Laura Maraschi - -INAF-Oss. Astr. Brera, Italy

Laura Maraschi
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Laura Maraschi
-INAF-Oss. Astr. Brera, Italy

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Astrophysics (16)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (5)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (3)

Publications Authored By Laura Maraschi

We analyze Chandra X-ray images of a sample of 11 quasars that are known to contain kiloparsec scale radio jets. The sample consists of five high-redshift (z >= 3.6) flat-spectrum radio quasars, and six intermediate redshift (2. Read More

We perform time-dependent, spatially-resolved simulations of blazar emission to evaluate several flaring scenarios related to magnetic-field amplification and enhanced particle acceleration. The code explicitly accounts for light-travel-time effects and is applied to flares observed in the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 0208-512, which show optical/{\gamma}-ray correlation at some times, but orphan optical flares at other times. Changes in both the magnetic field and the particle acceleration efficiency are explored as causes of flares. Read More

Recently, a new method to constrain the distance of blazars with unknown redshift using combined observations in the GeV and TeV regimes has been developed, with the underlying assumption that the Very High Energy (VHE) spectrum corrected for the absorption of TeV photons by the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) via photon-photon interaction should still be softer than the gamma-ray spectrum observed by Fermi/LAT. The constraints found are related to the real redshifts by a simple linear relation, that has been used to infer the unknown distance of blazars. The sample will be revised with the up-to-date spectra in both TeV and GeV bands, the method tested with the more recent EBL models and finally applied to the unknown distance blazars detected at VHE. Read More

A new method to constrain the distance of blazars with unknown redshift using combined observations in the GeV and TeV regimes will be presented. The underlying assumption is that the Very High Energy (VHE) spectrum corrected for the absorption of TeV photons by the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) via photon-photon interaction should still be softer than the extrapolation of the gamma-ray spectrum observed by Fermi/LAT. Starting from the observed spectral data at VHE, the EBL-corrected spectra are derived as a function of the redshift z and fitted with power laws. Read More

Affiliations: 1OSU, USA;, 2Tor Vergata, Italy;, 3SUPA, Scotland, 4-INAF-Oss. Astr. Brera, Italy
Category: Astrophysics

We constrain the mean kinetic efficiency of radio-loud active galactic nuclei by using an optically selected sample for which both the optical and the radio luminosity functions (LFs) have been determined; the former traces the bolometric luminosity L, while the latter traces the kinetic power L_k, empirically correlated to the radio emission. Thus in terms of the ratio g_k=L_k/L, we can convert the optical LF of the sample into a radio one. This computed LF is shown to match the directly observed LF for the same sample if g_k=0. Read More

The XMM-Newton satellite has revealed extended X-ray emission from the eastern radio lobe of the Fanaroff-Riley II Radio Galaxy Pictor A. The X-ray spectrum, accumulated on a region covering about half the entire radio lobe, is well described by both a thermal model and a power law. The X-ray emission could be thermal and produced by circum-galactic gas shocked by the expanding radio lobe or, alternatively, by Inverse Compton (IC) of cosmic microwave background photons by relativistic electrons in the lobe. Read More

Affiliations: 1Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy, 2Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy
Category: Astrophysics

We discuss the relation between the power carried by relativistic jets and the nuclear power provided by accretion, for a group of blazars including FSRQs and BL Lac objects. They are characterized by good quality broad band X-ray data provided by the Beppo SAX satellite. The jet powers are estimated using physical parameters determined from uniformly modelling their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Read More

Authors: Laura Maraschi1
Affiliations: 1Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy
Category: Astrophysics

Advances in the capabilities of X-ray, gamma-ray and TeV telescopes have brought new information on the physics of relativistic jets, which are responsible for the blazar "phenomenon". In particular the broad band sensitivity of the BeppoSAX satellite, extending up to 100 KeV has allowed unprecedented studies of their hard X-ray spectra. I summarize here some basic results and present a unified view of the blazar population, whereby all sources contain essentially similar jets despite diversities in other properties, like the presence or absence of emission lines in their optical spectra. Read More

We present a detailed X-ray study of the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C382, observed with the BeppoSAX satellite in a very bright state. The continuum emission is well modeled with a power law that steepens at high energies, with an e-folding energy of about 120 keV. At soft energies a clear excess of emission is detected, which can not be explained solely by the extended thermal halo seen in a ROSAT HRI image. Read More

We briefly review BeppoSAX observations of X-ray bright radio-galaxies. Their X-ray spectra are quite varied, and perhaps surprisingly, any similarity between radio-loud AGN and Seyfert galaxies is the exception rather than the rule. When detected, reprocessing features (iron line and reflection) are generally weak, suggesting two possible scenarios: either: (1) non-thermal (jet?) radiation dilutes the X-ray emission from the disk in radio-loud objects, or (2) the solid angle subtended by the X-ray reprocessing material is smaller in radio-loud than in radio-quiet AGN due to different characteristics of the accretion disk itself. Read More

The contribution of an astrophysics group based in Milan to the science with the IUE satellite during its almost 20 years lifetime has focussed on high energy sources, of both galactic (LMXRB, HMXRB, and black hole candidates) and extragalactic (AGN) nature. The results of this long term research and in particular of the latest multiwavelength campaigns conducted simultaneously with IUE are reviewed here. Read More

Only ~10 blazars have been detected in soft gamma-rays by OSSE and the PDS, often in flaring state. We investigate the impact of the imaging and spectral capabilities of the IBIS instrument on board INTEGRAL on the study of blazars. The objectives are: 1) to remove ambiguities in the identification of some blazars as soft gamma-ray emitters; 2) to determine the spectral shape of "extreme synchrotron" blazars, namely sources with high F_X/F_radio ratios, for which the synchrotron component peaks at far UV-soft X-ray frequencies. Read More

The BL Lac object Mkn 501 was observed with the BeppoSAX satellite at three epochs in April-May 1998, simultaneously with the Whipple and HEGRA Cherenkov telescopes. The X-ray spectrum is well detected up to 70 keV and it exhibits, at all epochs, a continuous curvature, which is here modeled with three power-laws of increasingly steeper index at larger energies. In the nu*f_nu representation the spectrum exhibits a peak at ~20 keV, which is interpreted as the maximum of the synchrotron emission. Read More

The IUE contribution to the understanding of the blazar phenomenon has been of fundamental importance. Here I review the progress obtained with the latest multifrequency campaigns performed with IUE on two prototype objects, the BL Lac PKS 2155-304 and the highly polarized, superluminal quasar 3C 279. Read More

The BL Lac object Mkn 501, one of the only three extragalactic sources (with Mkn 421 and 1ES 2344+514) so far detected at TeV energies, was observed with the BeppoSAX satellite on 7, 11, and 16 April 1997 during a phase of high activity at TeV energies, as monitored with the Whipple, HEGRA and CAT Cherenkov telescopes. Over the whole 0.1-200 keV range the spectrum was exceptionally hard (alpha =< 1, with F_nu ~ nu^{-alpha}) indicating that the X-ray power output peaked at (or above) ~100 keV. Read More

PKS 2155-304, the brightest BL Lac object in the ultraviolet sky, was monitored with the IUE satellite at ~1 hour time-resolution for ten nearly uninterrupted days in May 1994. The campaign, which was coordinated with EUVE, ROSAT, and ASCA monitoring, along with optical and radio observations from the ground, yielded the largest set of spectra and the richest short time scale variability information ever gathered for a blazar at UV wavelengths. The source flared dramatically during the first day, with an increase by a factor ~2. Read More

Average Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) for different subgroups of blazars are derived from available homogeneous (but small) data sets, including the gamma-ray band. Comparing Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQ) with BL Lacs extracted from radio (RBL) or X-ray surveys (XBL) remarkable differences and similarities are apparent: i) in all cases the overall SED from radio to gamma-rays shows two peaks; ii) the first and second peak fall in different frequency ranges for different objects, with a tendency for the most luminous objects to peak at lower frequencies; iii) the ratio between the two peak frequencies seems to be constant, while the luminosity ratio between the high and low frequency component increases from XBL to RBL and FSRQ. The variability properties, (amplitude and frequency dependence) are similar in different objects if referred to their respective peak frequencies. Read More

The current status of understanding of the X-ray emission from Seyfert galaxies involves Comptonization of soft photons by hot subrelativistic electrons. After briefly reviewing the early theoretical basis for the presence of hot optically thin plasma in or around accretion disks and the key observations that led to develop the presently popular model of an accretion disk with a hot corona, we summarize recent progress in accretion models that take into account energy dissipation and/or angular momentum transport in the corona. Finally, adopting the simple scheme of a homogeneous plane parallel corona, we discuss in detail the dependence of the X-ray spectrum on the coronal parameters. Read More

We discuss in detail the broad band X-ray variability expected in Seyfert galaxies in the framework of a Compton cooled corona model. Variations in the optical depth tau of the corona cause spectral changes in the Comptonized emission in the sense that the spectrum steepens and the temperature decreases with increasing tau. If the corona is pair dominated, tau is determined by the compactness (proportional to luminosity for fixed size). Read More

We propose that the X--ray emission from radio quiet AGN and galactic black holes is due to Comptonization of soft thermal photons emitted by the underlying accretion disk in localized structures (blobs). The power per unit area produced by the blobs, impinging on the disk, can easily dominate the radiation internally produced by the disk. In this case the electron temperature and the high energy spectrum can be determined in a similar way as in the previously studied homogeneous model (Haardt \& Maraschi 1991). Read More