# L. Hardy - Perimeter Institute

## Contact Details

NameL. Hardy |
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AffiliationPerimeter Institute |
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CityWaterloo |
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CountryCanada |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesQuantum Physics (32) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (12) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (12) High Energy Physics - Theory (10) High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (4) Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (2) Astrophysics of Galaxies (2) Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (2) Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (1) Physics - Popular Physics (1) Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science (1) |

## Publications Authored By L. Hardy

We present ultraviolet, optical and infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy of the type Ic superluminous supernova (SLSN) Gaia16apd, covering its evolution from 27 d before the $g$-band peak to the nebular phase, including the latest spectrum ever obtained for a fast-declining type Ic SLSN at 150.9 d. Gaia16apd is one of the closest SLSNe known ($z = 0. Read More

We present new time-resolved photometry of 74 cataclysmic variables (CVs), 47 of which are eclipsing. 13 of these eclipsing systems are newly discovered. For all 47 eclipsing systems we show high cadence (1-20 seconds) light curves obtained with the high-speed cameras ultracam and ultraspec. Read More

**Authors:**T. Muñoz-Darias, J. Casares, D. Mata Sánchez, R. P. Fender, M. Armas Padilla, K. Mooley, L. Hardy, P. A. Charles, G. Ponti, S. E. Motta, V. S. Dhillon, P. Gandhi, F. Jiménez-Ibarra, T. Butterley, S. Carey, K. J. B. Grainge, J. Hickish, S. P. Littlefair, Y. C. Perrott, N. Razavi-Ghods, C. Rumsey, A. M. M. Scaife, P. F. Scott, D. J. Titterington, R. W. Wilson

After more than 26 years in quiescence, the black hole transient V404 Cyg went into a luminous outburst in June 2015, and additional activity was detected in late December of the same year. Here, we present an optical spectroscopic follow-up of the December mini-outburst, together with X-ray, optical and radio monitoring that spanned more than a month. Strong flares with gradually increasing intensity are detected in the three spectral ranges during the ~10 days following the Swift trigger. Read More

The majority of cataclysmic variable (CV) stars contain a stochastic noise component in their light curves, commonly referred to as flickering. This can significantly affect the morphology of CV eclipses and increases the difficulty in obtaining accurate system parameters with reliable errors through eclipse modelling. Here we introduce a new approach to eclipse modelling, which models CV flickering with the help of Gaussian processes (GPs). Read More

In this paper we develop an operational formulation of General Relativity similar in spirit to existing operational formulations of Quantum Theory. To do this we introduce an operational space (or op-space) built out of scalar fields. A point in op-space corresponds to some nominated set of scalar fields taking some given values in coincidence. Read More

**Authors:**T. R. Marsh, B. T. Gänsicke, S. Hümmerich, F. -J. Hambsch, K. Bernhard, C. Lloyd, E. Breedt, E. R. Stanway, D. T. Steeghs, S. G. Parsons, O. Toloza, M. R. Schreiber, P. G. Jonker, J. van Roestel, T. Kupfer, A. F. Pala, V. S. Dhillon, L. K. Hardy, S. P. Littlefair, A. Aungwerojwit, S. Arjyotha, D. Koester, J. J. Bochinski, C. A. Haswell, P. Frank, P. J. Wheatley

White dwarfs are compact stars, similar in size to Earth but ~200,000 times more massive. Isolated white dwarfs emit most of their power from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, but when in close orbits with less dense stars, white dwarfs can strip material from their companions, and the resulting mass transfer can generate atomic line and X-ray emission, as well as near- and mid-infrared radiation if the white dwarf is magnetic. However, even in binaries, white dwarfs are rarely detected at far-infrared or radio frequencies. Read More

**Authors:**D. J. Fritzewski, M. Kitze, M. Mugrauer, R. Neuhäuser, C. Adam, C. Briceño, S. Buder, T. Butterley, W. -P. Chen, B. Dinçel, V. S. Dhillon, R. Errmann, Z. Garai, H. F. W. Gilbert, C. Ginski, J. Greif, L. K. Hardy, J. Hernández, P. C. Huang, A. Kellerer, E. Kundra, S. P. Littlefair, M. Mallonn, C. Marka, A. Pannicke, T. Pribulla, St. Raetz, J. G. Schmidt, T. O. B. Schmidt, M. Seeliger, R. W. Wilson, V. Wolf

**Category:**Solar and Stellar Astrophysics

We present long-term photometric observations of the young open cluster IC 348 with a baseline time-scale of 2.4 yr. Our study was conducted with several telescopes from the Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (YETI) network in the Bessel $R$ band to find periodic variability of young stars. Read More

**Authors:**M. C. P. Bours, T. R. Marsh, S. G. Parsons, V. S. Dhillon, R. P. Ashley, J. P. Bento, E. Breedt, T. Butterley, C. Caceres, C. M. Copperwheat, L. K. Hardy, J. J. Hermes, P. Irawati, P. Kerry, D. Kilkenny, S. P. Littlefair, M. J. McAllister, S. Rattanasoon, D. I. Sahman, M. Vuckovic, R. W. Wilson

**Category:**Solar and Stellar Astrophysics

We present a long-term programme for timing the eclipses of white dwarfs in close binaries to measure apparent and/or real variations in their orbital periods. Our programme includes 67 close binaries, both detached and semi-detached and with M-dwarfs, K-dwarfs, brown dwarfs or white dwarfs secondaries. In total, we have observed more than 650 white dwarf eclipses. Read More

**Authors:**P. Gandhi

^{1}, S. P. Littlefair

^{2}, L. K. Hardy

^{3}, V. S. Dhillon

^{4}, T. R. Marsh

^{5}, A. W. Shaw, D. Altamirano, M. D. Caballero-Garcia, J. Casares, P. Casella, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. A. Charles, Y. Dallilar, S. Eikenberry, R. P. Fender, R. I. Hynes, C. Knigge, E. Kuulkers, K. Mooley, T. Muñoz-Darias, M. Pahari, F. Rahoui, D. M. Russell, J. V. Hernández Santisteban, T. Shahbaz, D. M. Terndrup, J. Tomsick, D. J. Walton

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Southampton,

^{2}Sheffield,

^{3}Sheffield,

^{4}Sheffield,

^{5}Warwick

**Category:**High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena

We present observations of rapid (sub-second) optical flux variability in V404 Cyg during its 2015 June outburst. Simultaneous three-band observations with the ULTRACAM fast imager on four nights show steep power spectra dominated by slow variations on ~100-1000s timescales. Near the peak of the outburst on June 26, a dramatic change occurs and additional, persistent sub-second optical flaring appears close in time to giant radio and X-ray flaring. Read More

**Authors:**Z. Garai, T. Pribulla, L. Hambálek, R. Errmann, Ch. Adam, S. Buder, T. Butterley, V. S. Dhillon, B. Dincel, H. Gilbert, Ch. Ginski, L. K. Hardy, A. Kellerer, M. Kitze, E. Kundra, S. P. Littlefair, M. Mugrauer, J. Nedoroščík, R. Neuhäuser, A. Pannicke, S. Raetz, J. G. Schmidt, T. O. B. Schmidt, M. Seeliger, M. Vaňko, R. W. Wilson

We report results of the first five observing campaigns for the open stellar cluster NGC 7243 in the frame of project Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (YETI). The project focuses on the monitoring of young and nearby stellar clusters, with the aim to detect young transiting exoplanets, and to study other variability phenomena on time-scales from minutes to years. After five observing campaigns and additional observations during 2013 and 2014, a clear and repeating transit-like signal was detected in the light curve of J221550. Read More

SDSS J1021+1744 is a detached, eclipsing white dwarf / M dwarf binary discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Outside the primary eclipse, the light curves of such systems are usually smooth and characterised by low-level variations caused by tidal distortion and heating of the M star component. Early data on SDSS J1021+1744 obtained in June 2012 was unusual in showing a dip in flux of uncertain origin shortly after the white dwarf's eclipse. Read More

**Authors:**L. K. Hardy

^{1}, T. Butterley

^{2}, V. S. Dhillon

^{3}, S. P. Littlefair

^{4}, R. W. Wilson

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, UK,

^{2}Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Department of Physics, University of Durham, UK,

^{3}Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, UK,

^{4}Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, UK,

^{5}Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Department of Physics, University of Durham, UK

pt5m is a 0.5m robotic telescope located on the roof of the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) building, at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma. Read More

We consider retarded settings in the context of a Bell-type experiment. The retarded setting is defined as the value the setting would have taken were it not for some external intervention (for example, by a human). We derive retarded Bell inequalities that explicitly take into account the retarded settings. Read More

**Authors:**H. C. Campbell, T. R. Marsh, M. Fraser, S. T. Hodgkin, E. de Miguel, B. T. Gänsicke, D. Steeghs, A. Hourihane, E. Breedt, S. P. Littlefair, S. E. Koposov, L. Wyrzykowski, G. Altavilla, N. Blagorodnova, G. Clementini, G. Damljanovic, A. Delgado, M. Dennefeld, A. J. Drake, J. Fernández-Hernández, G. Gilmore, R. Gualandi, A. Hamanowicz, B. Handzlik, L. K. Hardy, D. L. Harrison, K. Ilkiewicz, P. G. Jonker, C. S. Kochanek, Z. Kolaczkowski, Z. Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, R. Kotak, G. van Leeuwen, G. Leto, P. Ochner, M. Pawlak, L. Palaversa, G. Rixon, K. Rybicki, B. J. Shappee, S. J. Smartt, M. A. P. Torres, L. Tomasella, M. Turatto, K. Ulaczyk, S. van Velzen, O. Vince, N. A. Walton, P. Wielgórski, T. Wevers, P. Whitelock, A. Yoldas, F. De Angeli, P. Burgess, G. Busso, R. Busuttil, T. Butterley, K. C. Chambers, C. Copperwheat, A. B. Danilet, V. S. Dhillon, D. W. Evans, L. Eyer, D. Froebrich, A. Gomboc, G. Holland, T. W. -S. Holoien, J. F. Jarvis, N. Kaiser, D. A. Kann, D. Koester, U. Kolb, S. Komossa, E. A. Magnier, A. Mahabal, J. Polshaw, J. L. Prieto, T. Prusti, M. Riello, A. Scholz, G. Simonian, K. Z. Stanek, L. Szabados, C. Waters, R. W. Wilson

**Category:**Solar and Stellar Astrophysics

We report the discovery and characterisation of a deeply eclipsing AM CVn-system, Gaia14aae (= ASSASN-14cn). Gaia14aae was identified independently by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN; Shappee et al. 2014) and by the Gaia Science Alerts project, during two separate outbursts. Read More

**Authors:**M. J. McAllister

^{1}, S. P. Littlefair

^{2}, I. Baraffe

^{3}, V. S. Dhillon

^{4}, T. R. Marsh

^{5}, J. Bento

^{6}, J. Bochinski

^{7}, M. C. P. Bours

^{8}, E. Breedt

^{9}, C. M. Copperwheat

^{10}, L. K. Hardy

^{11}, P. Kerry

^{12}, S. G. Parsons

^{13}, J. W. Rostron

^{14}, D. I. Sahman

^{15}, C. D. J. Savoury

^{16}, R. L. Tunnicliffe

^{17}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK,

^{2}Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK,

^{3}Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK,

^{4}Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK,

^{5}Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK,

^{6}Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Australia,

^{7}Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK,

^{8}Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK,

^{9}Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK,

^{10}Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK,

^{11}Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK,

^{12}Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK,

^{13}Departmento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Valparaiso, Chile,

^{14}Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK,

^{15}Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK,

^{16}Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK,

^{17}Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

**Category:**Solar and Stellar Astrophysics

We present high-speed, three-colour photometry of the eclipsing dwarf nova PHL 1445, which, with an orbital period of 76.3 min, lies just below the period minimum of ~82 min for cataclysmic variable stars. Averaging four eclipses reveals resolved eclipses of the white dwarf and bright spot. Read More

We report on the search for new eclipsing white dwarf plus main-sequence (WDMS) binaries in the light curves of the Catalina surveys. We use a colour selected list of almost 2000 candidate WDMS systems from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, specifically designed to identify WDMS systems with cool white dwarfs and/or early M type main-sequence stars. We identify a total of 17 eclipsing systems, 14 of which are new discoveries. Read More

We present a new high signal to noise ratio spectroscopic survey of the Northern hemisphere to probe the Local Bubble and its surroundings using the $\lambda 5780$ \AA\ and $\lambda 5797$ \AA\ Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs). We observed 432 sightlines to a distance of 200 pc over a duration of 3 years. In this study, we establish the $\lambda 5780$ and $\lambda 5797$ correlations with Na I, Ca II and E(B-V), for both inside and outside the Local Bubble. Read More

We present high time resolution SDSS-$g'$ and SDSS-$z'$ light curves of the primary eclipse in SDSS J141126.20+200911.1, together with time-resolved X-Shooter spectroscopy and near-infrared $JHK_{s}$ photometry. Read More

**Authors:**V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, D. C. Atkinson, N. Bezawada, M. C. P. Bours, C. M. Copperwheat, T. Gamble, L. K. Hardy, R. D. H. Hickman, P. Irawati, D. J. Ives, P. Kerry, A. Leckngam, S. P. Littlefair, S. A. McLay, K. O'Brien, P. T. Peacocke, S. Poshyachinda, A. Richichi, B. Soonthornthum, A. Vick

ULTRASPEC is a high-speed imaging photometer mounted permanently at one of the Nasmyth focii of the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope (TNT) on Doi Inthanon, Thailand's highest mountain. ULTRASPEC employs a 1024x1024 pixel frame-transfer, electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) in conjunction with re-imaging optics to image a field of 7. Read More

We develop a theory for describing composite objects in physics. These can be static objects, such as tables, or things that happen in spacetime (such as a region of spacetime with fields on it regarded as being composed of smaller such regions joined together). We propose certain fundamental axioms which, it seems, should be satisfied in any theory of composition. Read More

We discuss how to reconstruct quantum theory from operational postulates. In particular, the following postulates are consistent only with for classical probability theory and quantum theory. Logical Sharpness: There is a one-to-one map between pure states and maximal effects such that we get unit probability. Read More

In this paper we consider theories in which reality is described by some underlying variables. Each value these variables can take represents an ontic state (a particular state of reality). The preparation of a quantum state corresponds to a distribution over the ontic states. Read More

Bell inequalities play a central role in the study of quantum non-locality and entanglement, with many applications in quantum information. Despite the huge literature on Bell inequalities, it is not easy to find a clear conceptual answer to what a Bell inequality is, or a clear guiding principle as to how they may be derived. In this paper, we introduce a notion of logical Bell inequality which can be used to systematically derive testable inequalities for a very wide variety of situations. Read More

A typical quantum experiment has a bunch of apparatuses placed so that quantum systems can pass between them. We regard each use of an apparatus, along with some given outcome on the apparatus (a certain detector click or a certain meter reading for example), as an operation. An operation can have zero or more quantum systems inputted into it and zero or more quantum systems outputted from it. Read More

We introduce the study of quantum protocols that probabilistically simulate quantum channels from a sender in the future to a receiver in the past. The maximum probability of simulation is determined by causality and depends on the amount and type (classical or quantum) of information that the channel can transmit. We illustrate this dependence in several examples, including ideal classical and quantum channels, measure-and-prepare channels, partial trace channels, and universal cloning channels. Read More

We provide a reformulation of finite dimensional quantum theory in the circuit framework in terms of mathematical axioms, and a reconstruction of quantum theory from operational postulates. The mathematical axioms for quantum theory are the following: [Axiom 1] Operations correspond to operators. [Axiom 2] Every complete set of physical operators corresponds to a complete set of operations. Read More

In this paper we consider general probabilistic theories that pertain to circuits which satisfy two very natural assumptions. We provide a formalism that is local in the following very specific sense: calculations pertaining to any region of spacetime employ only mathematical objects associated with that region. We call this "formalism locality". Read More

Quantum theory has the property of "local tomography": the state of any composite system can be reconstructed from the statistics of measurements on the individual components. In this respect the holism of quantum theory is limited. We consider in this paper a class of theories more holistic than quantum theory in that they are constrained only by "bilocal tomography": the state of any composite system is determined by the statistics of measurements on pairs of components. Read More

We discuss the motivation for pursuing research on the foundations of quantum theory. Read More

In this chapter a general mathematical framework for probabilistic theories of operationally understood circuits is laid out. Circuits are comprised of operations and wires. An operation is one use of an apparatus and a wire is a diagrammatic device for showing how apertures on the apparatuses are placed next to each other. Read More

Entropy is a concept that has traditionally been reliant on a definite notion of causality. However, without a definite notion of causality, the concept of entropy is not all lost. Indefinite causal structure results from combining probabilistic predictions and dynamical space-time. Read More

We expect a theory of Quantum Gravity to be both probabilistic and have indefinite causal structure. Indefinite causal structure poses particular problems for theory formulation since many of the core ideas used in the usual approaches to theory construction depend on having definite causal structure. For example, the notion of a state across space evolving in time requires that we have some definite causal structure so we can define a state on a space-like hypersurface. Read More

A quantum gravity computer is one for which the particular effects of quantum gravity are relevant. In general relativity, causal structure is non-fixed. In quantum theory non-fixed quantities are subject to quantum uncertainty. Read More

General relativity is a deterministic theory with non-fixed causal structure. Quantum theory is a probabilistic theory with fixed causal structure. In this paper we build a framework for probabilistic theories with non-fixed causal structure. Read More

Quantum theory is a probabilistic theory with fixed causal structure. General relativity is a deterministic theory but where the causal structure is dynamic. It is reasonable to expect that quantum gravity will be a probabilistic theory with dynamic causal structure. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Universite Libre de Bruxelles,

^{2}Perimeter Institute,

^{3}Centre for Quantum Computation, DAMTP, University of Cambridge

Standard quantum key distribution protocols are provably secure against eavesdropping attacks, if quantum theory is correct. It is theoretically interesting to know if we need to assume the validity of quantum theory to prove the security of quantum key distribution, or whether its security can be based on other physical principles. The question would also be of practical interest if quantum mechanics were ever to fail in some regime, because a scientifically and technologically advanced eavesdropper could perhaps use post-quantum physics to extract information from quantum communications without necessarily causing the quantum state disturbances on which existing security proofs rely. Read More

In the analysis of experiments designed to reveal violation of Bell-type inequalities, it is usually assumed that any hidden variables associated with the nth particle pair would be independent of measurement choices and outcomes for the first $(n-1)$ pairs. Models which violate this assumption exploit what we call the {\it memory loophole}. We focus on the strongest type of violation, which uses the {\it 2-sided} memory loophole, in which the hidden variables for pair $n$ can depend on the previous measurement choices and outcomes in both wings of the experiment. Read More

Entanglement is an useful resource because some global operations cannot be locally implemented using classical communication. We prove a number of results about what is and is not locally possible. We focus on orthogonal states, which can always be globally distinguished. Read More

The usual formulation of quantum theory is rather abstract. In recent work I have shown that we can, nevertheless, obtain quantum theory from five reasonable axioms. Four of these axioms are obviously consistent with both classical probability theory and quantum theory. Read More

We show that a qubit can be used to substitute for an arbitrarily large number of classical bits. We consider a physical system S interacting locally with a classical field phi(x) as it travels directly from point A to point B. The field has the property that its integrated value is an integer multiple of some constant. Read More

We generalise our previous results of universal linear manipulations [Phys. Rev. A63, 032304 (2001)] to investigate three types of nonlinear qubit transformations using measurement and quantum based schemes. Read More

The usual formulation of quantum theory is based on rather obscure axioms (employing complex Hilbert spaces, Hermitean operators, and the trace rule for calculating probabilities). In this paper it is shown that quantum theory can be derived from five very reasonable axioms. The first four of these are obviously consistent with both quantum theory and classical probability theory. Read More

See quant-ph/0101012 Read More

**Category:**Quantum Physics

We find the optimal universal way of manipulating a single qubit, |psi(theta,phi)>, such that (theta,phi)->(theta-k,phi-l). Such optimal transformations fall into two classes. For 0 =< k =< pi/2 the optimal map is the identity and the fidelity varies monotonically from 1 (for k=0) to 1/2 (for k=pi/2). Read More

We consider one copy of a quantum system prepared in one of two orthogonal pure states, entangled or otherwise, and distributed between any number of parties. We demonstrate that it is possible to identify which of these two states the system is in by means of local operations and classical communication alone. The protocol we outline is both completely reliable and completely general - it will correctly distinguish any two orthogonal states 100% of the time. Read More

We consider entanglement swapping schemes with general (rather than maximally) entangled bipartite states of arbitary dimension shared pairwise between three or more parties in a chain. The intermediate parties perform generalised Bell measurements with the result that the two end parties end up sharing a entangled state which can be converted into maximally entangled states. We obtain an expression for the average amount of maximal entanglement concentrated in such a scheme and show that in a certain reasonably broad class of cases this scheme is provably optimal and that, in these cases, the amount of entanglement concentrated between the two ends is equal to that which could be concentrated from the weakest link in the chain. Read More

We discuss how quantum information distribution can improve the performance of some quantum computation tasks. This distribution can be naturally implemented with different types of quantum cloning procedures. We give two examples of tasks for which cloning provides some enhancement in performance, and briefly discuss possible extensions of the idea. Read More

We derive the transformation for the optimal universal quantum anti-cloner which produces two anti-parallel outputs for a single input state. The fidelity is shown to be 2/3 which is same as the measurement fidelity. We consider a probabilistic quantum anti-cloner and show quantum states can be anti-cloned exactly with non-zero probability and its efficiency is higher than the efficiency of distinguishing between the two states. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}The Perimeter Institute,

^{2}Centre for Quantum Computation, University of Cambridge

We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We give an example of an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive non-relativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol. Read More

Quantum teleportation with additional a priori information about the input state achieves higher fidelity than teleportation of a completely unknown state. However, perfect teleportation of two non-orthogonal input states requires the same amount of entanglement as perfect teleportation of an unknown state, namely one ebit. We analyse how well two-state teleportation can be achieved using every degree of pure-state entanglement, and discuss the fidelity of `teleportation' that can be achieved with only classical communication but no shared entanglement. Read More