# Liang Fu - Department of Physics, Catholic University of America

## Contact Details

NameLiang Fu |
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AffiliationDepartment of Physics, Catholic University of America |
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CityWashington |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (26) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (23) Physics - Materials Science (16) Physics - Superconductivity (12) Quantum Physics (4) Physics - Optics (3) Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (2) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (2) High Energy Physics - Theory (1) Physics - Other (1) High Energy Physics - Lattice (1) |

## Publications Authored By Liang Fu

We study broken symmetry states at integer Landau level fillings in multivalley quantum Hall systems whose low energy dispersions are anisotropic. When the Fermi surface of individual pockets lacks twofold rotational symmetry, like in Bismuth (111) surfaces, interactions tend to drive the formation of quantum Hall ferroelectric states. We demonstrate that the dipole moment in these states has an intimate relation to the Fermi surface geometry of the parent metal. Read More

Self-learning Monte Carlo method [arXiv:1610.03137, 1611.09364] is a powerful general-purpose numerical method recently introduced to simulate many-body systems. Read More

We develop the self-learning Monte Carlo (SLMC) method, a general-purpose numerical method recently introduced to simulate many-body systems, for studying interacting fermion systems. Our method uses a highly-efficient update algorithm, which we design and dub "cumulative update", to generate new candidate configurations in the Markov chain based on a self-learned bosonic effective model. From general analysis and numerical study of the double exchange model as an example, we find the SLMC with cumulative update drastically reduces the computational cost of the simulation, while remaining statistically exact. Read More

We introduce a novel class of interaction-enabled topological crystalline insulators in two- and three-dimensional electronic systems, which we call "topological crystalline magnet." It is protected by the product of the time-reversal symmetry $\mathcal{T}$ and a mirror symmetry or a rotation symmetry $\mathcal{R}$. A topological crystalline magnet exhibits two intriguing features: (i) it cannot be adiabatically connected to any Slater insulator and (ii) the edge state is robust against coupling electrons to the edge. Read More

Topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) are insulating materials that possess metallic surface states protected by crystalline symmetry. The (001) surface states have been predicted to exhibit many novel physical properties (such as superconductivity, quantum anomalous Hall effect and Weyl fermions) that are widely tunable under various perturbations, rendering these materials a versatile platform for exploring topological phenomena and potential applications. However, progress in this field has been hindered by the challenge to probe the optical and transport properties of the surface states owing to the presence of bulk carriers. Read More

Monte Carlo simulation is an unbiased numerical tool for studying classical and quantum many-body systems. One of its bottlenecks is the lack of general and efficient update algorithm for large size systems close to phase transition or with strong frustrations, for which local updates perform badly. In this work, we propose a new general-purpose Monte Carlo method, dubbed self-learning Monte Carlo (SLMC), in which an efficient update algorithm is first learned from the training data generated in trial simulations and then used to speed up the actual simulation. Read More

We study how an inversion-breaking quantum critical point affects the ground state of a one-dimensional electronic liquid with repulsive interaction and spin-orbit coupling. We find that regardless of the interaction strength, the critical fluctuations always lead to a gap in the electronic spin-sector. The origin of the gap is a two-particle backscattering process, which becomes relevant due to renormalization of the Luttinger parameter near the critical point. Read More

We study the pairing symmetry of the interlayer paired state of composite fermions in quantum Hall bilayers. Based on the Halperin-Lee-Read (HLR) theory, the effect of the long-range Coulomb interaction and the internal Chern-Simons gauge fluctuation is analyzed with the random-phase approximation beyond the leading order contribution in small momentum expansion, and we observe that the interlayer paired states with a relative angular momentum $l=+1$ is energetically favored for filling $\nu=\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{2}$ and $\frac{1}{4}+\frac{1}{4}$. The degeneracy between states with $\pm l$ is lifted by the interlayer density-current interaction arising from the interplay of the long-range Coulomb interaction and the Chern-Simons term in the HLR theory. Read More

We present a new measurement-based scheme for performing braiding operations on Majorana zero modes and for detecting their non-Abelian statistics without moving or hybridizing them. In our scheme, the topological qubit encoded in any pair of well-separated Majorana zero modes in a mesoscopic superconductor island is read out from the transmission phase shift in electron teleportation through the island in the Coulomb blockade regime. We propose experimental setups to measure the teleportation phase shift via conductance in an electron interferometer or persistent current in a closed loop. Read More

We study a topological superconductor island with spatially separated Majorana modes coupled to multiple normal metal leads by single electron tunneling in the Coulomb blockade regime. We show that low-temperature transport in such Majorana island is carried by an emergent charge-$e$ boson composed of a Majorana mode and an electron from the leads. This transmutation from Fermi to Bose statistics has remarkable consequences. Read More

Through a systematic symmetry and topology analysis we establish that three-dimensional chiral superconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling and odd-parity pairing generically host low-energy nodal quasiparticles that are spin-non-degenerate and realize Majorana fermions in three dimensions. By examining all types of chiral Cooper pairs with total angular momentum $J$ formed by Bloch electrons with angular momentum $j$ in crystals, we obtain a comprehensive classification of gapless Majorana quasiparticles in terms of energy-momentum relation and location on the Fermi surface. We show that the existence of bulk Majorana fermions in the vicinity of spin-selective point nodes is rooted in the non-unitary nature of chiral pairing in spin-orbit-coupled superconductors. Read More

Based on recently synthesized Ni3C12S12 class 2D metal-organic frameworks, we predict electronic properties of M3C12S12 and M3C12O12, where M is Zn, Cd, Hg, Be, or Mg with no M orbital contributions to bands near Fermi level. For M3C12S12, their band structures exhibit double Dirac cones with different Fermi velocities that are n and p type, respectively, which are switchable by few-percent strain. The crossing of two cones are symmetry-protected to be non-hybridizing, leading to two independent channels in 2D node-line semimetals at the same k-point akin to spin-channels in spintronics, rendering conetronics device possible. Read More

Novel materials with nontrivial electronic and photonic band topology are crucial for realizing novel devices with low power consumption and heat dissipation, and quantum computing free of decoherence. Here using first-principles approach, we predict a class of ternary transition metal chalcogenides (TTMC) MM'Te$_4$ exhibits dual topological characteristics: quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulators in their 2D monolayers and topological Weyl semimetals in their 3D noncentrosymmetric crystals upon van der Waals (vdW) stacking. Remarkably, we find that one can create and annihilate Weyl fermions, and realize the transition between Type-I and Type-II Weyl fermions by tuning vdW interlayer spacing. Read More

Discovering Dirac fermions with novel properties has become an important front in condensed matter and materials sciences. Here, we report the observation of unusual Dirac fermion states in a strongly-correlated electron setting, which are uniquely distinct from those of graphene and conventional topological insulators. In strongly-correlated cerium monopnictides, we find two sets of highly anisotropic Dirac fermions that interpenetrate each other with negligible hybridization, and show a peculiar four-fold degeneracy where their Dirac nodes overlap. Read More

We consider symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases with crystalline point group symmetry, dubbed point group SPT (pgSPT) phases. We show that such phases can be understood in terms of lower-dimensional topological phases with on-site symmetry, and can be constructed as stacks and arrays of these lower-dimensional states. This provides the basis for a general framework to classify and characterize bosonic and fermionic pgSPT phases, that can be applied for arbitrary crystalline point group symmetry and in arbitrary spatial dimension. Read More

Based on $k\cdot p$ analysis and realistic tight-binding calculations, we find that time-reversal-breaking Weyl semimetals can be realized in magnetically-doped (Mn, Eu, Cr etc.) Sn$_{1-x}$Pb$_x$(Te,Se) class of topological crystalline insulators. All the Weyl points are well separated in momentum space and possess nearly the same energy due to high crystalline symmetry. Read More

We study the effect of the long-range Coulomb interaction in $j=3/2$ Dirac electrons in cubic crystals with the $O_h$ symmetry, which serves as an effective model for antiperovskite topological crystalline insulators. The renormalization group analysis reveals three fixed points that are Lorentz invariant, rotationally invariant, and $O_h$ invariant. Among them, the Lorentz- and $O_h$-invariant fixed points are stable in the low-energy limit while the rotationally invariant fixed point is unstable. Read More

Electrons in the pyrochore iridates experience a large interaction energy in addition to a strong spin-orbit interaction. Both features make the iridates promising platforms for realizing novel states such as the Topological Mott Insulator. A further ingredient in pyrochlores is geometric frustration which leads to unusual magnetic states. Read More

We introduce a generalization of conventional lattice gauge theory to describe fracton topological phases, which are characterized by immobile, point-like topological excitations, and sub-extensive topological degeneracy. We demonstrate a duality between fracton topological order and interacting spin systems with symmetries along extensive, lower-dimensional subsystems, which may be used to systematically search for and characterize fracton topological phases. Commutative algebra and elementary algebraic geometry provide an effective mathematical toolset for our results. Read More

The search for unconventional superconductivity has been focused on materials with strong spin-orbit coupling and unique crystal lattices. Doped bismuth selenide (Bi$_2$Se$_3$) is a strong candidate given the topological insulator nature of the parent compound and its triangular lattice. The coupling between the physical properties in the superconducting state and its underlying crystal symmetry is a crucial test for unconventional superconductivity. Read More

Recent nuclear magnetic resonance and specific heat measurements have provided concurring evidence of spontaneously broken rotational symmetry in the superconducting state of the doped topological insulator Cu$_x$Bi$_2$Se$_3$. This suggests that the pairing symmetry corresponds to a two-dimensional representation of the $D_{3d}$ crystal point group, and that Cu$_x$Bi$_2$Se$_3$ is a nematic superconductor. In this work, we present a comprehensive study of the upper critical field $H_{c2}$ of nematic superconductors within Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. Read More

Majorana fermion (MF) whose antiparticle is itself has been predicted in condensed matter systems. Signatures of the MFs have been reported as zero energy modes in various systems. More definitive evidences are highly desired to verify the existence of the MF. Read More

Classical wave fields are real-valued, ensuring the wave states at opposite frequencies and momenta to be inherently identical. Such a particle-hole symmetry can open up new possibilities for topological phenomena in classical systems. Here we show that the historically studied two-dimensional (2D) magnetoplasmon, which bears gapped bulk states and gapless one-way edge states near zero frequency, is topologically analogous to the 2D topological $p+\Ii p$ superconductor with chiral Majorana edge states and zero modes. Read More

Motivated by the recent experiment indicating that superconductivity in the doped topological insulator Cu$_x$Bi$_2$Se$_3$ has an odd-parity pairing symmetry with rotational symmetry breaking, we study the general class of odd-parity superconductors with two-component order parameters in trigonal and hexagonal crystal systems. In the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction, we find two possible superconducting phases below $T_c$, a time-reversal-breaking (i.e. Read More

Riemann surfaces are geometric constructions in complex analysis that may represent multi-valued holomorphic functions using multiple sheets of the complex plane. We show that the energy dispersion of surface states in topological semimetals can be represented by Riemann surfaces generated by holomorphic functions in the two-dimensional momentum space, whose constant height contours correspond to Fermi arcs. This correspondence is demonstrated in the recently discovered Weyl semimetals and leads us to predict new types of topological semimetals, whose surface states are represented by double- and quad-helicoid Riemann surfaces. Read More

We propose a physical realization of a commuting Hamiltonian of interacting Majorana fermions realizing $Z_{2}$ topological order, using an array of Josephson-coupled topological superconductor islands. The required multi-body interaction Hamiltonian is naturally generated by a combination of charging energy induced quantum phase-slips on the superconducting islands and electron tunneling. Our setup improves on a recent proposal for implementing a Majorana fermion surface code [1], a 'hybrid' approach to fault-tolerant quantum computation that combines (1) the engineering of a stabilizer Hamiltonian with a topologically ordered ground state with (2) projective stabilizer measurements to implement error correction and a universal set of logical gates. Read More

It is well-known that a non-vanishing Hall conductivity requires time-reversal symmetry breaking. However, in this work, we demonstrate that a Hall-like transverse current can occur in second-order response to an external electric field in a wide class of time-reversal invariant and inversion breaking materials, at both zero and twice the optical frequency. This nonlinear Hall effect has a quantum origin arising from the dipole moment of the Berry curvature in momentum space, which generates a net anomalous velocity when the system is in a current-carrying state. Read More

We study superconductivity in spin-orbit-coupled systems in the vicinity of inversion symmetry breaking. We find that due to the presence of spin-orbit coupling, fluctuations of the incipient parity-breaking order generate an attractive pairing interaction in an odd-parity pairing channel, which competes with the s-wave pairing. We show that applying a Zeeman field suppresses the s-wave pairing and promotes the odd-parity superconducting state. Read More

A single Dirac cone on the surface is the hallmark of three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators, where the double degeneracy at the Dirac point is protected by time-reversal symmetry and the spin-splitting away from the point is provided by the spin-orbital coupling. Here we predict a single Dirac-cone surface state in a 3D photonic crystal, where the degeneracy at the Dirac point is protected by a nonsymmorphic glide reflection and the linear splitting away from it is enabled by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Such a gapless surface state is fully robust against random disorder of any type. Read More

Both topological crystalline insulators surfaces and graphene host multi-valley massless Dirac fermions which are not pinned to a high-symmetry point of the Brillouin zone. Strain couples to the low-energy electrons as a time-reversal invariant gauge field, leading to the formation of pseudo-Landau levels (PLL). Here we study periodic pseudo-magnetic fields originating from strain superlattices. Read More

We theoretically study three-dimensional topological semimetals (TSMs) with nodal lines protected by crystalline symmetries. Compared with TSMs with point nodes, e.g. Read More

The surface of a three-dimensional topological electron system often hosts symmetry-protected gapless surface states. With the effect of electron interactions, these surface states can be gapped out without symmetry breaking by a surface topological order, in which the anyon excitations carry anomalous symmetry fractionalization that cannot be realized in a genuine two-dimensional system. We show that for a mirror-symmetry-protected topological crystalline insulator with mirror Chern number $n=4$, its surface can be gapped out by an anomalous $\mathbb Z_2$ topological order, where all anyons carry mirror-symmetry fractionalization $M^2=-1$. Read More

We introduce exactly solvable models of interacting (Majorana) fermions in $d \ge 3$ spatial dimensions that realize a new kind of topological quantum order, building on a model presented in ref. [1]. These models have extensive topological ground-state degeneracy and a hierarchy of point-like, topological excitations that are only free to move within sub-manifolds of the lattice. Read More

We use first principles calculations to study the electronic properties of rock salt rare earth monopnictides La$X$ ($X=$N, P, As, Sb, Bi). A new type of topological band crossing termed `linked nodal rings' is found in LaN when the small spin-orbital coupling (SOC) on nitrogen orbitals is neglected. Turning on SOC gaps the nodal rings at all but two points, which remain gapless due to $C_4$-symmetry and leads to a 3D Dirac semimetal. Read More

We introduce an exactly solvable model of interacting Majorana fermions realizing $Z_{2}$ topological order with a $Z_{2}$ fermion parity grading and lattice symmetries permuting the three fundamental anyon types. We propose a concrete physical realization by utilizing quantum phase slips in an array of Josephson-coupled mesoscopic topological superconductors, which can be implemented in a wide range of solid state systems, including topological insulators, nanowires or two-dimensional electron gases, proximitized by $s$-wave superconductors. Our model finds a natural application as a Majorana fermion surface code for universal quantum computation, with a single-step stabilizer measurement requiring no physical ancilla qubits, increased error tolerance, and simpler logical gates than a surface code with bosonic physical qubits. Read More

Two-dimensional (2D) topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) were recently predicted in thin films of the SnTe class of IV-VI semiconductors, which can host metallic edge states protected by mirror symmetry. As thickness decreases, quantum confinement effect will increase and surpass the inverted gap below a critical thickness, turning TCIs into normal insulators. Surprisingly, based on first-principles calculations, here we demonstrate that (001) monolayers of rocksalt IV-VI semiconductors XY (X=Ge, Sn, Pb and Y= S, Se, Te) are 2D TCIs with the fundamental band gap as large as 260 meV in monolayer PbTe, providing a materials platform for realizing two-dimensional Dirac fermion systems with tunable band gap. Read More

Recently, much attention has been paid to search for Majorana fermions in solid-state systems. Among various proposals there is one based on radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices (rf-SQUIDs), in which the appearance of 4$\pi$-period energy-phase relations is regarded as smoking-gun evidence of Majorana fermion states. Here we report the observation of truncated 4$\pi$-period (i. Read More

We study the effect of electron interactions in topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) protected by mirror symmetry, which are realized in the SnTe material class and host multi-valley Dirac fermion surface states. We find that interactions reduce the integer classification of noninteracting TCIs in three dimensions, indexed by the mirror Chern number, to a finite group $Z_8$. In particular, we explicitly construct a microscopic interaction Hamiltonian to gap 8 flavors of Dirac fermions on the TCI surface, while preserving the mirror symmetry. Read More

In 1929, Hermann Weyl derived the massless solutions from the Dirac equation - the relativistic wave equation for electrons. Neutrinos were thought, for decades, to be Weyl fermions until the discovery of the neutrino mass. Moreover, it has been suggested that low energy excitations in condensed matter can be the solutions to the Weyl Hamiltonian. Read More

We study Fermi liquid instabilities in spin-orbit-coupled metals with inversion symmetry. By introducing a canonical basis for the doubly degenerate Bloch bands in momentum space, we derive the general form of interaction functions. A variety of time-reversal-invariant, parity-breaking phases is found, whose Fermi surface is spontaneously deformed and spin-split. Read More

We theoretically predict two new classes of three-dimensional topological crystalline insulators (TCIs), which have an odd number of unpinned surface Dirac cones protected by crystal symmetries. The first class is protected by a single glide plane symmetry; the second class is protected by a composition of a twofold rotation and time-reversal symmetry. Both classes of TCIs are characterized by a quantized $\pi$ Berry phase associated with surface states and a $Z_2$ topological invariant associated with the bulk bands. Read More

Based on a combination of $k \cdot p$ theory, band topology analysis and electronic structure calculations, we predict the (111) thin films of the SnTe class of three-dimensional (3D) topological crystalline insulators realize the quantum spin Hall phase in a wide range of thickness. The nontrivial topology originates from the inter-surface coupling of the topological surface states of TCI in the 3D limit. The inter-surface coupling changes sign and gives rise to topological phase transitions as a function of film thickness. Read More

In this review, we discuss recent progress in the explorations of topological materials beyond topological insulators; specifically, we focus on topological crystalline insulators and bulk topological superconductors. The basic concepts, model Hamiltonians, and novel electronic properties of these new topological materials are explained. The key role of symmetries that underlie their topological properties is elucidated. Read More

In quantum spin liquid states, the fractionalized spinon excitations can carry fractional crystal symmetry quantum numbers, and this symmetry fractionalization distinguishes different topologically ordered spin liquid states. In this work we propose a simple way to detect signatures of such crystal symmetry fractionalizations from the crystal symmetry representations of the ground state wave function. We demonstrate our method on projected $\mathbb Z_2$ spin liquid wave functions on the kagome lattice, and show that it can be used to classify generic wave functions. Read More

We study the entanglement spectrum of a translationally-invariant lattice system under a random partition, implemented by choosing each site to be in one subsystem with probability $p\in[0, 1]$. We apply this random partitioning to a translationally-invariant (i.e. Read More

CuxBi2Se3 was recently proposed as a promising candidate for time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors[1]. In this work, we argue that the unusual anisotropy of the Knight shift observed by Zheng[2], taken together with specific heat measurements, provides strong support for an unconventional odd-parity pairing in the two-dimensional E_u representation of the D3d crystal point group[1], which spontaneously breaks the three-fold rotational symmetry of the crystal, leading to a subsidiary nematic order. We predict that the spin-orbit interaction associated with hexagonal warping plays a crucial role in pinning the two-component order parameter and makes the superconducting state fully-gapped, leading to a topological superconductor. Read More

We predict a new class of topological crystalline insulators (TCI) in the anti-perovskite material family with the chemical formula A$_3$BX. Here the nontrivial topology arises from band inversion between two $J=3/2$ quartets, which is described by a generalized Dirac equation for a "Dirac octet". Our work suggests that anti-perovskites are a promising new venue for exploring the cooperative interplay between band topology, crystal symmetry and electron correlation. Read More

Breaking space-time symmetries in two-dimensional crystals (2D) can dramatically influence their macroscopic electronic properties. Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are prime examples where the intrinsically broken crystal inversion symmetry permits the generation of valley-selective electron populations, even though the two valleys are energetically degenerate, locked by time-reversal symmetry. Lifting the valley degeneracy in these materials is of great interest because it would allow for valley-specific band engineering and offer additional control in valleytronic applications. Read More

Many topologically nontrivial states of matter possess gapless degrees of freedom on the boundary, and when these boundary states delocalize into the bulk, a phase transition occurs and the system becomes topologically trivial. We show that tensor networks provide a natural framework for analyzing such topological phase transitions in terms of the boundary degrees of freedom which mediate it. To do so, we make use of a correspondence between a topologically nontrivial ground state and its phase transition to a trivial phase established in [1]. Read More

We report a new class of large-gap quantum spin Hall insulators in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MX$_2$ with M=(Mo, W) and X=(S, Se, and Te), whose topological electronic properties are highly tunable by external electric field. We propose a novel topological field effect transistor made of these atomic layer materials and their van der Waals heterostructures. Our device exhibits parametrically enhanced charge-spin conductance through topologically protected transport channels, and can be rapidly switched off by electric field through topological phase transition instead of carrier depletion. Read More