L. Lavoura - Technical Univ. Lisbon

L. Lavoura
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L. Lavoura
Technical Univ. Lisbon

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (50)
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1)
Mathematical Physics (1)
Mathematics - Representation Theory (1)

Publications Authored By L. Lavoura

We have sorted the SmallGroups library of all the finite groups of order smaller than 2000 to identify the groups that possess a faithful three-dimensional irreducible representation (`irrep') and cannot be written as the direct product of a smaller group times a cyclic group. Using the computer algebra system GAP, we have scanned all the three-dimensional irreps of each of those groups to identify those that are subgroups of SU(3); we have labelled each of those subgroups of SU(3) by using the extant complete classification of the finite subgroups of SU(3). Turning to the subgroups of U(3) that are not subgroups of SU(3), we have found the generators of all of them and classified most of them in series according to their generators and structure. Read More

We consider a two-Higgs-doublet extension of the Standard Model, with three right-handed neutrino singlets and the seesaw mechanism, wherein all the Yukawa-coupling matrices are lepton flavour-diagonal and lepton flavour violation is soft, originating solely in the non-flavour-diagonal Majorana mass matrix of the right-handed neutrinos. We consider the limit $m_R \to \infty$ of this model, where $m_R$ is the seesaw scale. We demonstrate that there is a region in parameter space where the branching ratios of all five charged-lepton decays $\ell_1^- \to \ell_2^- \ell_3^+ \ell_3^-$ are close to their experimental upper bounds, while the radiative decays $\ell_1^- \to \ell_2^- \gamma$ are invisible because their branching ratios are suppressed by $m_R^{-4}$. Read More

We have used the SmallGroups library of groups, together with the computer algebra systems GAP and Mathematica, to search for groups with a three-dimensional irreducible representation in which one of the group generators has a twice-degenerate eigenvalue while another generator has non-degenerate eigenvalues. By assuming one of these group generators to commute with the charged-lepton mass matrix and the other one to commute with the neutrino (Dirac) mass matrix, one derives group-theoretical predictions for the moduli of the matrix elements of either a row or a column of the lepton mixing matrix. Our search has produced several realistic predictions for either the second row, or the third row, or for any of the columns of that matrix. Read More

We present a scotogenic model, i.e. a one-loop neutrino mass model with dark right-handed neutrino gauge singlets and one inert dark scalar gauge doublet $\eta$, which has symmetries that lead to co-bimaximal mixing, i. Read More

We establish the full list of flavour symmetry groups which may be enforced, without producing any further accidental symmetry, on the Yukawa-coupling matrices of an SO(10) Grand Unified Theory with arbitrary numbers of scalar multiplets in the 10, $\overline{126}$, and 120 representations of SO(10). For each of the possible discrete non-Abelian symmetry groups, we present examples of minimal models which do not run into obvious contradiction with the phenomenological fermion masses and mixings. Read More

In the context of a renormalizable supersymmetric SO(10) Grand Unified Theory, we consider the fermion mass matrices generated by the Yukawa couplings to a $\mathbf{10} \oplus \mathbf{120} \oplus \bar{\mathbf{126}}$ representation of scalars. We perform a complete investigation of the possibilities of imposing flavour symmetries in this scenario; the purpose is to reduce the number of Yukawa coupling constants in order to identify potentially predictive models. We have found that there are only 14 inequivalent cases of Yukawa coupling matrices, out of which 13 cases are generated by $Z_n$ symmetries, with suitable $n$, and one case is generated by a $Z_2 \times Z_2$ symmetry. Read More

I systematically consider, in the context of the type-I see-saw mechanism, all the predictive cases in which both the Dirac mass matrix connecting the left-handed neutrinos to the right-handed neutrinos, and the Majorana mass matrix of the latter neutrinos, feature texture zeros, while the mass matrix of the charged leptons is diagonal. I have found a few cases which had not been discussed in the literature previously. Read More

We study predictive textures for the lepton mass matrices in which the charged-lepton mass matrix has either four or five zero matrix elements while the neutrino Majorana mass matrix has, respectively, either four or three zero matrix elements. We find that all the viable textures of these two kinds share many predictions: the neutrino mass spectrum is inverted, the sum of the light-neutrino masses is close to 0.1 eV, the Dirac phase $\delta$ in the lepton mixing matrix is close to either $0$ or $\pi$, and the mass term responsible for neutrinoless double-beta decay lies in between 12 and 22 meV. Read More

We consider two novel scenarios of residual symmetries of the lepton mass matrices. Firstly we assume a Z2 x Z2 symmetry G_ell for the charged-lepton mass matrix and a Z2 symmetry G_nu for the light neutrino mass matrix. With this setting, the moduli of the elements of one column of the lepton mixing matrix are fixed up to a reordering. Read More

We furnish a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model with a flavour discrete symmetry $A_5$ under which the lepton fields transform as an irreducible triplet. Additional (`flavon') superfields are used to break $A_5$ into a $\mathbb{Z}_2 \times \mathbb{Z}_2$ subgroup in the charged-lepton sector and another $\mathbb{Z}_2$ subgroup in the neutrino sector. The first column of the resulting lepton mixing matrix is predicted and has entries which are related to the golden ratio. Read More

We present a general framework for models in which the lepton mixing matrix is the product of the maximal mixing matrix U_\omega\ times a matrix constrained by a well-defined Z_2 symmetry. Our framework relies on neither supersymmetry nor non-renormalizable Lagrangians nor higher dimensions; it relies instead on the double seesaw mechanism and on the soft breaking of symmetries. The framework may be used to construct models for virtually all the lepton mixing matrices of the type mentioned above which have been proposed in the literature. Read More

We note that the emerging features of lepton mixing can be reproduced if, with inverted neutrino mass ordering, both the smallest neutrino mass and the $\tau\tau$ element of the neutrino mass matrix vanish. Then, the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle is less than maximal and the Dirac phase $\delta$ is close to $\pi$. We derive the correlations among the mixing parameters and show that there is a large cancellation in the effective mass responsible for neutrinoless $\beta\beta$ decay. Read More

We present a new model of the lepton sector that uses a family symmetry A4 to make predictions for lepton mixing which are invariant under any permutation of the three flavours. We show that those predictions broadly agree with the experimental data, leading to a largish sin^2(theta12) >~ 0.34, to |cos(delta)| >~ 0. Read More

We produce five flavour models for the lepton sector. All five models fit perfectly well---at the one-sigma level---the existing data on the neutrino mass-squared differences and on the lepton mixing angles. The models are based on the type-I seesaw mechanism, on a Z_2 symmetry for each lepton flavour, and either on a (spontaneously broken) symmetry under the interchange of two lepton flavours or on a (spontaneously broken) CP symmetry incorporating that interchange---or on both symmetries simultaneously. Read More

Geometrical CP violation is a particular type of spontaneous CP violation in which the vacuum expectation values have phases which are calculable, i.e. stable against the variation of the free parameters of the scalar potential. Read More

We present a framework for lepton flavour models such that the first column of the lepton mixing matrix is (2,-1,-1)/sqrt(6). We show that the flavour symmetry group adequate for this purpose is S4. Our models are based on a vacuum alignment that can be obtained in a supersymmetric framework. Read More

We focus on the use of a mu-tau interchange symmetry to explain features of lepton mixing, especially maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. We review two models which achieve this goal and are based on the seesaw mechanism and on the soft breaking of the family-lepton-number symmetries. We also note that that symmetry may be embedded in a generalized CP symmetry. Read More

We propose a simple mechanism which enforces |U_{mu j}| = | U_{tau j}| forall j = 1,2,3 in the lepton mixing matrix U. This implies maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing and a maximal CP-violating phase but does not constrain the reactor mixing angle theta_{13}. We implement the proposed mechanism in two renormalizable seesaw models which have features strongly resembling those of models based on a flavour symmetry group Delta(27). Read More

We propose that dark matter is stable as a consequence of an accidental Z2 that results from a flavour-symmetry group which is the double-cover group of the symmetry group of one of the regular geometric solids. Although model-dependent, the phenomenology resembles that of a generic Higgs portal dark matter scheme. Read More

We suggest a simple model, based on the type-I seesaw mechanism, for the lepton mass matrices. The model hinges on an Abelian symmetry which leads to mass matrices with some vanishing matrix elements. The model predicts one massless neutrino and $M_{e\mu} = 0$ ($M$ is the effective light-neutrino Majorana mass matrix). Read More

We present a model for the lepton sector, with $A_4$ horizontal-symmetry group, in which two of the Higgs doublets in an $A_4$ triplet of Higgs doublets have equal vacuum expectation values. The model makes well-defined predictions for the effective light-neutrino Majorana mass matrix. We show that those predictions are compatible with the experimental data. Read More

I comment on the proposal that the stability of dark matter may be due to an unbroken Z_2 symmetry contained in the partially broken lepton flavour symmetry group. I remark that (1) there is no Z_2 symmetry apparent in the lepton mass spectrum and in lepton mixing, (2) predictive models of this type may be constructed by using a lepton flavour symmetry group with three inequivalent singlets, to which the three left-handed-lepton gauge-SU(2) doublets are assigned, and (3) some predictions for the lepton masses and mixings are likely to be altered by radiative contributions to the neutrino mass matrix. I construct two models of this type in which the conserved Z_2 originates in a lepton flavour symmetry group D_4. Read More

We discuss theoretical and phenomenological aspects of two-Higgs-doublet extensions of the Standard Model. In general, these extensions have scalar mediated flavour changing neutral currents which are strongly constrained by experiment. Various strategies are discussed to control these flavour changing scalar currents and their phenomenological consequences are analysed. Read More

We present a two-Higgs-doublet model, with a $\mathbbm{Z}_3$ symmetry, in which CP violation originates solely in a soft (dimension-2) coupling in the scalar potential, and reveals itself solely in the CKM (quark mixing) matrix. In particular, in the mass basis the Yukawa interactions of the neutral scalars are all real. The model has only eleven parameters to fit the six quark masses and the four independent CKM-matrix observables. Read More

We write down the renormalization-group equations for the Yukawa-coupling matrices in a general multi-Higgs-doublet model. We then assume that the matrices of the Yukawa couplings of the various Higgs doublets to right-handed fermions of fixed quantum numbers are all proportional to each other. We demonstrate that, in the case of the two-Higgs-doublet model, this proportionality is preserved by the renormalization-group running only in the cases of the standard type-I, II, X, and Y models. Read More

The Large Hadron Collider presents an unprecedented opportunity to probe the realm of new physics in the TeV region and shed light on some of the core unresolved issues of particle physics. These include the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass, the possible constituent of cold dark matter, new sources of CP violation needed to explain the baryon excess in the universe, the possible existence of extra gauge groups and extra matter, and importantly the path Nature chooses to resolve the hierarchy problem - is it supersymmetry or extra dimensions. Many models of new physics beyond the standard model contain a hidden sector which can be probed at the LHC. Read More

We construct a model in which the neutrino Dirac mass terms are of order the electron mass and the seesaw mechanism proceeds via right-handed neutrinos with masses of order TeV. In our model the spectra of the three light and of the three heavy neutrinos are closely related. Since the mixing between light and heavy neutrinos is small, the model predicts no effects in pp and p \bar p colliders. Read More

We present a model which employs the seesaw mechanism with five right-handed neutrinos, leading to trimaximal and CP-conserving lepton mixing. Tri-bimaximal mixing is a natural limiting case of our model which occurs when one particular vacuum expectation value is real and preserves the mu-tau interchange symmetry of the Lagrangian. Our model allows for leptogenesis even in the case of exact tri-bimaximal mixing. Read More

We determine the symmetry groups under which the charged-lepton and the Majorana-neutrino mass terms are invariant. We note that those two groups always exist trivially, i.e. Read More

We elaborate on an earlier proposal by Ernest Ma of a type II seesaw mechanism for suppressing the vacuum expectation values of some Higgs doublets. We emphasize that, by nesting this form of seesaw mechanism into various other seesaw mechanisms, one may obtain light neutrino masses in such a way that the new-physics scale present in the seesaw mechanism - the masses of scalar gauge-SU(2) triplets, scalar SU(2) doublets, or right-handed neutrinos - does not need to be higher than a few 10 TeV. We also investigate other usages of the type II seesaw mechanism for Higgs doublets. Read More

We construct a model for tri-bimaximal lepton mixing which employs only family symmetries and their soft breaking; neither vacuum alignment nor supersymmetry, extra dimensions, or non-renormalizable terms are used in our model. It is an extension of the Standard Model making use of the seesaw mechanism with five right-handed neutrino singlets. The scalar sector comprises four Higgs doublets and one complex gauge singlet. Read More

Using the seesaw mechanism, we construct a model for the light-neutrino Majorana mass matrix which yields trimaximal lepton mixing together with maximal CP violation and maximal atmospheric-neutrino mixing. We demonstrate that, in our model, the light-neutrino mass matrix retains its form under the one-loop renormalization-group evolution. With our neutrino mass matrix, the absolute neutrino mass scale is a function of |U_e3| and of the atmospheric mass-squared difference. Read More

We consider trimaximal lepton mixing, defined by |U_{alpha 2}|^2 = 1/3 for all alpha = e, mu, tau. This corresponds to a two-parameter lepton mixing matrix U. We present a model for the lepton sector in which trimaximal mixing is enforced by softly broken discrete symmetries; one version of the model is based on the group Delta(27). Read More

We discuss a realization of the non-abelian group O(2) as a family symmetry for the lepton sector. The reflection contained in O(2) acts as a mu-tau interchange symmetry, enforcing--at tree level--maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing and a vanishing mixing angle theta_13. The small ratio m_mu/m_tau (muon over tau mass) gives rise to a suppression factor in the mass of one of the pseudoscalars of the model. Read More

We present general expressions for the oblique parameters S, T, U, V, W, and X in the SU(2)xU(1) electroweak model with an arbitrary number of scalar SU(2) doublets, with hypercharge 1/2, and an arbitrary number of scalar SU(2) singlets. Read More

We derive a general expression for Delta rho (or, equivalently, for the oblique parameter T) in the SU(2) x U(1) electroweak model with an arbitrary number of scalar SU(2) doublets, with hypercharge +-1/2, and an arbitrary number of scalar SU(2) singlets. The experimental bound on Delta rho constitutes a strong constraint on the masses and mixings of the scalar particles in that model. Read More

We propose a model for the quark masses and mixings based on an A_4 family symmetry. Three scalar SU(2) doublets form a triplet of A_4. The three left-handed-quark SU(2) doublets are also united in a triplet of A_4. Read More

Using the type-II seesaw mechanism with three Higgs doublets phi_alpha (alpha = e, mu, tau) and four Higgs triplets, we build a model for lepton mixing based on a 384-element horizontal symmetry group, generated by the permutation group S_3 and by six Z_2 transformations. The charged-lepton mass matrix is diagonal; the symmetries of the model would require all the three masses m_alpha to be equal, but different vacuum expectation values of the phi_alpha allow the m_alpha to split. The number of parameters in the Majorana neutrino mass matrix m_nu depends on two options: full breaking of the permutation group S_3, or leaving a mu--tau interchange symmetry intact; and hard or spontaneous violation of CP. Read More

We consider a model with an A_4 flavour symmetry, recently proposed by E. Ma, and make a numerical study, through scatter plots, of its neutrino mass matrix. Read More

We consider the scenario in which the mass matrices of the charged fermions in the SO(10) Grand Unified Theory are generated exclusively by renormalizable Yukawa couplings to one $\mathbf{10} \oplus \mathbf{120}$ representation of scalars. We analyze, partly analytically and partly numerically, this scenario in the three-generations case. We demonstrate that it leads to unification of the $b$ and $\tau$ masses at the GUT scale. Read More

Using the seesaw mechanism and a discrete symmetry, we construct a class of models for the neutrino mass matrix where the inverse of that matrix is the sum of a mu-tau antisymmetric background and a perturbation. We consider various possibilities for that perturbation. The simplest possible perturbations lead to four-parameter neutrino mass matrices which are unable to fit the experimental data. Read More

We present a supersymmetric model in which the lepton mixing matrix $U$ obeys, at the seesaw scale, the Harrison--Perkins--Scott \textit{Ansatz}--vanishing $U_{e3}$, maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing, and $\sin^2{\theta_\odot} = 1/3$ ($\theta_\odot$ is the solar mixing angle). The model features a permutation symmetry $S_3$ among the three lepton multiplets of each type--left-handed doublets, right-handed charged leptons, and right-handed neutrinos--and among three Higgs doublets and three zero-hypercharge scalar singlets; a fourth right-handed neutrino, a fourth Higgs doublet, and a fourth scalar singlet are invariant under $S_3$. In addition, the model has seven $\mathbbm{Z}_2$ symmetries, out of which six do not commute with $S_3$. Read More

We propose a model for lepton mass matrices based on the seesaw mechanism, a complex scalar gauge singlet and a horizontal symmetry $S_3 \times \mathbbm{Z}_2$. In a suitable weak basis, the charged-lepton mass matrix and the neutrino Dirac mass matrix are diagonal, but the vacuum expectation value of the scalar gauge singlet renders the Majorana mass matrix of the right-handed neutrinos non-diagonal, thereby generating lepton mixing. When the symmetry $S_3$ is not broken in the scalar potential, the effective light-neutrino Majorana mass matrix enjoys $\mu$--$\tau$ interchange symmetry, thus predicting maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing together with $U_{e3} = 0$. Read More


We propose two simple models for the quark mass matrices which may be implemented through an S3 x Z2 symmetry in a supersymmetric context. Each model has eight parameters and, therefore, makes two independent predictions for the quark mixing matrix. The first model predicts |Vub / Vcb| approx sqrt{m_u / m_c} sim 0. Read More

We consider a Majorana neutrino mass matrix $\mathcal{M}_\nu$ with $(\mathcal{M}_\nu)_{\mu\mu} = (\mathcal{M}_\nu)_{\tau\tau} = 0$, in the basis where the charged-lepton mass matrix is diagonal. We show that this pattern for the lepton mass matrices can be enforced by extending the Standard Model with three scalar SU(2) triplets and by using a horizontal symmetry group $\mathbbm{Z}_4$. The Ma--Sarkar (type-II seesaw) mechanism leads to very small vacuum expectation values for the triplets, thus explaining the smallness of the neutrino masses; at the same time, that mechanism renders the physical scalars originating in the triplets very heavy. Read More

I investigate viable textures with two texture zeros for the inverted neutrino mass matrix, and present the predictions of those textures for the neutrino masses and for lepton mixing. By using an Abelian symmetry and one or two heavy scalar singlets, I construct realizations of those textures in the context of seesaw models. Read More

We consider the most general neutrino mass matrix which leads to $\theta_{13} = 0$, and present the formulae needed for obtaining the neutrino masses and mixing parameters in that case. We apply this formalism to a model based on the lepton number $\bar L = L_e - L_\mu - L_\tau$ and on the seesaw mechanism. This model needs only one Higgs doublet and has only two right-handed neutrino singlets. Read More

We derive the renormalization group equations (RGE) for the flavour coupling matrices of the effective dimension-five operators which yield Majorana neutrino masses in the multi-Higgs-doublet Standard Model; in particular, we consider the case where two different scalar doublets occur in those operators. We also write down the RGE for the scalar-potential quartic couplings and for the Yukawa couplings of that model, in the absence of quarks. As an application of the RGE, we consider two models which, based on a mu-tau interchange symmetry, predict maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing, together with U_{e3} = 0, at the seesaw scale. Read More

It is shown that the neutrino mass matrices in the flavour basis yielding a vanishing $U_{e3}$ are characterized by invariance under a class of $Z_2$ symmetries. A specific $Z_2$ in this class also leads to a maximal atmospheric mixing angle $\theta_{23}$. The breaking of that $Z_2$ can be parameterized by two dimensionless quantities, $\e$ and $\e'$; the effects of $\e, \e' \neq 0$ are studied perturbatively and numerically. Read More

We discuss a model for the lepton sector based on the seesaw mechanism and on a $D_4$ family symmetry. The model predicts the mixing angle $\theta_{13}$ to vanish. The solar mixing angle $\theta_{12}$ is free--it will in general be large if one does not invoke finetuning. Read More