Leonid Gurvits - Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe

Leonid Gurvits
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Leonid Gurvits
Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe

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Mathematics - Combinatorics (13)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (9)
Quantum Physics (8)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (7)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (7)
Astrophysics of Galaxies (6)
Mathematics - Optimization and Control (6)
Computer Science - Computational Complexity (5)
Mathematical Physics (2)
Computer Science - Information Theory (2)
Mathematics - Information Theory (2)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (2)
Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry (2)
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (2)
Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (2)
Mathematics - Statistics (1)
Computer Science - Computational Geometry (1)
Astrophysics (1)
Statistics - Theory (1)
Mathematics - Classical Analysis and ODEs (1)
Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory (1)
Quantitative Biology - Populations and Evolution (1)
Mathematics - Commutative Algebra (1)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)
Mathematics - Probability (1)

Publications Authored By Leonid Gurvits

We design a deterministic polynomial time $c^n$ approximation algorithm for the permanent of positive semidefinite matrices where $c=e^{\gamma+1}\simeq 4.84$. We write a natural convex relaxation and show that its optimum solution gives a $c^n$ approximation of the permanent. Read More

Radio-loud high-redshift quasars (HRQs), although only a few of them are known to date, are crucial for the studies of the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) at early cosmological epochs. Radio jets offer direct evidence of SMBHs, and their radio structures can be studied with the highest angular resolution using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Here we report on the observations of three HRQs (J0131-0321, J0906+6930, J1026+2542) at z>5 using the Korean VLBI Network and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry Arrays (together known as KaVA) with the purpose of studying their pc-scale jet properties. Read More

Affiliations: 1Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, The Netherlands, 2FÖMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory, Hungary, 3Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, The Netherlands, 4Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, The Netherlands, 5Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC, The Netherlands, 6Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, The Netherlands, 7FÖMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory, Hungary, 8Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC, The Netherlands, 9Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. R. China, 10Geoscience Australia, Australia

High-redshift radio-loud quasars are used to, among other things, test the predictions of cosmological models, set constraints on black hole growth in the early universe and understand galaxy evolution. Prior to this paper, 20 extragalactic radio sources at redshifts above 4.5 have been imaged with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Read More

The celebrated Brascamp-Lieb (BL) inequalities (and their extensions) are an important mathematical tool, unifying and generalizing numerous inequalities in analysis, convex geometry and information theory. While their structural theory is very well understood, far less is known about computing their main parameters. We give polynomial time algorithms to compute feasibility of BL-datum, the optimal BL-constant and a weak separation oracle for the BL-polytope. Read More

A bright optical flare was detected in the high-redshift ($z=2.133$) quasar CGRaBS J0809+5341 on 2014 April 13. The absolute magnitude of the object reached $-30. Read More

The closest ever fly-by of the Martian moon Phobos, performed by the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft, gives a unique opportunity to sharpen and test the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments (PRIDE) technique in the interest of studying planet - satellite systems. The aim of this work is to demonstrate a technique of providing high precision positional and Doppler measurements of planetary spacecraft using the Mars Express spacecraft. The technique will be used in the framework of Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments in various planetary missions, in particular in fly-by mode. Read More

Affiliations: 1Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, 2Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 4Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, 5Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 6Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC, 7Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, 8School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, 9FOMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory, 10Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC, 11Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen

Megahertz peaked-spectrum (MPS) sources have spectra that peak at frequencies below 1 GHz in the observer's frame and are believed to be radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). We recently presented a new method to search for high-redshift AGN by identifying unusually compact MPS sources. In this paper, we present European VLBI Network (EVN) observations of 11 MPS sources which we use to determine their sizes and investigate the nature of the sources with ~10 mas resolution. Read More

Affiliations: 1Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 2ASC Lebedev, MPIfR, 3UCSB, 4JIVE, Delft U, 5Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 6ICRAR/Curtin, CAASTRO, 7CSIRO, ANU Canberra, 8ASC Lebedev, 9Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam, MPIfR, 10ASC Lebedev, SAI MSU, 11ASC Lebedev

Earth-space interferometry with RadioAstron provides the highest direct angular resolution ever achieved in astronomy at any wavelength. RadioAstron detections of the classic quasar 3C273 on interferometric baselines up to 171,000 km suggest brightness temperatures exceeding expected limits from the "inverse-Compton catastrophe" by two orders of magnitude. We show that at 18 cm, these estimates most probably arise from refractive substructure introduced by scattering in the interstellar medium. Read More

Many physical parameters that can be estimated from space mission tracking data influence both the translational dynamics and proper time rates of observers. These different proper time rates cause a variability of the time transfer observable beyond that caused by their translational (and rotational) dynamics. With the near-future implementation of (interplanetary) transponder laser ranging, these effects will become increasingly important, requiring a re-evaluation of the common data analysis practice of using a priori time ephemerides, which is the goal of this paper. Read More

In this paper we present a deterministic polynomial time algorithm for testing if a symbolic matrix in non-commuting variables over $\mathbb{Q}$ is invertible or not. The analogous question for commuting variables is the celebrated polynomial identity testing (PIT) for symbolic determinants. In contrast to the commutative case, which has an efficient probabilistic algorithm, the best previous algorithm for the non-commutative setting required exponential time (whether or not randomization is allowed). Read More

Relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are among the most powerful astrophysical objects discovered to date. Indeed, jetted AGN studies have been considered a prominent science case for SKA, and were included in several different chapters of the previous SKA Science Book (Carilli & Rawlings 2004). Most of the fundamental questions about the physics of relativistic jets still remain unanswered, and await high-sensitivity radio instruments such as SKA to solve them. Read More


Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper. Read More

The vast collecting area of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), harnessed by sensitive receivers, flexible digital electronics and increased computational capacity, could permit the most sensitive and exhaustive search for technologically-produced radio emission from advanced extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) ever performed. For example, SKA1-MID will be capable of detecting a source roughly analogous to terrestrial high-power radars (e.g. Read More

The accuracy of orbit determination has a strong impact on the scientific output of the Space VLBI mission RadioAstron. The aim of this work is to improve the RadioAstron orbit reconstruction by means of sophisticated dynamical modelling of its motion in combination with multi-station Doppler tracking of the RadioAstron spacecraft. The improved orbital solution is demonstrated using Doppler measurements of the RadioAstron downlink signal and by correlating VLBI observations made by RadioAstron with ground-based telescopes using the enhanced orbit determination data. Read More

We give new lower and upper bounds on the permanent of a doubly stochastic matrix. Combined with previous work, this improves on the deterministic approximation factor for the permanent. We also give a combinatorial application of the lower bound, proving S. Read More

Affiliations: 1JIVE, Netherlands, 2YNAO, P.R. China, 3YNAO, 4JIVE, 5JIVE, 6JIVE, 7SHAO, P.R. China, 8SHAO, 9SHAO

The X-ray transient MAXI J1836-194 is a newly-identified Galactic black hole binary candidate. As most X-ray transients, it was discovered at the beginning of an X-ray outburst. After the initial canonical X-ray hard state, the outburst evolved into a hard intermediate state and then went back to the hard state. Read More

We examine a two-person game we call Will-Testing in which the strategy space for both players is a real number. It has no equilibrium. When an infinitely large set of players plays this in all possible pairings, there is an equilibrium for the distribution of strategies which requires all players to use different strategies. Read More

We present the results of several multi-station Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) experiments conducted with the ESA spacecraft Venus Express as a target. To determine the true capabilities of VLBI tracking for future planetary missions in the solar system, it is necessary to demonstrate the accuracy of the method for existing operational spacecraft. We describe the software pipeline for the processing of phase referencing near-field VLBI observations and present results of the ESA Venus Express spacecraft observing campaign conducted in 2010-2011. Read More

Global VLBI (EVN+VLBA) polarization observations at 5 and 8.4 GHz of ten high redshift (z > 3) quasars are presented. The core and jet brightness temperatures are found through modelling the self-calibrated uv-data with Gaussian components, which provide reliable estimates of the flux density and size of individual components. Read More

Let $A \in \Omega_n$ be doubly-stochastic $n \times n$ matrix. Alexander Schrijver proved in 1998 the following remarkable inequality per(\widetilde{A}) \geq \prod_{1 \leq i,j \leq n} (1- A(i,j)); \widetilde{A}(i,j) =: A(i,j)(1-A(i,j)), 1 \leq i,j \leq n. We use the above Shrijver's inequality to prove the following lower bound: \frac{per(A)}{F(A)} \geq 1; F(A) =: \prod_{1 \leq i,j \leq n} (1- A(i,j))^{1- A(i,j)}. Read More

The high-redshift (z=4.72) blazar J1430+4204 produced an exceptional radio outburst in 2006. We analyzed 15-GHz radio interferometric images obtained with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) before and after the outburst, to search for possible structural changes on milli-arcsecond angular scales and to determine physical parameters of the source. Read More

An upper bound on the ergodic capacity of {\bf MIMO} channels was introduced recently in arXiv:0903.1952. This upper bound amounts to the maximization on the simplex of some multilinear polynomial $p(\lambda_1,. Read More

We study multivariate entire functions and polynomials with non-negative coefficients. A class of {\bf Strongly Log-Concave} entire functions, generalizing {\it Minkowski} volume polynomials, is introduced: an entire function $f$ in $m$ variables is called {\bf Strongly Log-Concave} if the function $(\partial x_1)^{c_1}.. Read More

Affiliations: 1Shanghai Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, 3Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, 4FOMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory, 5Shanghai Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Category: Astrophysics

Based on the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) observations at 1.6 and 5 GHz, we find that the luminous high-redshift (z=3.215) quasar PKS 1402+044 (J1405+0415) has a pronounced 'core--jet' structure. Read More

We derive here the Friedland-Tverberg inequality for positive hyperbolic polynomials. This inequality is applied to give lower bounds for the number of matchings in $r$-regular bipartite graphs. It is shown that some of these bounds are asymptotically sharp. Read More

We show that for an m-qubit quantum system, there is a ball of radius asymptotically approaching kappa 2^{-gamma m} in Frobenius norm, centered at the identity matrix, of separable (unentangled) positive semidefinite matrices, for an exponent gamma = (1/2)((ln 3/ln 2) - 1), roughly .29248125. This is much smaller in magnitude than the best previously known exponent, from our earlier work, of 1/2. Read More

It is proved that the roots of combinations of matrix polynomials with real roots can be recast as eigenvalues of combinations of real symmetric matrices, under certain hypotheses. The proof is based on recent solution of the Lax conjecture. Several applications and corollaries, in particular concerning hyperbolic matrix polynomials, are presented. Read More

We prove that the mixed discriminant of doubly stochastic $n$-tuples of semidefinite hermitian $n \times n$ matrices is bounded below by $\frac{n!}{n^{n}}$ and that this bound is uniquely attained at the $n$-tuple $(\frac{1}{n} I,... Read More

The main topic of this paper is various "hyperbolic" generalizations of the Edmonds-Rado theorem on the rank of intersection of two matroids. We prove several results in this direction and pose a few questions. We also give generalizations of the Obreschkoff theorem and recent results of J. Read More

This paper continues research initiated in quant-ph/0201022 . The main subject here is the so-called Edmonds' problem of deciding if a given linear subspace of square matrices contains a nonsingular matrix . We present a deterministic polynomial time algorithm to solve this problem for linear subspaces satisfying a special matroids motivated property, called in the paper the Edmonds-Rado property . Read More

We show that for an m-partite quantum system, there is a ball of radius 2^{-(m/2-1)} in Frobenius norm, centered at the identity matrix, of separable (unentangled) positive semidefinite matrices. This can be used to derive an epsilon below which mixtures of epsilon of any density matrix with 1 - epsilon of the maximally mixed state will be separable. The epsilon thus obtained is exponentially better (in the number of systems) than existing results. Read More

For finite-dimensional bipartite quantum systems, we find the exact size of the largest balls, in spectral $l_p$ norms for $1 \le p \le \infty$, of separable (unentangled) matrices around the identity matrix. This implies a simple and intutively meaningful geometrical sufficient condition for separability of bipartite density matrices: that their purity $\tr \rho^2$ not be too large. Theoretical and experimental applications of these results include algorithmic problems such as computing whether or not a state is entangled, and practical ones such as obtaining information about the existence or nature of entanglement in states reached by NMR quantum computation implementations or other experimental situations. Read More

Classical matching theory can be defined in terms of matrices with nonnegative entries. The notion of Positive operator, central in Quantum Theory, is a natural generalization of matrices with nonnegative entries. Based on this point of view, we introduce a definition of perfect Quantum (operator) matching . Read More