Lara B. Anderson

Lara B. Anderson
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Lara B. Anderson

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High Energy Physics - Theory (36)
Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry (3)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (1)

Publications Authored By Lara B. Anderson

Singular limits of 6D F-theory compactifications are often captured by T-branes, namely a non-abelian configuration of intersecting 7-branes with a nilpotent matrix of normal deformations. The long distance approximation of such 7-branes is a Hitchin-like system in which simple and irregular poles emerge at marked points of the geometry. When multiple matter fields localize at the same point in the geometry, the associated Higgs field can exhibit irregular behavior, namely poles of order greater than one. Read More

We provide a set of tools for analyzing the geometry of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds, starting with a description of the total space rather than with a Weierstrass model or a specified type of fiber/base. Such an approach to the subject of F-theory compactification makes certain geometric properties, which are usually hidden, manifest. Specifically, we review how to isolate genus-one fibrations in such geometries and then describe how to find their sections explicitly. Read More

In this work we explore the physics associated to Calabi-Yau (CY) n-folds that can be described as a fibration in more than one way. Beginning with F-theory vacua in various dimensions, we consider limits/dualities with M-theory, type IIA, and heterotic string theories. Our results include many M-/F-theory correspondences in which distinct F-theory vacua - associated to different elliptic fibrations of the same CY n-fold - give rise to the same M-theory limit in one dimension lower. Read More

In the context of (0,2) gauged linear sigma models, we explore chains of perturbatively dual heterotic string compactifications. The notion of target space duality originates in non-geometric phases and can be used to generate distinct GLSMs with shared geometric phases leading to apparently identical target space theories. To date, this duality has largely been studied at the level of counting states in the effective theories. Read More

In this work we review a systematic, algorithmic construction of dual heterotic/F-theory geometries corresponding to 4-dimensional, N = 1 supersymmetric compactifications. We look in detail at a class of well-defined Calabi-Yau fourfolds for which the standard formulation of the duality map appears to fail, leading to dual heterotic geometry which appears naively incompatible with the spectral cover construction of vector bundles. In the simplest class of examples the F-theory background consists of a generically singular elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfold with E7 symmetry. Read More

We explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. Read More

In this paper we explore contributions to non-perturbative superpotentials arising from instantons wrapping effective divisors in smooth Calabi-Yau four-folds. We concentrate on the case of manifolds constructed as complete intersections in products of projective spaces (CICYs) or generalizations thereof (gCICYs). We systematically investigate the structure of the cone of effective (algebraic) divisors in the four-fold geometries and employ the same tools recently developed in arXiv:1507. Read More

We present a generalization of the complete intersection in products of projective space (CICY) construction of Calabi-Yau manifolds. CICY three-folds and four-folds have been studied extensively in the physics literature. Their utility stems from the fact that they can be simply described in terms of a `configuration matrix', a matrix of integers from which many of the details of the geometries can be easily extracted. Read More

We study heterotic Calabi-Yau models with hypercharge flux breaking, where the visible E8 gauge group is directly broken to the standard model group by a non-flat gauge bundle, rather than by a two-step process involving an intermediate grand unified theory and a Wilson line. It is shown that the required alternative E8 embeddings of hypercharge, normalized as required for gauge unification, can be found and we classify these possibilities. However, for all but one of these embeddings we prove a general no-go theorem which asserts that no suitable geometry and vector bundle leading to a standard model spectrum can be found. Read More

We study the physics of F-theory compactifications on genus-one fibrations without section by using an M-theory dual description. The five-dimensional action obtained by considering M-theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold is compared with a six-dimensional F-theory effective action reduced on an additional circle. We propose that the six-dimensional effective action of these setups admits geometrically massive U(1) vectors with a charged hypermultiplet spectrum. Read More

We systematically analyze a broad class of dual heterotic and F-theory models that give four-dimensional supergravity theories, and compare the geometric constraints on the two sides of the duality. Specifically, we give a complete classification of models where the heterotic theory is compactified on a smooth Calabi-Yau threefold that is elliptically fibered with a single section and carries smooth irreducible vector bundles, and the dual F-theory model has a corresponding threefold base that has the form of a P^1 bundle. We formulate simple conditions for the geometry on the F-theory side to support an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfold. Read More

In this paper we study compactifications of heterotic string theory on manifolds satisfying the ddbar-lemma. We consider the Strominger system description of the low energy supergravity to first order in alpha' and show that the moduli of such compactifications are subspaces of familiar cohomology groups such as H^1(TX), H^1(TX*), H^1(End_0(V)) and H^1(End_0(TX)). These groups encode the complex structure, Kahler moduli, bundle moduli and perturbations of the spin connection respectively in the case of a Calabi-Yau compactification. Read More

T-branes are a non-abelian generalization of intersecting branes in which the matrix of normal deformations is nilpotent along some subspace. In this paper we study the geometric remnant of this open string data for six-dimensional F-theory vacua. We show that in the dual M-theory / IIA compactification on a smooth Calabi-Yau threefold X, the geometric remnant of T-brane data translates to periods of the three-form potential valued in the intermediate Jacobian of X. Read More

Compactifications of heterotic theories on smooth Calabi-Yau manifolds remains one of the most promising approaches to string phenomenology. In two previous papers, Read More

We discuss the use of gauge fields to stabilize complex structure moduli in Calabi-Yau three-fold compactifications of heterotic string and M-theory. The requirement that the gauge fields in such models preserve supersymmetry leads to a complicated landscape of vacua in complex structure moduli space. We develop methods to systematically map out this multi-branched vacuum space, in a computable and explicit manner. Read More

In a previous publication, arXiv:1106.4804, we have found 200 models from heterotic Calabi-Yau compactifications with line bundles, which lead to standard models after taking appropriate quotients by a discrete symmetry and introducing Wilson lines. In this paper, we construct the resulting standard models explicitly, compute their spectrum including Higgs multiplets, and analyze some of their basic properties. Read More

Holomorphic gauge fields in N=1 supersymmetric heterotic compactifications can constrain the complex structure moduli of a Calabi-Yau manifold. In this paper, the tools necessary to use holomorphic bundles as a mechanism for moduli stabilization are systematically developed. We review the requisite deformation theory -- including the Atiyah class, which determines the deformations of the complex structure for which the gauge bundle becomes non-holomorphic and, hence, non-supersymmetric. Read More

We construct heterotic standard models by compactifying on smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds in the presence of purely Abelian internal gauge fields. A systematic search over complete intersection Calabi-Yau manifolds with less than six Kahler parameters leads to over 200 such models which we present. Each of these models has precisely the matter spectrum of the MSSM, at least one pair of Higgs doublets, the standard model gauge group and no exotics. Read More

We further develop the numerical algorithm for computing the gauge connection of slope-stable holomorphic vector bundles on Calabi-Yau manifolds. In particular, recent work on the generalized Donaldson algorithm is extended to bundles with Kahler cone substructure on manifolds with h^{1,1}>1. Since the computation depends only on a one-dimensional ray in the Kahler moduli space, it can probe slope-stability regardless of the size of h^{1,1}. Read More

We propose a scenario to stabilize all geometric moduli - that is, the complex structure, Kahler moduli and the dilaton - in smooth heterotic Calabi-Yau compactifications without Neveu-Schwarz three-form flux. This is accomplished using the gauge bundle required in any heterotic compactification, whose perturbative effects on the moduli are combined with non-perturbative corrections. We argue that, for appropriate gauge bundles, all complex structure and a large number of other moduli can be perturbatively stabilized - in the most restrictive case, leaving only one combination of Kahler moduli and the dilaton as a flat direction. Read More

We analyze transitions between heterotic vacua with distinct gauge bundles using two complementary methods - the effective four-dimensional field theory and the corresponding geometry. From the viewpoint of effective field theory, such transitions occur between flat directions of the potential energy associated with heterotic stability walls. Geometrically, this branch structure corresponds to smooth deformations of the gauge bundle coupled to the chamber structure of K\"ahler moduli space. Read More

In this paper, we show that the presence of gauge fields in heterotic Calabi-Yau compacitifications causes the stabilisation of some, or all, of the complex structure moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold while maintaining a Minkowski vacuum. Certain deformations of the Calabi-Yau complex structure, with all other moduli held fixed, can lead to the gauge bundle becoming non-holomorphic and, hence, non-supersymmetric. This leads to an F-term potential which stabilizes the corresponding complex structure moduli. Read More

A numerical algorithm is presented for explicitly computing the gauge connection on slope-stable holomorphic vector bundles on Calabi-Yau manifolds. To illustrate this algorithm, we calculate the connections on stable monad bundles defined on the K3 twofold and Quintic threefold. An error measure is introduced to determine how closely our algorithmic connection approximates a solution to the Hermitian Yang-Mills equations. Read More

A holomorphic vector bundle on a Calabi-Yau threefold, X, with h^{1,1}(X)>1 can have regions of its Kahler cone where it is slope-stable, that is, where the four-dimensional theory is N=1 supersymmetric, bounded by "walls of stability". On these walls the bundle becomes poly-stable, decomposing into a direct sum, and the low energy gauge group is enhanced by at least one anomalous U(1) gauge factor. In this paper, we show that these additional symmetries can strongly constrain the superpotential in the stable region, leading to non-trivial textures of Yukawa interactions and restrictions on allowed masses for vector-like pairs of matter multiplets. Read More

A complete analysis of all heterotic Calabi-Yau compactifications based on positive two-term monad bundles over favourable complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds is performed. We show that the original data set of about 7000 models contains 91 standard-like models which we describe in detail. A closer analysis of Wilson-line breaking for these models reveals that none of them gives rise to precisely the matter field content of the standard model. Read More

We study the sub-structure of the heterotic Kahler moduli space due to the presence of non-Abelian internal gauge fields from the perspective of the four-dimensional effective theory. Internal gauge fields can be supersymmetric in some regions of the Kahler moduli space but break supersymmetry in others. In the context of the four-dimensional theory, we investigate what happens when the Kahler moduli are changed from the supersymmetric to the non-supersymmetric region. Read More

We present a practical, algebraic method for efficiently calculating the Yukawa couplings of a large class of heterotic compactifications on Calabi-Yau three-folds with non-standard embeddings. Our methodology covers all of, though is not restricted to, the recently classified positive monads over favourable complete intersection Calabi-Yau three-folds. Since the algorithm is based on manipulating polynomials it can be easily implemented on a computer. Read More

We explicitly describe, in the language of four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric field theory, what happens when the moduli of a heterotic Calabi-Yau compactification change so as to make the internal non-Abelian gauge fields non-supersymmetric. At the edge of the region in Kahler moduli space where supersymmetry can be preserved, an additional anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry appears in the four-dimensional theory. The D-term contribution to the scalar potential associated to this U(1) attempts to force the system back into a supersymmetric configuration and provides a consistent low-energy description of gauge bundle stability. Read More

In this thesis, we explore two approaches to string phenomenology. In the first half of the work, we investigate M-theory compactifications on spaces with co-dimension four, orbifold singularities. We construct M-theory on C^2/Z_N by coupling 11-dimensional supergravity to a seven-dimensional Yang-Mills theory located on the orbifold fixed-plane. Read More

In this paper, we study positive monad vector bundles on complete intersection Calabi-Yau manifolds in the context of E8 x E8 heterotic string compactifications. We show that the class of such bundles, subject to the heterotic anomaly condition, is finite and consists of about 7000 models. We explain how to compute the complete particle spectrum for these models. Read More

We approach string phenomenology from the perspective of computational algebraic geometry, by providing new and efficient techniques for proving stability and calculating particle spectra in heterotic compactifications. This is done in the context of complete intersection Calabi-Yau manifolds in a single projective space where we classify positive monad bundles. Using a combination of analytic methods and computer algebra we prove stability for all such bundles and compute the complete particle spectrum, including gauge singlets. Read More

We reduce M-theory on a G_2 orbifold with co-dimension four singularities, taking explicitly into account the additional gauge fields at the singularities. As a starting point, we use 11-dimensional supergravity coupled to seven-dimensional super-Yang-Mills theory, as derived in a previous paper. The resulting four-dimensional theory has N=1 supersymmetry with non-Abelian N=4 gauge theory sub-sectors. Read More

We construct M-theory on the orbifold C^2/Z_N by coupling 11-dimensional supergravity to a seven-dimensional Yang-Mills theory located on the orbifold fixed plane. It is shown that the resulting action is supersymmetric to leading non-trivial order in the 11-dimensional Newton constant. This action provides the starting point for a reduction of M-theory on G_2 spaces with co-dimension four singularities. Read More

We write a gravity theory with Yang-Mills type action using the biconformal gauging of the conformal group. We show that the resulting biconformal Yang-Mills gravity theories describe 4-dim, scale-invariant general relativity in the case of slowly changing fields. In addition, we systematically extend arbitrary 4-dim Yang-Mills theories to biconformal space, providing a new arena for studying flat space Yang-Mills theories. Read More

Biconformal spaces contain the essential elements of quantum mechanics, making the independent imposition of quantization unnecessary. Based on three postulates characterizing motion and measurement in biconformal geometry, we derive standard quantum mechanics, and show how the need for probability amplitudes arises from the use of a standard of measurement. Additionally, we show that a postulate for unique, classical motion yields Hamiltonian dynamics with no measurable size changes, while a postulate for probabilistic evolution leads to physical dilatations manifested as measurable phase changes. Read More

Biconformal supergravity models provide a new gauging of the superconformal group relevant to the Maldacena conjecture. Using the group quotient method to biconformally gauge SU(2,2|N), we generate a 16-dim superspace. We write the most general even- and odd-parity actions linear in the curvatures, the bosonic sector of which is known to descend to general relativity on a 4-dim manifold. Read More