# Krzysztof Redlich - University of Wrocaw and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI/GSI

## Contact Details

NameKrzysztof Redlich |
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AffiliationUniversity of Wrocaw and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI/GSI |
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Location |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (43) Nuclear Theory (25) High Energy Physics - Lattice (15) Nuclear Experiment (4) Physics - History of Physics (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) High Energy Physics - Theory (1) |

## Publications Authored By Krzysztof Redlich

We discuss the critical properties of net-baryon-number fluctuations at the chiral restoration transition in matter at nonzero temperature and net-baryon density. The chiral dynamics of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is modeled by the Polykov-loop extended Quark-Meson Lagrangian, that includes the coupling of quarks to temporal gauge fields. The Functional Renormalization Group is employed to account for the criticality at the phase boundary. Read More

We study the critical properties of net-baryon-number fluctuations at the chiral restoration transition in a medium at finite temperature and net baryon density. The chiral dynamics of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is modeled by the Polykov-loop extended Quark-Meson Lagrangian, that includes the coupling of quarks to vector meson and temporal gauge fields. The Functional Renormalization Group is employed to properly account for the $O(4)$ criticality at the phase boundary. Read More

We compare two approaches in modeling repulsive interactions among hadrons: the excluded volume approximation and the S-matrix formalism. These are applied to study the thermodynamics of the $\pi N \Delta$ system. It is shown that the introduction of an extraneous repulsion between pions and nucleons via the excluded volume approach, in addition to the interaction that generates the $\Delta$-resonance, is incompatible with the analysis based on the physical phase shift of pion-nucleon scattering in the $P_{33}$ channel. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Kyoto U.,

^{2}Kyoto U.,

^{3}Wroclaw U.,

^{4}Wroclaw U.

We analytically study the relation between quark confinement and spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in QCD. In terms of the Dirac eigenmodes, we derive some formulae for the Polyakov loop, its fluctuations, and the string tension from the Wilson loop. We also investigate the Polyakov loop in terms of the eigenmodes of the Wilson, the clover and the domain wall fermion kernels, respectively. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Wroclaw U,

^{2}Cracow, INP & Jagiellonian U.

The conjecture, that the finite volume corrections to the thermodynamic functions can be correctly reproduced by using the thermodynamic limit with low particle momenta cutoff is examined in a very transparent example of an ideal boson gas in one dimension. We show that this conjecture is always true in principle, and derive convenient relations for the momentum cutoff dependence on thermal parameters in the asymptotic limits of large and small volume. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Kyoto U.,

^{2}Kyoto U.,

^{3}Wroclaw U.,

^{4}Wroclaw U.

We study interplay between confinement/deconfinement and chiral properties. We derive some analytical relations of the Dirac modes with the confinement quantities, such as the Polyakov loop, its susceptibility and the string tension. For the confinement quantities, the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes are found to give negligible contribution, while they are essential for chiral symmetry breaking. Read More

We systematically compare an event-by-event transport+viscous hydrodynamics hybrid model to data from the RHIC beam energy scan using a general Bayesian method. We demonstrate how the inclusion of multistrange hadron observables affects the outcome of the Bayesian analysis and conduct an in depth analysis of the viability of $\phi$ and $\Omega$ as probes of the transition region between a deconfined quark-gluon plasma and hadronic phase in heavy ion collisions at higher-end RHIC collision energies. Utilizing UrQMD to model the final hadronic interactions, we examine the collision rates of $\phi$ and $\Omega$ and the modification to their transverse momentum spectra due to these interactions. Read More

The influence of the finite width of $\rho$ meson on the pion momentum distribution is studied quantitatively in the framework of the S-matrix approach combined with a blast-wave model to describe particle emissions from an expanding fireball. We find that the proper treatment of resonances which accounts for their production dynamics encoded in data for partial wave scattering amplitudes can substantially modify spectra of daughter particles originating in their two body decays. In particular, it results in an enhancement of the low-$p_T$ pions from the decays of $\rho$ mesons which improves the quantitative description of the pion spectra in heavy ion collisions obtained by the ALICE collaboration at the LHC energy. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Wroclaw U. & Darmstadt, EMMI & Duke U.,

^{2}Cracow, INP & Jagiellonian U.

We consider thermodynamics of the van der Waals fluid of quantum systems. We derive general relations of thermodynamic functions and parameters of any ideal gas and the corresponding van der Waals fluid. This provides unambiguous generalization of the classical van der Waals theory to quantum statistical systems. Read More

The scaling behavior of the order parameter at the chiral phase transition, the so-called magnetic equation of state, of strongly interacting matter is studied within effective models. We explore universal and nonuniversal structures near the critical point. These include the scaling functions, the leading corrections to scaling, and the corresponding size of the scaling window as well as their dependence on an external symmetry breaking field. Read More

We consider a momentum dependent relaxation time for the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation. We employ a power law parametrization for the momentum dependence of the relaxation time, and calculate the shear and bulk viscosity, as well as, the charge and heat conductivity. We show, that for the two popular parametrizations, referred to as the linear and quadratic ansatz, one can obtain transport coefficients which corresponds to the weak and strong coupling regimes, respectively. Read More

We explore the critical fluctuations near the chiral critical endpoint (CEP) in a chiral effective model and discuss possible signals of the CEP, recently explored experimentally in nuclear collision. Particular attention is paid to the dependence of such signals on the location of the phase boundary and the CEP relative to the chemical freeze-out conditions in nuclear collisions. We argue that in effective models, standard freeze-out fits to heavy-ion data should not be used directly. Read More

Dirac spectrum representations of the Polyakov loop fluctuations are derived on the temporally odd-number lattice, where the temporal length is odd with the periodic boundary condition. We investigate the Polyakov loop fluctuations based on these analytical relations. It is semianalytically and numerically found that the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes have little contribution to the Polyakov loop fluctuations, which are sensitive probe for the quark deconfinement. Read More

The effects of kinematic cuts on electric charge fluctuations in a gas of charged particles are discussed. We consider a very transparent example of an ideal pion gas with quantum statistics, which can be viewed as a multi-component gas of Boltzmann particles with different charges and masses. Cumulants of net-electric charge fluctuations $\chi_n^Q$ are calculated in a static and expanding medium with flow parameters adjusted to the experimental data. Read More

Based on recent Lattice QCD (LQCD) results obtained at finite temperature, we discuss modeling of the hadronic phase of QCD in the framework of Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) with discrete and continuous mass spectra. We focus on fluctuations of conserved charges, and show how a common limiting temperature can be used to constrain the Hagedorn exponential mass spectrum in different sectors of quantum number, through a matching of HRG and LQCD. For strange baryons, the extracted spectra are found to be consistent with all known and expected states listed by the Particle Data Group (PDG). Read More

We consider thermodynamics of the excluded volume particles at finite temperature and chemical potential, in the low density approximation. We assume Boltzmann statistics and study the influence of the excluded volume on an ideal gas thermodynamics at the same temperature, pressure and numbers of particles. We show, that considering the change of the free enthalpy due to the excluded volume, and using the Maxwell identities, one can derive relevant thermodynamic functions and parameters of multi-component gases. Read More

Motivated by recent lattice QCD studies, we explore the effects of interactions on strangeness fluctuations in strongly interacting matter at finite temperature. We focus on S-wave $K\pi$ scattering and discuss the role of the $K_0^*(800)$ and $K^*(1430)$ resonances. The interaction contribution is obtained within the S-matrix formulation of thermodynamics, using the empirical $K\pi$ phase shifts as input. Read More

Starting from the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation and employing a Chapman-Enskog like expansion for the distribution function close to equilibrium, we derive second-order evolution equations for the shear stress tensor and the dissipative charge current for a system of massless quarks and gluons. The transport coefficients are obtained exactly using quantum statistics for the phase space distribution functions at non-zero chemical potential. We show that, within the relaxation time approximation, the second-order evolution equations for the shear stress tensor and the dissipative charge current can be decoupled. Read More

We investigate correlations of the Polyakov loop fluctuations with eigenmodes of the lattice Dirac operator. Their analytic relations are derived on the temporally odd-number size lattice with the normal non-twisted periodic boundary condition for the link-variables. We find that the low-lying Dirac modes yield negligible contributions to the Polyakov loop fluctuations. Read More

In the latter half of the last century, it became evident that there exists an ever increasing number of different states of the so-called elementary particles. The usual reductionist approach to this problem was to search for a simpler infrastructure, culminating in the formulation of the quark model and quantum chromodynamics. In a complementary, completely novel approach, Hagedorn suggested that the mass distribution of the produced particles follows a self-similar composition pattern, predicting an unbounded number of states of increasing mass. Read More

We construct net baryon number and strangeness susceptibilities as well as correlations between electric charge and strangeness from experimental data of the ALICE Collaboration at the CERN LHC. The data were taken in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV. Read More

Thermal fluctuations and correlations between the light and heavy-light mesons are explored within a chiral effective theory implementing heavy quark symmetry. We show, that various heavy-light flavor correlations indicate a remnant of the chiral criticality in a narrow range of temperature where the chiral susceptibility exhibits a peak structure. The onset of the chiral crossover, in the heavy-light flavor correlations, is therefore independent from the light flavors. Read More

We investigate properties of the net baryon number fluctuations near chiral crossover in a hot and dense medium of strongly interacting quarks. The chirally invariant quark-antiquark interactions are modeled by an effective quark-meson Lagrangian. To preserve remnants of criticality in the O(4) universality class, we apply the functional renormalization group method to describe thermodynamics near chiral crossover. Read More

We explore the influence of heavy quarks on the deconfinement phase transition in an effective model for gluons interacting with dynamical quarks in color SU(3). With decreasing quark mass, the strength of the explicit breaking of the Z(3) symmetry grows and the first-order transition ends in a critical endpoint. The nature of the critical endpoint is examined by studying the longitudinal and transverse fluctuations of the Polyakov loop, quantified by the corresponding susceptibilities. Read More

We compute the probability distribution $P(N)$ of the net-baryon number at finite temperature and quark-chemical potential, $\mu$, at a physical value of the pion mass in the quark-meson model within the functional renormalization group scheme. For $\mu/T<1$, the model exhibits the chiral crossover transition which belongs to the universality class of the $O(4)$ spin system in three dimensions. We explore the influence of the chiral crossover transition on the properties of the net baryon number probability distribution, $P(N)$. Read More

Motivated by the recent high-precision lattice data on Yang-Mills equations of state, we propose an effective theory of SU(3) gluonic matter. The theory is constructed based on the center and scale symmetries and their dynamical breaking, so that the interplay between color-electric and color-magnetic gluons is included coherently. We suggest, that the magnetic gluon condensate changes its thermal behavior qualitatively above the critical temperature, as a consequence of the matching to dimensionally-reduced magnetic theories. Read More

We calculate the Polyakov loop susceptibilities in the SU(3) lattice gauge theory using the Symanzik improved gauge action on different-sized lattices. The longitudinal and transverse fluctu- ations of the Polyakov loop, as well as, that of its absolute value are considered. We analyze their properties in relation to the confinement-deconfinement phase transition. Read More

The susceptibilities of the real and imaginary parts, as well as of the modulus of the Polyakov loop, are computed in SU(3) lattice gauge theory. We show that the ratios of these susceptibilities are excellent probes of the deconfinement transition, independent of the renormalization of the Polyakov loop and only weakly dependent on the system size. The ratios are almost temperature independent above and below the transition and exhibit a discontinuity at the transition temperature. Read More

We derive the Polyakov-loop thermodynamic potential in the perturbative approach to pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. The potential expressed in terms of the Polyakov loop in the fundamental representation corresponds to that of the strong-coupling expansion, of which the relevant coefficients of the gluon energy distribution are specified by characters of the SU(3) group. At high temperature, the potential exhibits the correct asymptotic behavior, whereas at low temperature, it disfavors gluons as appropriate dynamical degrees of freedom. Read More

We investigate properties of the probability distribution of the net quark number near the chiral crossover transition in the quark-meson model. The calculations are performed within the functional renormalization group approach, as well as in the mean-field approximation. We find, that there is a substantial influence of the underlying chiral phase transition on the properties of the probability distribution. Read More

We discuss properties of the net baryon number probability distribution near the chiral phase transition to explore the effect of critical fluctuations. Our studies are performed within Landau theory, where the coefficients of the polynomial potential are parametrized, so as to reproduce the mean-field (MF), the $Z(2)$ and $O(4)$ scaling behaviors of the cumulants of the net baryon number. We show, that in the critical region, the structure of the probability distribution changes, dependently on values of the critical exponents. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}University of Wrocaw and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI/GSI

We argue that by measuring higher moments of the net proton number fluctuations in heavy ion collisions (HIC) one can probe the QCD chiral cross over transition experimentally. We discuss the properties of fluctuations of the net baryon number in the vicinity of the chiral crossover transition within the Polyakov loop extended quark-meson model at finite temperature and baryon density. The calculation includes non-perturbative dynamics implemented within the functional renormalization group approach. Read More

We derive the partition function for the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory in the presence of a uniform gluon field within the background field method. We show, that the $n$-body gluon contributions in the partition function are characterized solely by the Polyakov loop. We express the effective action through characters of different representations of the color gauge group resulting in a form deduced in the strong-coupling expansion. Read More

The phase structure of Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model is explored at imaginary chemical potential, with particular emphasis on the deconfinement transition. We point out that the statistical confinement nature of the model naturally leads to characteristic dependence of the chiral condensate $<\bar{q}q>$ on $\theta=\mu_I/T$. We introduce a dual parameter for the deconfinement transition by making use of this dependence. Read More

We explore the thermodynamics and phase structure of the Polyakov loop-extended two flavor chiral quark--meson (PQM) model beyond the mean-field approximation at imaginary chemical potential. Our approach is based on the functional renormalization group (FRG) method. At finite temperature and imaginary chemical potential, we solve the renormalization group flow equation for a scale-dependent thermodynamic potential in the presence of the gluonic background field. Read More

The phase structure of the two-flavor Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lashinio model is explored at finite temperature and imaginary chemical potential with a particular emphasis on the confinement-deconfinement transition. We point out that the confined phase is characterized by a $\cos3\mu_I/T$ dependence of the chiral condensate on the imaginary chemical potential while in the deconfined phase this dependence is given by $\cos\mu_I/T$ and accompanied by a cusp structure induced by the Z(3) transition. We demonstrate that the phase structure of the model strongly depends on the choice of the Polyakov loop potential $\mathcal{U}$. Read More

We discuss the role of cumulants of net baryon number fluctuations in the analysis of critical behavior in QCD and the study of freeze-out conditions in heavy ion experiments. Through the comparison of the current set of measurements of higher order cumulants of net baryon number fluctuations with lattice QCD calculations and results from hadron resonance gas model we can learn to what extent freeze-out as, determined by such cumulants, occurs close to the QCD transition temperature and thus can probe critical behavior at small values of the baryon chemical potential. Understanding how the relation between freeze-out conditions and the QCD crossover transition is reflected in properties of the experimentally determined cumulants is an important prerequisite to search for the QCD critical point. Read More

We calculate the first four moments of baryon number, electric charge and strangeness fluctuations within the hadron resonance gas model. Different moments and their ratios as well as skewness and kurtosis are evaluated on the phenomenologically determined freeze-out curve in the temperature, baryon chemical potential plane. The model results and its predictions as well as relations between different moments are compared with the first data on net proton fluctuations in Au-Au collisions obtained at RHIC by the STAR Collaboration. Read More

The Statistical Model has to be formulated in the canonical ensemble with respect to strangeness conservation if the number of strange particles becomes small. However, the canonical suppression under the assumption of strangeness chemical equilibrium in the whole fireball volume was found to be not sufficient to reproduce observed yields. Two approaches have been proposed to modify the model. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Wroclaw U., Bielefeld U.

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We compare the statistical thermodynamics of hadron resonance gas with recent LGT results at finite chemical potential. We argue that for $T\leq T_c$ the equation of state derived from Monte--Carlo simulations of two quark--flavor QCD at finite chemical potential is consistent with that of a hadron resonance gas when applying the same set of approximations as used in LGT calculations. We indicate the relation of chemical freezeout conditions obtained from a detailed analysis of particle production in heavy ion collisions with the critical conditions required for deconfinement. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Univ. Paris 7,

^{2}GSI, Darmstadt,

^{3}Univ. Wroclaw

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

Strangeness enhancement (SE) in heavy ion collisions can be understood in the statistical model on the basis of canonical suppression. In this formulation,SE is a consequence of the transition from canonical to the asymptotic grand canonical limit and is predicted to be a decreasing function of collision energy. This model predictions are consistent with the recent NA49 data on $\Lambda$ enhancement at $p_{lab}=40, 80, 158$ GeV. Read More

We derive the kinetic equation for pure gluon QCD plasma in a general way, applying the background field method. We show that the quantum kinetic equation contains a term as in the classical case, that describes a color charge precession of partons moving in the gauge field. We emphasize that this new term is necessary for the gauge covariance of the resulting equation. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Univ. Paris 7,

^{2}Univ. Wroclaw

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We demonstrate the essential role of canonical suppression in strangeness enhancement. The pattern of enhancement of strange and multistrange baryons observed by the WA97 collaboration can be understood on this basis. Besides, it is shown that in canonical approach strangeness enhancement is a decreasing function of collision energy. Read More

Strangeness production in heavy ion collisions is discussed in a broad energy range from SIS to RHIC. %We emphasize that in the In the whole energy range particle yields are showing high level of chemical equilibration which can be described by the unified freezeout conditions of fixed energy/particle $\simeq 1$GeV. The statistical model within the canonical formulation of strangeness conservation provides a framework to describe the observed enhancement of (multi)strange particles from p+A to A+A collisions measured at the SPS energy and predicts that this enhancement should be larger for decreasing collision energy. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Univ. Paris 7,

^{2}Univ. Wroclaw,

^{3}Univ. Paris 7

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We consider the production of strange particles in Pb-Pb and p-A collisions at the SPS energy reported by the WA97 experiment. We show that the observed enhancement of strange baryon and antibaryon yields in Pb-Pb collisions relative to p-Be and p-Pb can be explained in terms of the statistical model formulated in canonical ensemble with respect to strangeness conservation. The importance and the role of strangeness under saturation is also discussed. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}University of Cape Town, South Africa,

^{2}Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany,

^{3}Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta, India

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

We study the radiation of thermal photons and dileptons likely to be produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We find that the thermal photon multiplicity scales with the charged pion multiplicity as $dN_{ch}/dy)^\alpha$ with $\alpha\sim 1.2$ for a transversely expanding system, contrary to the general belief of a quadratic dependence. Read More