# L. Apolinario

## Publications Authored By L. Apolinario

The unique physics opportunities accessible with nuclear collisions at the CERN Future Circular Collider (FCC) are summarized. Lead-lead (PbPb) and proton-lead (pPb) collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 39 and 63 TeV respectively with $\mathcal{L}_{int}$ = 33 nb$^{-1}$ and 8 pb$^{-1}$ monthly integrated luminosities, will provide unprecedented experimental conditions to study quark-gluon matter at temperatures ${\cal O}$(1 GeV). The following topics are succinctly discussed: (i) charm-quark densities thrice larger than at the LHC, leading to direct heavy-quark impact in the bulk QGP properties, (ii) quarkonia, including $\Upsilon(1S)$, melting at temperatures up to five times above the QCD critical temperature, (iii) access to initial-state nuclear parton distributions (nPDF) at fractional momenta as low as $x\approx 10^{-7}$, (iv) availability of $5\cdot 10^5$ top-quark pairs per run to study the high-$x$ gluon nPDF and the energy loss properties of boosted colour-antennas, (v) study of possible Higgs boson suppression in the QGP, and (vi) high-luminosity $\gamma\gamma$ (ultraperipheral) collisions at c. Read More

The description of the in-medium modifications of partonic showers has been at the forefront of current theoretical and experimental efforts in heavy-ion collisions. It provides a unique laboratory to extend our knowledge frontier of the theory of the strong interactions, and to assess the properties of the hot and dense medium (QGP) that is produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. The theory of jet quenching, a commonly used alias for the modifications of the parton branching resulting from the interactions with the QGP, has been significantly developed over the last years. Read More

Motivated by the striking modifications of jets observed both at RHIC and the LHC, significant progress towards the understanding of jet dynamics within QGP has occurred over the last few years. In this talk, I review the recent theoretical developments in the study of medium-induced jet evolution and energy loss within a perturbative framework. The main mechanisms of energy loss and broadening will be firstly addressed with focus on leading particle calculations beyond the eikonal approximation. Read More

**Authors:**A. Dainese

^{1}, U. A. Wiedemann

^{2}, N. Armesto

^{3}, D. d'Enterria

^{4}, J. M. Jowett

^{5}, J. -P. Lansberg

^{6}, J. G. Milhano

^{7}, C. A. Salgado

^{8}, M. Schaumann

^{9}, M. van Leeuwen

^{10}, J. L. Albacete, A. Andronic, P. Antonioli, L. Apolinario, S. Bass, A. Beraudo, A. Bilandzic, S. Borsanyi, P. Braun-Munzinger, Z. Chen, L. Cunqueiro Mendez, G. S. Denicol, K. J. Eskola, S. Floerchinger, H. Fujii, P. Giubellino, C. Greiner, J. F. Grosse-Oetringhaus, C. -M. Ko, P. Kotko, K. Krajczar, K. Kutak, M. Laine, Y. Liu, M. P. Lombardo, M. Luzum, C. Marquet, S. Masciocchi, V. Okorokov, J. -F. Paquet, H. Paukkunen, E. Petreska, T. Pierog, M. Ploskon, C. Ratti, A. H. Rezaeian, W. Riegler, J. Rojo, C. Roland, A. Rossi, G. P. Salam, S. Sapeta, R. Schicker, C. Schmidt, J. Stachel, J. Uphoff, A. van Hameren, K. Watanabe, B. -W. Xiao, F. Yuan, D. Zaslavsky, K. Zhou, P. Zhuang

**Affiliations:**

^{1}editors,

^{2}editors,

^{3}section editors,

^{4}section editors,

^{5}section editors,

^{6}section editors,

^{7}section editors,

^{8}section editors,

^{9}section editors,

^{10}section editors

The Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron-hadron collision mode, seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. Operating such machine with heavy ions is an option that is being considered in the accelerator design studies. It would provide, for example, Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_NN} = 39 and 63 TeV, respectively, per nucleon-nucleon collision, with integrated luminosities above 30 nb^-1 per month for Pb-Pb. Read More

In this work, we propose a new class of jet substructure observables which, unlike fragmentation functions, are largely insensitive to the poorly known physics of hadronization. We show that sub-jet structures provide us with a large discriminating power between different jet quenching Monte Carlo implementations. Read More

The description of the modifications of the coherence pattern in a parton shower, in the presence of a QGP, has been actively addressed in recent studies. Among the several achievements, finite energy corrections, transverse momentum broadening due to medium interactions and interference effects between successive emissions have been extensively improved as they seem to be essential features for a correct description of the results obtained in heavy-ion collisions. In this work, based on the insights of our previous work [1], we explore the physical interplay between broadening and decoherence, by generalising previous studies of medium-modifications of the antenna spectrum [2, 3, 4] - so far restricted to the case where transverse motion is neglected. Read More

Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are a window of opportunity to study QCD matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density, such as the quark-gluon plasma. Among the several possibilities, the study of jet quenching - generic name given to in-medium energy loss modifications of the parton branching - is a powerful tool to assess the properties of this new state of matter. The description of the parton shower is very well understood in vacuum (controlled reference) and medium-induced modifications of this process can be experimentally accessed through jet measurements. Read More

The parton branching process is known to be modified in the presence of a medium. Colour decoherence processes are known to determine the process of energy loss when the density of the medium is large enough to break the correlations between partons emitted from the same parent. In order to improve existing calculations that consider eikonal trajectories for both the emitter and the hardest emitted parton, we provide in this work, the calculation of all finite energy corrections for the gluon radiation off a quark in a QCD medium that exist in the small angle approximation and for static scattering centres. Read More

We derive the in-medium gluon radiation spectrum off a quark within the path integral formalism at finite energies, including all next-to-eikonal corrections in the propagators of quarks and gluons. Results are computed for finite formation times, including interference with vacuum amplitudes. By rewriting the medium averages in a convenient manner we present the spectrum in terms of dipole cross sections and a colour decoherence parameter with the same physical origin as that found in previous studies of the antenna radiation. Read More

In this work we improve existing calculations of radiative energy loss by computing corrections that implement energy-momentum conservation, previously only implemented a posteriori, in a rigorous way. Using the path-integral formalism, we compute in-medium splittings allowing transverse motion of all particles in the emission process, thus relaxing the assumption that only the softest particle is permitted such movement. This work constitutes the extension of the computation carried out for x$\rightarrow$1 in Phys. Read More

Motivated by the new results obtained in heavy-ion collision experiments at the LHC, several extensions of the standard calculations of energy loss have been made recently. In this manuscript, I provide a short overview of some of the recent developments in jet quenching theory. First, I discuss some improvements computed by different groups to implement energy-momentum conservation in a rigorous way, relaxing some of the assumptions that were made in the standard jet quenching calculations. Read More

Subtraction of the large background in reconstruction is a key ingredient in jet studies in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. Here we address the question to which extent the most commonly used subtraction techniques are able to eliminate the effects of the background on the most commonly discussed observables at present: single inclusive jet distributions, dijet asymmetry and azimuthal distributions. We consider two different background subtraction methods, an area-based one implemented through the FastJet pack- age and a pedestal subtraction method, that resemble the ones used by the experimental collaborations at the LHC. Read More

In order to assess the ability of jet observables to constrain the characteristics of the medium produced in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC, we investigate the influence of background subtraction and jet quenching on jet reconstruction, with focus on the dijet asymmetry as currently studied by ATLAS and CMS. Using a toy model, we examine the influence of different background subtraction methods on dijet momentum imbalance and azimuthal distributions. We compare the usual jet-area based background subtraction technique and a variant of the noise-pedestal subtraction method used by CMS. Read More

We present a derivation of the medium-induced gluon radiation spectrum beyond the current limitation of soft gluon emission. Making use of the path integral approach to describe the propagation of high-energy particles inside a medium, we study the limiting case of a hard gluon emission. Analytical and numerical results are presented and discussed within the multiple soft scattering approximation. Read More