# L. Escudero Sanchez

## Contact Details

NameL. Escudero Sanchez |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (18) High Energy Physics - Experiment (5) Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (5) Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (4) Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (3) Mathematics - Differential Geometry (3) High Energy Physics - Theory (2) Astrophysics of Galaxies (2) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2) Astrophysics (1) Physics - Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics (1) Physics - Accelerator Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By L. Escudero Sanchez

**Authors:**MicroBooNE collaboration, R. Acciarri, C. Adams, R. An, J. Anthony, J. Asaadi, M. Auger, L. Bagby, S. Balasubramanian, B. Baller, C. Barnes, G. Barr, M. Bass, F. Bay, M. Bishai, A. Blake, T. Bolton, B. Bullard, L. Camilleri, D. Caratelli, B. Carls, R. Castillo Fernandez, F. Cavanna, H. Chen, E. Church, D. Cianci, E. Cohen, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, J. I. Crespo-Anadon, G. De Geronimo, M. Del Tutto, D. Devitt, S. Dytman, B. Eberly, A. Ereditato, L. Escudero Sanchez, J. Esquivel, A. A. Fadeeva, B. T. Fleming, W. Foreman, A. P. Furmanski, D. Garcia-Gamez, G. T. Garvey, V. Genty, D. Goeldi, S. Gollapinni, N. Graf, E. Gramellini, H. Greenlee, R. Grosso, R. Guenette, A. Hackenburg, P. Hamilton, O. Hen, J. Hewes, C. Hill, J. Ho, G. Horton-Smith, A. Hourlier, E. -C. Huang, C. James, J. Jan de Vries, C. -M. Jen, L. Jiang, R. A. Johnson, J. Joshi, H. Jostlein, D. Kaleko, G. Karagiorgi, W. Ketchum, B. Kirby, M. Kirby, T. Kobilarcik, I. Kreslo, A. Laube, S. Li, Y. Li, A. Lister, B. R. Littlejohn, S. Lockwitz, D. Lorca, W. C. Louis, M. Luethi, B. Lundberg, X. Luo, A. Marchionni, C. Mariani, J. Marshall, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, V. Meddage, T. Miceli, G. B. Mills, J. Moon, M. Mooney, C. D. Moore, J. Mousseau, R. Murrells, D. Naples, P. Nienaber, J. Nowak, O. Palamara, V. Paolone, V. Papavassiliou, S. F. Pate, Z. Pavlovic, E. Piasetzky, D. Porzio, G. Pulliam, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, V. Radeka, A. Rafique, S. Rescia, L. Rochester, C. Rudolf von Rohr, B. Russell, D. W. Schmitz, A. Schukraft, W. Seligman, M. H. Shaevitz, J. Sinclair, A. Smith, E. L. Snider, M. Soderberg, S. Soldner-Rembold, S. R. Soleti, P. Spentzouris, J. Spitz, J. St. John, T. Strauss, A. M. Szelc, N. Tagg, K. Terao, M. Thomson, C. Thorn, M. Toups, Y. -T. Tsai, S. Tufanli, T. Usher, W. Van De Pontseele, R. G. Van de Water, B. Viren, M. Weber, D. A. Wickremasinghe, S. Wolbers, T. Wongjirad, K. Woodruff, T. Yang, L. Yates, B. Yu, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, C. Zhang

The low-noise operation of readout electronics in a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) is critical to properly extract the distribution of ionization charge deposited on the wire planes of the TPC, especially for the induction planes. This paper describes the characteristics and mitigation of the observed noise in the MicroBooNE detector. The MicroBooNE's single-phase LArTPC comprises two induction planes and one collection sense wire plane with a total of 8256 wires. Read More

**Authors:**MicroBooNE collaboration, R. Acciarri, C. Adams, R. An, J. Anthony, J. Asaadi, M. Auger, L. Bagby, S. Balasubramanian, B. Baller, C. Barnes, G. Barr, M. Bass, F. Bay, M. Bishai, A. Blake, T. Bolton, L. Bugel, L. Camilleri, D. Caratelli, B. Carls, R. Castillo Fernandez, F. Cavanna, H. Chen, E. Church, D. Cianci, E. Cohen, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, J. I. Crespo-Anadon, M. Del Tutto, D. Devitt, S. Dytman, B. Eberly, A. Ereditato, L. Escudero Sanchez, J. Esquivel, B. T. Fleming, W. Foreman, A. P. Furmanski, D. Garcia-Gamez, G. T. Garvey, V. Genty, D. Goeldi, S. Gollapinni, N. Graf, E. Gramellini, H. Greenlee, R. Grosso, R. Guenette, A. Hackenburg, P. Hamilton, O. Hen, J. Hewes, C. Hill, J. Ho, G. Horton-Smith, E. -C. Huang, C. James, J. Jan de Vries, C. -M. Jen, L. Jiang, R. A. Johnson, J. Joshi, H. Jostlein, D. Kaleko, G. Karagiorgi, W. Ketchum, B. Kirby, M. Kirby, T. Kobilarcik, I. Kreslo, A. Laube, Y. Li, A. Lister, B. R. Littlejohn, S. Lockwitz, D. Lorca, W. C. Louis, M. Luethi, B. Lundberg, X. Luo, A. Marchionni, C. Mariani, J. Marshall, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, V. Meddage, T. Miceli, G. B. Mills, J. Moon, M. Mooney, C. D. Moore, J. Mousseau, R. Murrells, D. Naples, P. Nienaber, J. Nowak, O. Palamara, V. Paolone, V. Papavassiliou, S. F. Pate, Z. Pavlovic, E. Piasetzky, D. Porzio, G. Pulliam, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, A. Rafique, L. Rochester, C. Rudolf von Rohr, B. Russell, D. W. Schmitz, A. Schukraft, W. Seligman, M. H. Shaevitz, J. Sinclair, E. L. Snider, M. Soderberg, S. Soldner-Rembold, S. R. Soleti, P. Spentzouris, J. Spitz, J. St. John, T. Strauss, K. A. Sutton, A. M. Szelc, N. Tagg, K. Terao, M. Thomson, M. Toups, Y. -T. Tsai, S. Tufanli, T. Usher, R. G. Van de Water, B. Viren, M. Weber, D. A. Wickremasinghe, S. Wolbers, T. Wongjirad, K. Woodruff, T. Yang, L. Yates, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, C. Zhang

The MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) has been taking data at Fermilab since 2015 collecting, in addition to neutrino beam, cosmic-ray muons. Results are presented on the reconstruction of Michel electrons produced by the decay at rest of cosmic-ray muons. Michel electrons are abundantly produced in the TPC, and given their well known energy spectrum can be used to study MicroBooNE's detector response to low-energy electrons (electrons with energies up to ~50 MeV). Read More

**Authors:**MicroBooNE collaboration, P. Abratenko, R. Acciarri, C. Adams, R. An, J. Asaadi, M. Auger, L. Bagby, S. Balasubramanian, B. Baller, C. Barnes, G. Barr, M. Bass, F. Bay, M. Bishai, A. Blake, T. Bolton, L. Bugel, L. Camilleri, D. Caratelli, B. Carls, R. Castillo Fernandez, F. Cavanna, H. Chen, E. Church, D. Cianci, E. Cohen, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, J. I. Crespo-Anadon, M. Del Tutto, D. Devitt, S. Dytman, B. Eberly, A. Ereditato, L. Escudero Sanchez, J. Esquivel, B. T. Fleming, W. Foreman, A. P. Furmanski, D. Garcia-Gamez, G. T. Garvey, V. Genty, D. Goeldi, S. Gollapinni, N. Graf, E. Gramellini, H. Greenlee, R. Grosso, R. Guenette, A. Hackenburg, P. Hamilton, O. Hen, J. Hewes, C. Hill, J. Ho, G. Horton-Smith, E. -C. Huang, C. James, J. Jan de Vries, C. -M. Jen, L. Jiang, R. A. Johnson, B. J. P. Jones, J. Joshi, H. Jostlein, D. Kaleko, L. N. Kalousis, G. Karagiorgi, W. Ketchum, B. Kirby, M. Kirby, T. Kobilarcik, I. Kreslo, A. Laube, Y. Li, A. Lister, B. R. Littlejohn, S. Lockwitz, D. Lorca, W. C. Louis, M. Luethi, B. Lundberg, X. Luo, A. Marchionni, C. Mariani, J. Marshall, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, V. Meddage, T. Miceli, G. B. Mills, J. Moon, M. Mooney, C. D. Moore, J. Mousseau, R. Murrells, D. Naples, P. Nienaber, J. Nowak, O. Palamara, V. Paolone, V. Papavassiliou, S. F. Pate, Z. Pavlovic, E. Piasetzky, D. Porzio, G. Pulliam, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, A. Rafique, L. Rochester, C. Rudolf von Rohr, B. Russell, D. W. Schmitz, A. Schukraft, W. Seligman, M. H. Shaevitz, J. Sinclair, E. L. Snider, M. Soderberg, S. Soldner-Rembold, S. R. Soleti, P. Spentzouris, J. Spitz, J. St. John, T. Strauss, A. M. Szelc, N. Tagg, K. Terao, M. Thomson, M. Toups, Y. -T. Tsai, S. Tufanli, T. Usher, R. G. Van de Water, B. Viren, M. Weber, J. Weston, D. A. Wickremasinghe, S. Wolbers, T. Wongjirad, K. Woodruff, T. Yang, L. Yates, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, C. Zhang

We discuss a technique for measuring a charged particle's momentum by means of multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) in the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC). This method does not require the full particle ionization track to be contained inside of the detector volume as other track momentum reconstruction methods do (range-based momentum reconstruction and calorimetric momentum reconstruction). We motivate use of this technique, describe a tuning of the underlying phenomenological formula, quantify its performance on fully contained beam-neutrino-induced muon tracks both in simulation and in data, and quantify its performance on exiting muon tracks in simulation. Read More

We discuss recent observational data on the transverse and radial velocities, as well as on the masses of the main components of the Orion Trapezium. Based on the most reliable values of these quantities we study the dynamical evolution of ensembles of multiple systems mimicking the Orion Trapezium. To this end we conduct numerical $N-$body integrations using the observed masses, planar positions and velocities, radial velocities, and random line-of-sight ($z$) positions for all components. Read More

**Authors:**MicroBooNE Collaboration, R. Acciarri, C. Adams, R. An, A. Aparicio, S. Aponte, J. Asaadi, M. Auger, N. Ayoub, L. Bagby, B. Baller, R. Barger, G. Barr, M. Bass, F. Bay, K. Biery, M. Bishai, A. Blake, V. Bocean, D. Boehnlein, V. D. Bogert, T. Bolton, L. Bugel, C. Callahan, L. Camilleri, D. Caratelli, B. Carls, R. Castillo Fernandez, F. Cavanna, S. Chappa, H. Chen, K. Chen, C. Y. Chi, C. S. Chiu, E. Church, D. Cianci, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, J. Cornele, P. Cowan, J. I. Crespo-Anadon, G. Crutcher, C. Darve, R. Davis, M. Del Tutto, D. Devitt, S. Duffin, S. Dytman, B. Eberly, A. Ereditato, D. Erickson, L. Escudero Sanchez, J. Esquivel, S. Farooq, J. Farrell, D. Featherston, B. T. Fleming, W. Foreman, A. P. Furmanski, V. Genty, M. Geynisman, D. Goeldi, B. Goff, S. Gollapinni, N. Graf, E. Gramellini, J. Green, A. Greene, H. Greenlee, T. Griffin, R. Grosso, R. Guenette, A. Hackenburg, R. Haenni, P. Hamilton, P. Healey, O. Hen, E. Henderson, J. Hewes, C. Hill, K. Hill, L. Himes, J. Ho, G. Horton-Smith, D. Huffman, C. M. Ignarra, C. James, E. James, J. Jan de Vries, W. Jaskierny, C. M. Jen, L. Jiang, B. Johnson, M. Johnson, R. A. Johnson, B. J. P. Jones, J. Joshi, H. Jostlein, D. Kaleko, L. N. Kalousis, G. Karagiorgi, T. Katori, P. Kellogg, W. Ketchum, J. Kilmer, B. King, B. Kirby, M. Kirby, E. Klein, T. Kobilarcik, I. Kreslo, R. Krull, R. Kubinski, G. Lange, F. Lanni, A. Lathrop, A. Laube, W. M. Lee, Y. Li, D. Lissauer, A. Lister, B. R. Littlejohn, S. Lockwitz, D. Lorca, W. C. Louis, G. Lukhanin, M. Luethi, B. Lundberg, X. Luo, G. Mahler, I. Majoros, D. Makowiecki, A. Marchionni, C. Mariani, D. Markley, J. Marshall, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, K. T. McDonald, D. McKee, A. McLean, J. Mead, V. Meddage, T. Miceli, G. B. Mills, W. Miner, J. Moon, M. Mooney, C. D. Moore, Z. Moss, J. Mousseau, R. Murrells, D. Naples, P. Nienaber, B. Norris, N. Norton, J. Nowak, M. OBoyle, T. Olszanowski, O. Palamara, V. Paolone, V. Papavassiliou, S. F. Pate, Z. Pavlovic, R. Pelkey, M. Phipps, S. Pordes, D. Porzio, G. Pulliam, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, V. Radeka, A. Rafique, R. A Rameika, B. Rebel, R. Rechenmacher, S. Rescia, L. Rochester, C. Rudolf von Rohr, A. Ruga, B. Russell, R. Sanders, W. R. Sands III, M. Sarychev, D. W. Schmitz, A. Schukraft, R. Scott, W. Seligman, M. H. Shaevitz, M. Shoun, J. Sinclair, W. Sippach, T. Smidt, A. Smith, E. L. Snider, M. Soderberg, M. Solano-Gonzalez, S. Soldner-Rembold, S. R. Soleti, J. Sondericker, P. Spentzouris, J. Spitz, J. St. John, T. Strauss, K. Sutton, A. M. Szelc, K. Taheri, N. Tagg, K. Tatum, J. Teng, K. Terao, M. Thomson, C. Thorn, J. Tillman, M. Toups, Y. T. Tsai, S. Tufanli, T. Usher, M. Utes, R. G. Van de Water, C. Vendetta, S. Vergani, E. Voirin, J. Voirin, B. Viren, P. Watkins, M. Weber, T. Wester, J. Weston, D. A. Wickremasinghe, S. Wolbers, T. Wongjirad, K. Woodruff, K. C. Wu, T. Yang, B. Yu, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, C. Zhang, M. Zuckerbrot

This paper describes the design and construction of the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber and associated systems. MicroBooNE is the first phase of the Short Baseline Neutrino program, located at Fermilab, and will utilize the capabilities of liquid argon detectors to examine a rich assortment of physics topics. In this document details of design specifications, assembly procedures, and acceptance tests are reported. Read More

**Authors:**MicroBooNE collaboration, R. Acciarri, C. Adams, R. An, J. Asaadi, M. Auger, L. Bagby, B. Baller, G. Barr, M. Bass, F. Bay, M. Bishai, A. Blake, T. Bolton, L. Bugel, L. Camilleri, D. Caratelli, B. Carls, R. Castillo Fernandez, F. Cavanna, H. Chen, E. Church, D. Cianci, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, J. I. Crespo-AnadÃ³n, M. Del Tutto, D. Devitt, S. Dytman, B. Eberly, A. Ereditato, L. Escudero Sanchez, J. Esquivel, B. T. Fleming, W. Foreman, A. P. Furmanski, G. T. Garvey, V. Genty, D. Goeldi, S. Gollapinni, N. Graf, E. Gramellini, H. Greenlee, R. Grosso, R. Guenette, A. Hackenburg, P. Hamilton, O. Hen, J. Hewes, C. Hill, J. Ho, G. Horton-Smith, C. James, J. Jan de Vries, C. -M. Jen, L. Jiang, R. A. Johnson, B. J. P. Jones, J. Joshi, H. Jostlein, D. Kaleko, G. Karagiorgi, W. Ketchum, B. Kirby, M. Kirby, T. Kobilarcik, I. Kreslo, A. Laube, Y. Li, A. Lister, B. R. Littlejohn, S. Lockwitz, D. Lorca, W. C. Louis, M. Luethi, B. Lundberg, X. Luo, A. Marchionni, C. Mariani, J. Marshall, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, V. Meddage, T. Miceli, G. B. Mills, J. Moon, M. Mooney, C. D. Moore, J. Mousseau, R. Murrells, D. Naples, P. Nienaber, J. Nowak, O. Palamara, V. Paolone, V. Papavassiliou, S. F. Pate, Z. Pavlovic, D. Porzio, G. Pulliam, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, A. Rafique, L. Rochester, C. Rudolf von Rohr, B. Russell, D. W. Schmitz, A. Schukraft, W. Seligman, M. H. Shaevitz, J. Sinclair, E. L. Snider, M. Soderberg, S. SÃ¶ldner-Rembold, S. R. Soleti, P. Spentzouris, J. Spitz, J. St. John, T. Strauss, A. M. Szelc, N. Tagg, K. Terao, M. Thomson, M. Toups, Y. -T. Tsai, S. Tufanli, T. Usher, R. G. Van de Water, B. Viren, M. Weber, J. Weston, D. A. Wickremasinghe, S. Wolbers, T. Wongjirad, K. Woodruff, T. Yang, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, C. Zhang

We present several studies of convolutional neural networks applied to data coming from the MicroBooNE detector, a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC). The algorithms studied include the classification of single particle images, the localization of single particle and neutrino interactions in an image, and the detection of a simulated neutrino event overlaid with cosmic ray backgrounds taken from real detector data. These studies demonstrate the potential of convolutional neural networks for particle identification or event detection on simulated neutrino interactions. Read More

In this paper we carry out a preliminary study of the dependence of the Tully-Fisher Relation (TFR) with the width and intensity level of the absolute magnitude interval of a limited sample of 2411 galaxies taken from Mathewson \& Ford (1996). The galaxies in this sample do not differ significantly in morphological type, and are distributed over an $\sim11$-magnitude interval ($-24.4 < I < -13. Read More

In this paper we study the affine focal set, which is the bifurcation set of the affine distance to submanifolds $N^n$ contained in hypersurfaces $M^{n+1}$ of the $(n+2)$-space. We give condition under which this affine focal set is a regular hypersurface and, for curves in $3$-space, we describe its stable singularities. For a given Darboux vector field $\xi$ of the immersion $N\subset M$, one can define the affine metric $g$ and the affine normal plane bundle $\mathcal{A}$. Read More

We present the development, tests and first results of the second generation Low Layer Scidar (LOLAS-2). This instrument constitutes a strongly improved version of the prototype Low Layer Scidar, which is aimed at the measurement of optical turbulence profiles close to the ground, with high altitude-resolution. The method is based on the Generalised Scidar principle which consists in taking double-star scintillation images on a defocused pupil plane and calculating in real time the autocovariance of the scintillation. Read More

In this paper we present photometric CCD observations of the globular cluster NGC 6093 (M80) in filters B, V , R and I. We produce the colour-magnitude diagrams for this object and obtain values for its metallicity [Fe/H], reddening E(V-B), E(V-I) and distance modulus (m - M)_0. Read More

Consider a codimension $1$ submanifold $N^n\subset M^{n+1}$, where $M^{n+1}\subset\mathbb{R}^{n+2}$ is a hypersurface. The envelope of tangent spaces of $M$ along $N$ generalizes the concept of tangent developable surface of a surface along a curve. In this paper, we study the singularities of these envelopes. Read More

We introduce a new family of affine metrics on a locally strictly convex surface $M$ in affine 4-space. Then, we define the symmetric and antisymmetric equiaffine planes associated with each metric. We show that if $M$ is immersed in a locally strictly convex hyperquadric, then the symmetric and the antisymmetric planes coincide and contain the affine normal to the hyperquadric. Read More

Using the novel Diffracto-Astrometry technique, we analyze 44 Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of the Orion Trapezium (OT) taken over a span of 12 yr (1995-2007). We measure the relative positions of the six brighter OT components (A-F) and supplement these results with measurements of the relative separations and position angles taken from the literature, thus extending our analysis time base to ~200 yr. For every pair of components we find the relative rate of separation as well as the temporal rate of change of their position angles, which enable us to determine the relative kinematics of the system. Read More

We present comprehensive seeing statistics for the San Pedro M\'artir site derived from the Thirty Meter Telescope site selection data. The observations were obtained between 2004 and 2008 with a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) and a Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) combined instrument (MASS--DIMM). The parameters that are statistically analised here are: whole atmosphere seeing -measured by the DIMM-; free atmosphere seeing --measured by the MASS--; and ground-layer seeing (GL) --difference between the total and free-atmosphere seeing--. Read More

CIEMAT has been working on the RF power extractor so-called PETS (Power Extraction and Transfer Structure) for the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) since 2007. The first contribution has been installed at the Test Beam Line (TBL). Additionally, a new PETS configuration is presently under fabrication at CIEMAT and will be installed in the Test Module at CTF3. Read More

San Pedro M\'artir in the Northwest of Mexico is the site of the Observatorio Astron\'omico Nacional. It was one of the five candidates sites for the Thirty Meter Telescope, whose site-testing team spent four years measuring the atmospheric properties on site with a very complete array of instrumentation. Using the public database created by this team, we apply a novel method to solar radiation data to estimate the daytime fraction of time when the sky is clear of clouds. Read More

Extensions of the standard model (SM) with gauge symmetry SU(3)_c X SU(4)_L X U(1)_X (3-4-1 extensions) where anomaly cancellation takes place between the fermion families (three-family models) predict the existence of two new heavy neutral gauge bosons which transmit flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) at tree-level. In this work, in the context of a three-family 3-4-1 extension which does not contain particles with exotic electric charges, we study the constraints coming from neutral meson mixing on the parameters of the extension associated to tree level FCNC effects. Taking into account experimental measurements of observables related to K and B meson mixing and including new CP-violating phases, we study the resulting bounds for angles and phases in the mixing matrix for the down-quark sector, as well as the implications of these bounds for the modifications in the amplitudes of the clean rare decays K^+ -> \pi^+ \bar\nu \nu, K_{L} -> \pi^0 \nu \bar\nu, K_L -> \pi^0 l^+ l^- (l=e,\mu) and B_{d/s} -> \mu^+ \mu^-. Read More

We present a theoretical analysis of the measuring algorithm we use when applying the Diffracto-Astrometry technique to Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) saturated stellar images. Theoretical Point Spread Functions (PSFs) were generated using the Tiny Tim software for the four CCDs in the WFPC2 and for some of the available filters. These images were then measured with our Diffracto-Astrometry measuring algorithm using only their diffraction pattern, and positions for the simulated PSFs on each generated CCD-frame were obtained. Read More

Aims. Recently it has been reported that the intrinsic dispersion at constant magnitude of the structural relations from early-type galaxies is a useful tool to study the universality of these structural relations, that is to say, to study whether the structural relations depend on luminosity, wavelength, redshift and/or environment. In this work we study the intrinsic dispersion of the Faber-Jackson relation as function of the luminosity, mass and redshift. Read More

We take a sample of early-type galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR7, $\sim$ 90 000 galaxies) spanning a range of approximately 7 $mag$ in both $g$ and $r$ filters and analyse the behaviour of the Faber-Jackson relation parameters as functions of the magnitude range. We calculate the parameters in two ways: i) We consider the faintest (brightest) galaxies in each sample and we progressively increase the width of the magnitude interval by inclusion of the brighter (fainter) galaxies (increasing-magnitude-intervals), and ii) we consider narrow-magnitude intervals of the same width ($\Delta M = 1.0$ $mag$) over the whole magnitude range available (narrow-magnitude-intervals). Read More

We study an extension of the gauge group SU(3)_c X SU(2)_L X U(1)_Y of the standard model to the symmetry group SU(3)_c X SU(4)_L X U(1)_X (3-4-1 for short). This extension provides an interesting attempt to answer the question of family replication in the sense that models for the electroweak interaction can be constructed so that anomaly cancellation is achieved by an interplay between generations, all of them under the condition that the number of families must be divisible by the number of colours of SU(3)_c. This method of anomaly cancellation requires a family of quarks transforming differently from the other two, thus leading to tree-level flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) transmitted by the two extra neutral gauge bosons $Z'$ and $Z''$ predicted by the model. Read More

Flavour changing neutral currents arise in the $SU(3)_c\otimes SU(4)_L\otimes U(1)_X$ extension of the standard model because anomaly cancellation among the fermion families requires one generation of quarks to transform differently from the other two under the gauge group. In the weak basis the distinction between quark families is meaningless. However, in the mass eigenstates basis, the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix motivates us to classify left-handed quarks in families. Read More

A detailed study of the criteria for stability of the scalar potential and the proper electroweak symmetry breaking pattern in the economical 3-3-1 model, is presented. For the analysis we use, and improve, a method previously developed to study the scalar potential in the two-Higgs-doublet extension of the standard model. A new theorem related to the stability of the potential is stated. Read More

An extension of the gauge group $SU(2)_L\otimes U(1)_Y$ of the standard model to the symmetry group $SU(4)_L\otimes U(1)_X$ (3-4-1 for short) is presented. The model does not contain exotic electric charges and anomaly cancellation is achieved with a family of quarks transforming differently from the other two, thus leading to FCNC. By introducing a discrete $Z_2$ symmetry we obtain a consistent fermion mass spectrum, and avoid unitarity violation of the CKM mixing matrix arising from the mixing of ordinary and exotic quarks. Read More

The Weyl-Wigner-Moyal formalism for Dirac second class constrained systems has been proposed recently as the deformation quantization of Dirac bracket. In this paper, after a brief review of this formalism, it is applied to the case of the relativistic free particle. Within this context, the Stratonovich-Weyl quantizer, Weyl correspondence, Moyal $\star$-product and Wigner function in the constrained phase space are obtained. Read More

We carry a systematic study of possible extensions of the standard model based on the gauge group SU(3)_c X SU(4)_L X U(1)_X. We consider both models with particles with exotic electric charges and models which do not contain exotic electric charges neither in the gauge boson sector nor in the fermion sector. For the first case an infinite number of models can, in principle, be constructed, while the restriction to non-exotic electric charges only allows for eight different anomaly-free models. Read More

A study of the three-family local gauge group SU(3)_c X SU(3)_L X U(1)_X with right-handed neutrinos is carried out. We use the minimal scalar sector able to break the symmetry in a proper way and produce, at the same time, masses for the fermion fields. We embed the structure into a simple gauge group and, by using experimental results from the CERN LEP, SLAC linear collider and atomic parity violation data, we also constraint relevant parameters for the new neutral and charged currents. Read More

We show that three SU(2) singlet neutral scalars (two CP-even and one CP-odd) in the spectrum of models based on the gauge symmetry SU(3)_c X SU(3)_L X U(1)_X, which do not contain exotic electric charges, are realistic candidates for thermally generated self-interacting dark matter in the Universe, a type of dark matter that has been recently proposed in order to overcome some difficulties of collisionless cold dark matter models at the galactic scale. These candidates arise without introducing a new mass scale in the model and/or without the need for a discrete symmetry to stabilize them, but at the expense of tuning several combinations of parameters of the scalar potential. Read More

A phenomenological analysis of the three-family local gauge group $SU(3)_c\otimes SU(3)_L\otimes U(1)_X$ with right-handed neutrinos is carried out. Instead of using the minimal scalar sector able to break the symmetry in a proper way, we introduce an alternative set of four Higgs scalar triplets, which combined with an anomaly-free discrete symmetry, produces a quark mass spectrum without hierarchies in the Yukawa coupling contants. We also embed the structure into a simple gauge group and show some conditions to achieve a low energy gauge coupling unification, avoiding possible conflict with proton decay bounds. Read More

We study the scalar potential and the mass spectrum of the supersymmetric extension of a three-family model based on the local gauge group $SU(3)_C\otimes SU(3)_L\otimes U(1)_X$, with anomalies canceled among the three families in a nontrivial fashion. In this model the slepton multiplets play the role of the Higgs scalars and no Higgsinos are needed, with the consequence that the sneutrino, the selectron and six other sleptons play the role of the Goldstone bosons of the theory. By introducing an Abelian anomaly-free discrete symmetry and aligning the vacuum in a convenient way, we get a consistent mass spectrum for the scalars and for the spin 1/2 quarks and charged leptons, where only the top and charm quarks and the tau lepton acquire tree level masses while the remaining ordinary charged fermions acquire radiative hierarchical masses. Read More

An extension of the Standard Model to the local gauge group $SU(3)_c\otimes SU(4)_L\otimes U(1)_X$ as a three-family model is presented. The model does not contain exotic electric charges and we obtain a consistent mass spectrum by introducing an anomaly-free discrete $Z_2$ symmetry. The neutral currents coupled to all neutral vector bosons in the model are studied. Read More

We present an extension of the Standard Model to the local gauge group $SU(3)_c\otimes SU(4)_L\otimes U(1)_X$ with a family non-universal treatment and anomalies canceled among the three families in a nontrivial fashion. The mass scales, the gauge boson masses, and the masses for the spin 1/2 particles in the model are analyzed. The neutral currents coupled to all neutral vector bosons in the model are studied, and particular values of the parameters are used in order to simplify the mixing between the three neutral currents present in the theory, mixing which is further constrained by experimental results from the CERN LEP, SLAC Linear Collider, and atomic parity violation. Read More

Due to the fact that only matter fields have phase, frequently is believed that the gauge principle can induce gauge fields only in quantum systems. But this is not necessary. This paper, of pedagogical scope, presents a classical system constituted by a particle in a classical potential, which is used as a model to illustrate the gauge principle and the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Read More

The Higgs potential and the mass spectrum of the N=1 supersymmetric extension of a recently proposed one-family model based on the local gauge group $SU(3)_c \otimes SU(3)_L \otimes U(1)_X$, which is a subgroup of the electroweak-strong unification group $E_6$, is analyzed. In this model the slepton multiplets play the role of the Higgs scalars and no Higgsinos are needed, with the consequence that the sneutrino, the selectron and six other sleptons play the role of the Goldstone bosons. We show how the $\mu$ problem is successfully addressed in the context of this model which also predicts the existence of a light CP-odd scalar. Read More

We study the minimal set of Higgs scalars, for models based on the local gauge group $SU(3)_c \otimes SU(3)_L \otimes U(1)_X$ which do not contain particles with exotic electric charges. We show that only two Higgs $SU(3)_L$ triplets are needed in order to properly break the symmetry. The exact tree-level scalar mass matrices resulting from symmetry breaking are calculated at the minimum of the most general scalar potential, and the gauge bosons are obtained, together with their couplings to the physical scalar fields. Read More

We carry a systematic study of possible models based on the local gauge group SU(3)_c X SU(3)_L X U(1)_X. Old and new models emerge from the analysis. Read More

An extension of the Standard Model to the local gauge group SU(3)_c X SU(3)_L X U(1)_X as a family independent model is presented. The mass scales, the gauge boson masses and the masses for the spin 1/2 particles in the model are studied. The mass differences between the up and down quark sectors, between the quarks and leptons, and between the charged and neutral leptons in one family are analyzed. Read More

An extension of the Standard Model to the local gauge group $SU(3)_c\otimes SU(3)_L\otimes U(1)_X$ which is a subgroup of the electroweak-strong unification group $E_6$ is analyzed. The mass scales, the gauge boson masses, and the masses for the spin 1/2 particles in the model are calculated. The mass differences between the up and down quark sectors, between the quarks and leptons, and between the charged and neutral leptons in one family are explained as a consequence of mixing of ordinary with exotic fermions implied by the model. Read More

Six different models, straightforward extensions of the standard model to SU(3)_c X SU(3)_L X U(1)_X, which do not contain particles with exotic electric charges are described. Two of the models are one family and four are three family models. In two of the three family models one of the families transforms different from the others, and in the other two all the three families are different. Read More

The classic problem of the growth of density perturbations in an expanding Newtonian universe is revisited following the work of Bisnovatyi-Kogan and Zel'dovich. We propose a more general analytical approach: a system of free particles satisfying semi-degenerate Fermi-Dirac statistics on the background of an exact expanding solution is examined in the linear approximation. This differs from the corresponding work of Bisnovatyi-Kogan and Zel'dovich where classical particles fulfilling Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics were considered. Read More