmetric circulant tensor to be positive semi-definite. In some cases, we show that this condition is also sufficient for this tensor to be sum-of-squares. Numerical tests indicate that this is also true in the other cases. Read More

In this paper, we examine structured tensors which have sum-of-squares (SOS) tensor decomposition, and study the SOS-rank of SOS tensor decomposition. We first show that several classes of even order symmetric structured tensors available in the literature have SOS tensor decomposition. These include positive Cauchy tensors, weakly diagonally dominated tensors, $B_0$-tensors, double $B$-tensors, quasi-double $B_0$-tensors, $MB_0$-tensors, $H$-tensors, absolute tensors of positive semi-definite $Z$-tensors and extended $Z$-tensors. Read More

Stimulated by odd-bipartite and even-bipartite hypergraphs, we define odd-bipartite (weakly odd-bipartie) and even-bipartite (weakly even-bipartite) tensors. It is verified that all even order odd-bipartite tensors are irreducible tensors, while all even-bipartite tensors are reducible no matter the parity of the order. Based on properties of odd-bipartite tensors, we study the relationship between the largest H-eigenvalue of a $Z$-tensor with nonnegative diagonal elements, and the largest H-eigenvalue of absolute tensor of that $Z$-tensor. Read More

In this note, we construct explicit SOS decomposition of A Fourth Order Four Dimensional Hankel Tensor with A Symmetric Generating Vector, at the critical value. This is a supplementary note to Paper [3]. Read More

A positive semi-definite (PSD) tensor which is not a sum-of-squares (SOS) tensor is called a PSD non-SOS (PNS) tensor. Is there a fourth order four dimensional PNS Hankel tensor? Until now, this question is still an open problem. Its answer has both theoretical and practical meanings. Read More

The tensor complementarity problem $(\q, \mathcal{A})$ is to $$\mbox{ find } \x \in \mathbb{R}^n\mbox{ such that }\x \geq \0, \q + \mathcal{A}\x^{m-1} \geq \0, \mbox{ and }\x^\top (\q + \mathcal{A}\x^{m-1}) = 0.$$ We prove that a real tensor $\mathcal{A}$ is a (strictly) semi-positive tensor if and only if the tensor complementarity problem $(\q, \mathcal{A})$ has a unique solution for $\q>\0$ ($\q\geq\0$), and a symmetric real tensor is a (strictly) semi-positive tensor if and only if it is (strictly) copositive. That is, for a strictly copositive symmetric tensor $\mathcal{A}$, the tensor complementarity problem $(\q, \mathcal{A})$ has a solution for all $\q \in \mathbb{R}^n$. Read More

In this article, we present various new results on Cauchy tensors and Hankel tensors. { We first introduce the concept of generalized Cauchy tensors which extends Cauchy tensors in the current literature, and provide several conditions characterizing positive semi-definiteness of generalized Cauchy tensors with nonzero entries.} As a consequence, we show that Cauchy tensors are positive semi-definite if and only if they are SOS (Sum-of-squares) tensors. Read More

The main purpose of this note is to investigate some kinds of nonlinear complementarity problems (NCP). For the structured tensors, such as, symmetric positive definite tensors and copositive tensors, we derive the existence theorems on a solution of these kinds of nonlinear complementarity problems. We prove that a unique solution of the NCP exists under the condition of diagonalizable tensors. Read More

In this paper, we consider the tensor generalized eigenvalue complementarity problem (TGEiCP), which is an interesting generalization of matrix eigenvalue complementarity problem (EiCP). First, we given an affirmative result showing that TGEiCP is solvable and has at least one solution under some reasonable assumptions. Then, we introduce two optimization reformulations of TGEiCP, thereby beneficially establishing an upper bound of cone eigenvalues of tensors. Read More

We consider the problem of approximately solving a standard bi-quadratic programming (StBQP), which is NP-hard. After reformulating the original problem as an equivalent copositive tensor programming, we show how to approximate the optimal solution by approximating the cone of copositive tensors via a serial polyhedral cones. The established quality of approximation shows that, a polynomial time approximation scheme (PTAS) for solving StBQP exists and can be extended to solving standard multi-quadratic programming. Read More

This paper deals with the class of Q-tensors, that is, a Q-tensor is a real tensor $\mathcal{A}$ such that the tensor complementarity problem $(\q, \mathcal{A})$: $$\mbox{ finding } \x \in \mathbb{R}^n\mbox{ such that }\x \geq \0, \q + \mathcal{A}\x^{m-1} \geq \0, \mbox{ and }\x^\top (\q + \mathcal{A}\x^{m-1}) = 0, $$ has a solution for each vector $\q \in \mathbb{R}^n$. Several subclasses of Q-tensors are given: P-tensors, R-tensors, strictly semi-positive tensors and semi-positive R$_0$-tensors. We prove that a nonnegative tensor is a Q-tensor if and only if all of its principal diagonal entries are positive, and so the equivalence of Q-tensor, R-tensors, strictly semi-positive tensors is showed if they are nonnegative tensors. Read More