# L. Dixon - University of Edinburgh

## Contact Details

NameL. Dixon |
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AffiliationUniversity of Edinburgh |
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CityEdinburgh |
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CountryUnited Kingdom |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Theory (29) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (27) High Energy Physics - Experiment (5) Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science (2) Computer Science - Mathematical Software (1) Computer Science - Symbolic Computation (1) Mathematics - Category Theory (1) General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1) Computer Science - Computation and Language (1) Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture (1) Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (1) High Energy Physics - Lattice (1) |

## Publications Authored By L. Dixon

The coefficient of the dimensionally regularized two-loop R^3 divergence of (nonsupersymmetric) gravity theories has recently been shown to change when non-dynamical three forms are added to the theory, or when a pseudo-scalar is replaced by the anti-symmetric two-form field to which it is dual. This phenomenon involves evanescent operators, whose matrix elements vanish in four dimensions, including the Gauss-Bonnet operator which is also connected to the trace anomaly. On the other hand, these effects appear to have no physical consequences in renormalized scattering processes. Read More

We reformulate the heptagon cluster bootstrap to take advantage of the Steinmann relations, which require certain double discontinuities of any amplitude to vanish. These constraints vastly reduce the number of functions needed to bootstrap seven-point amplitudes in planar $\mathcal{N} = 4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, making higher-loop contributions to these amplitudes more computationally accessible. In particular, dual superconformal symmetry and well-defined collinear limits suffice to determine uniquely the symbols of the three-loop NMHV and four-loop MHV seven-point amplitudes. Read More

We study the six-point NMHV ratio function in planar ${\cal N}=4$ SYM theory in the context of positive geometry. The Amplituhedron construction of the integrand for the amplitudes provides a kinematical region in which the integrand was observed to be positive. It is natural to conjecture that this property survives integration, i. Read More

The damage personal attacks cause to online discourse motivates many platforms to try to curb the phenomenon. However, understanding the prevalence and impact of personal attacks in online platforms at scale remains surprisingly difficult. The contribution of this paper is to develop and illustrate a method that combines crowdsourcing and machine learning to analyze personal attacks at scale. Read More

The analytic structure of scattering amplitudes is restricted by Steinmann relations, which enforce the vanishing of certain discontinuities of discontinuities. We show that these relations dramatically simplify the function space for the hexagon function bootstrap in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Armed with this simplification, along with the constraints of dual conformal symmetry and Regge exponentiation, we obtain the complete five-loop six-particle amplitude. Read More

Internet censors seek ways to identify and block internet access to information they deem objectionable. Increasingly, censors deploy advanced networking tools such as deep-packet inspection (DPI) to identify such connections. In response, activists and academic researchers have developed and deployed network traffic obfuscation mechanisms. Read More

Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a $2\to4$ gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of $2\to2$ collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. Read More

We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar $\mathcal{N} = 4$ super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a $\bar{Q}$ differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Read More

Evanescent operators such as the Gauss-Bonnet term have vanishing perturbative matrix elements in exactly D=4 dimensions. Similarly, evanescent fields do not propagate in D=4; a three-form field is in this class, since it is dual to a cosmological-constant contribution. In this Letter, we show that evanescent operators and fields modify the leading ultraviolet divergence in pure gravity. Read More

We compute the interference between the resonant process $pp\to H(\rightarrow \gamma\gamma)+2 \text{ jets}$ and the corresponding continuum background at leading order in QCD. For the Higgs signal, we include gluon fusion (GF) and vector boson fusion (VBF) production channels, while for the background we consider all tree-level contributions, including pure EW effects (${\cal O}(\alpha_{QED}^4)$) and QCD contributions (${\cal O}(\alpha_{QED}^2 \alpha_{s}^2)$), plus the loop-induced gluon-initiated process. After convolution with the experimental mass resolution, the main effect of the interference is to shift the position of the mass peak, as in the inclusive GF case studied previously. Read More

Electroweak vector-boson production, accompanied by multiple jets, is an important background to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. A precise and quantitative understanding of this process is helpful in constraining deviations from known physics. We study four key ratios in $W + n$-jet production at the LHC. Read More

We extend the hexagon function bootstrap to the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) configuration for six-point scattering in planar ${\cal N}=4$ super-Yang-Mills theory at three loops. Constraints from the $\bar{Q}$ differential equation, from the operator product expansion (OPE) for Wilson loops with operator insertions, and from multi-Regge factorization, lead to a unique answer for the three-loop ratio function. The three-loop result also predicts additional terms in the OPE expansion, as well as the behavior of NMHV amplitudes in the multi-Regge limit at one higher logarithmic accuracy (NNLL) than was used as input. Read More

We study $W$-boson production accompanied by multiple jets at 7 TeV at the LHC. We study the jet-production ratio, of total cross sections for $W$+$n$- to $W$+($n-1$)-jet production, and the ratio of distributions in the total transverse hadronic jet energy $H_{\rm T}^{\rm jets}$. We use the ratios to extrapolate the total cross section, and the differential distribution in $H_{\rm T}^{\rm jets}$, to $W$+6-jet production. Read More

We describe the hexagon function bootstrap for solving for six-gluon scattering amplitudes in the large $N_c$ limit of ${\cal N}=4$ super-Yang-Mills theory. In this method, an ansatz for the finite part of these amplitudes is constrained at the level of amplitudes, not integrands, using boundary information. In the near-collinear limit, the dual picture of the amplitudes as Wilson loops leads to an operator product expansion which has been solved using integrability by Basso, Sever and Vieira. Read More

We present next-to-leading order QCD predictions for cross sections and for a comprehensive set of distributions in diphoton + 2-jet production at the Large Hadron Collider. We consider the contributions from loop amplitudes for two photons and four gluons, but we neglect top quarks. We use BlackHat together with SHERPA to carry out the computation. Read More

We present the four-loop remainder function for six-gluon scattering with maximal helicity violation in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as an analytic function of three dual-conformal cross ratios. The function is constructed entirely from its analytic properties, without ever inspecting any multi-loop integrand. We employ the same approach used at three loops, writing an ansatz in terms of hexagon functions, and fixing coefficients in the ansatz using the multi-Regge limit and the operator product expansion in the near-collinear limit. Read More

We present results from a recent calculation of prompt photon-pair production in association with two jets to next-to-leading order (NLO) at the LHC. The virtual contribution is evaluated using the BlackHat library, a numerical implementation of on-shell methods for one-loop amplitudes, in conjunction with SHERPA. We study four sets of cuts: standard jet cuts, a set of Higgs-related cuts suggested by ATLAS, and corresponding sets which isolate the kinematic region where the process becomes the largest background to Higgs production via vector-boson fusion. Read More

We present an event-file format for the dissemination of next-to-leading-order (NLO) predictions for QCD processes at hadron colliders. The files contain all information required to compute generic jet-based infrared-safe observables at fixed order (without showering or hadronization), and to recompute observables with different factorization and renormalization scales. The files also make it possible to evaluate cross sections and distributions with different parton distribution functions. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Chair

This report summarizes the findings of the DPF Theory Panel which was formed with a goal of understanding the scientific problems and opportunities of the next decade, as well as the challenges involved in sustaining a first-class program in theoretical particle physics research in the United States. Read More

I provide a basic introduction to modern helicity amplitude methods, including color organization, the spinor helicity formalism, and factorization properties. I also describe the BCFW (on-shell) recursion relation at tree level, and explain how similar ideas - unitarity and on-shell methods - work at the loop level. These notes are based on lectures delivered at the 2012 CERN Summer School and at TASI 2013. Read More

We present recent next-to-leading order (NLO) results in perturbative QCD obtained using the BlackHat software library. We discuss the use of n-tuples to separate the lengthy matrix-element computations from the analysis process. The use of n-tuples allows many analyses to be carried out on the same phase-space samples, and also allows experimenters to conduct their own analyses using the original NLO computation. Read More

We introduce a generating function for the coefficients of the leading logarithmic BFKL Green's function in transverse-momentum space, order by order in alpha_s, in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms. As an application, we exhibit fully analytic azimuthal-angle and transverse-momentum distributions for Mueller-Navelet jet cross sections at each order in alpha_s. We also provide a generating function for the total cross section valid to any number of loops. Read More

**Authors:**Christian Bauer, Zvi Bern, Radja Boughezal, John Campbell, Neil Christensen, Lance Dixon, Thomas Gehrmann, Stefan Hoeche, Junichi Kanzaki, Alexander Mitov, Pavel Nadolsky, Fredrick Olness, Michael Peskin, Frank Petriello, Stefano Pozzorini, Laura Reina, Frank Siegert, Doreen Wackeroth, Jonathan Walsh, Ciaran Williams, Markus Wobisch

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We present a study on high-performance computing and large-scale distributed computing for perturbative QCD calculations. Read More

In these proceedings we present results from a recent calculation for the production of a W boson in conjunction with five jets at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. We also use results at lower multiplicities to extrapolate the cross section to the same process with six jets. Read More

We present the three-loop remainder function, which describes the scattering of six gluons in the maximally-helicity-violating configuration in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as a function of the three dual conformal cross ratios. The result can be expressed in terms of multiple Goncharov polylogarithms. We also employ a more restricted class of "hexagon functions" which have the correct branch cuts and certain other restrictions on their symbols. Read More

We study the change in the di-photon invariant mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gluon pair to photon pair. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the Standard Model in the leading order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. Read More

We present next-to-leading order QCD predictions for the total cross section and for a comprehensive set of transverse-momentum distributions in W + 5-jet production at the Large Hadron Collider. We neglect the small contributions from subleading-color virtual terms, top quarks and some terms containing four quark pairs. We also present ratios of total cross sections, and use them to obtain an extrapolation formula to an even larger number of jets. Read More

The connection of maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory to the (2,0) theory in six dimensions has raised the possibility that it might be perturbatively ultraviolet finite in five dimensions. We test this hypothesis by computing the coefficient of the first potential ultraviolet divergence of planar (large N_c) maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in D = 5, which occurs at six loops. We show that the coefficient is nonvanishing. Read More

In this contribution we review recent progress with fixed-order QCD predictions for the production of a vector boson in association with jets at hadron colliders, using the programs BlackHat and SHERPA. We review general features of next-to-leading-order (NLO) predictions for the production of a massive vector boson in association with four jets. We also discuss how precise descriptions of vector-boson production can be applied to the determination of backgrounds to new physics signals. Read More

We investigate color-kinematics duality for gauge-theory amplitudes produced by the pure nonabelian Yang-Mills action deformed by higher-dimension operators. For the operator denoted by F^3, the product of three field strengths, the existence of color-kinematic dual representations follows from string-theory monodromy relations. We provide explicit dual representations, and show how the double-copy construction of gravity amplitudes based on them is consistent with the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations. Read More

We argue that the natural functions for describing the multi-Regge limit of six-gluon scattering in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory are the single-valued harmonic polylogarithmic functions introduced by Brown. These functions depend on a single complex variable and its conjugate, (w,w*). Using these functions, and formulas due to Fadin, Lipatov and Prygarin, we determine the six-gluon MHV remainder function in the leading-logarithmic approximation (LLA) in this limit through ten loops, and the next-to-LLA (NLLA) terms through nine loops. Read More

We extend our investigation of backgrounds to new physics signals, following CMS's data-driven search for supersymmetry at the LHC. The aim is to use different sets of cuts in gamma + 3-jet production to predict the irreducible Z + 3-jet background (with the Z boson decaying to neutrinos) to searches with missing transverse energy + 3-jet signal topologies. We compute ratios of Z + 3-jet to gamma + 3-jet production cross sections and kinematic distributions at next-to-leading order (NLO) in alpha_s. Read More

In this contribution we present recent progress in the computation of next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections for the production of an electroweak vector boson in association with jets at hadron colliders. We focus on results obtained using the virtual matrix element library BLACKHAT in conjunction with SHERPA, focusing on results relevant to understanding the background to top production. Read More

We use the duality between color and kinematics to simplify the construction of the complete four-loop four-point amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, including the nonplanar contributions. The duality completely determines the amplitude's integrand in terms of just two planar graphs. The existence of a manifestly dual gauge-theory amplitude trivializes the construction of the corresponding N=8 supergravity integrand, whose graph numerators are double copies (squares) of the N=4 super-Yang-Mills numerators. Read More

We present the cross sections for production of up to four jets at the Large Hadron Collider, at next-to-leading order in the QCD coupling. We use the BlackHat library in conjunction with SHERPA and a recently developed algorithm for assembling primitive amplitudes into color-dressed amplitudes. We adopt the cuts used by ATLAS in their study of multi-jet events in pp collisions at \sqrt{s} = 7 TeV. Read More

We provide a simple analytic formula for the two-loop six-point ratio function of planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. This result extends the analytic knowledge of multi-loop six-point amplitudes beyond those with maximal helicity violation. We make a natural ansatz for the symbols of the relevant functions appearing in the two-loop amplitude, and impose various consistency conditions, including symmetry, the absence of spurious poles, the correct collinear behaviour, and agreement with the operator product expansion for light-like (super) Wilson loops. Read More

We present the full two-loop four-graviton amplitudes in N=4,5,6 supergravity. These results were obtained using the double-copy structure of gravity, which follows from the recently conjectured color-kinematics duality in gauge theory. The two-loop four-gluon scattering amplitudes in N=0,1,2 supersymmetric gauge theory are a second essential ingredient. Read More

We consider the hexagonal Wilson loop dual to the six-point MHV amplitude in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We apply constraints from the operator product expansion in the near-collinear limit to the symbol of the remainder function at three loops. Using these constraints, and assuming a natural ansatz for the symbol's entries, we determine the symbol up to just two undetermined constants. Read More

We present the cross section for production of a Z boson in association with four jets at the Large Hadron Collider, at next-to-leading order in the QCD coupling. When the Z decays to neutrinos, this process is a key irreducible background to many searches for new physics. Its computation has been made feasible through the development of the on-shell approach to perturbative quantum field theory. Read More

The prediction of backgrounds to new physics signals in topologies with large missing transverse energy and jets is important to new physics searches at the LHC. Following a CMS study, we investigate theoretical issues in using measurements of gamma + 2-jet production to predict the irreducible background to searches for missing energy plus two jets that originates from Z + 2-jet production where the Z boson decays to neutrinos. We compute ratios of gamma + 2-jet to Z + 2-jet production cross sections and kinematic distributions at next-to-leading order in alpha_s, as well as using a parton shower matched to leading-order matrix elements. Read More

We compute the six-dimensional hexagon integral with three non-adjacent external masses analytically. After a simple rescaling, it is given by a function of six dual conformally invariant cross-ratios. The result can be expressed as a sum of 24 terms involving only one basic function, which is a simple linear combination of logarithms, dilogarithms, and trilogarithms of uniform degree three transcendentality. Read More

This article gives an overview of many of the recent developments in understanding the structure of relativistic scattering amplitudes in gauge theories ranging from QCD to N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as well as (super)gravity. I also provide a pedagogical introduction to some of the basic tools used to organize and illuminate the color and kinematic structure of amplitudes. This article is an invited review introducing a special issue of Journal of Physics A devoted to "Scattering Amplitudes in Gauge Theories". Read More

We provide an analytic formula for the (rescaled) one-loop scalar hexagon integral $\tilde\Phi_6$ with all external legs massless, in terms of classical polylogarithms. We show that this integral is closely connected to two integrals appearing in one- and two-loop amplitudes in planar $\cN=4$ super-Yang-Mills theory, $\Omega^{(1)}$ and $\Omega^{(2)}$. The derivative of $\Omega^{(2)}$ with respect to one of the conformal invariants yields $\tilde\Phi_6$, while another first-order differential operator applied to $\tilde\Phi_6$ yields $\Omega^{(1)}$. Read More

The production of W bosons in association with jets is an important background to new physics at the LHC. Events in which the W carries large transverse momentum and decays leptonically lead to large missing energy and are of particular importance. We show that the left-handed nature of the W coupling, combined with valence quark domination at a pp machine, leads to a large left-handed polarization for both W^+ and W^- bosons at large transverse momenta. Read More

In this contribution we describe computational tools that permit the evaluation of multi-loop scattering amplitudes in N=8 supergravity, in terms of amplitudes in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. We also discuss the remarkable ultraviolet behavior of N=8 supergravity, which follows from these amplitudes, and is as good as that of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory through at least four loops. Read More

String diagrams are a powerful tool for reasoning about physical processes, logic circuits, tensor networks, and many other compositional structures. The distinguishing feature of these diagrams is that edges need not be connected to vertices at both ends, and these unconnected ends can be interpreted as the inputs and outputs of a diagram. In this paper, we give a concrete construction for string diagrams using a special kind of typed graph called an open-graph. Read More

We derive compact analytical formulae for all tree-level color-ordered gauge theory amplitudes involving any number of external gluons and up to three massless quark-anti-quark pairs. A general formula is presented based on the combinatorics of paths along a rooted tree and associated determinants. Explicit expressions are displayed for the next-to-maximally helicity violating (NMHV) and next-to-next-to-maximally helicity violating (NNMHV) gauge theory amplitudes. Read More

We present the first next-to-leading order QCD results for W + 4-jet production at hadron colliders. Total cross sections, as well as distributions in the jet transverse momenta and in the total transverse energy H_T are provided for the initial LHC energy of \sqrt{s} = 7 TeV. We use a leading-color approximation, known to be accurate to 3% for W production with fewer jets. Read More

We present the complete four-loop four-point amplitude in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, for a general gauge group and general D-dimensional covariant kinematics, and including all non-planar contributions. We use the method of maximal cuts --- an efficient application of the unitarity method --- to construct the result in terms of 50 four-loop integrals. We give graphical rules, valid in D-dimensions, for obtaining various non-planar contributions from previously-determined terms. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}University of Edinburgh,

^{2}University of Oxford,

^{3}University of Oxford

We present a form of algebraic reasoning for computational objects which are expressed as graphs. Edges describe the flow of data between primitive operations which are represented by vertices. These graphs have an interface made of half-edges (edges which are drawn with an unconnected end) and enjoy rich compositional principles by connecting graphs along these half-edges. Read More