Kristin K. Madsen - Space Radiation Lab., California Institute of Technology

Kristin K. Madsen
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Name
Kristin K. Madsen
Affiliation
Space Radiation Lab., California Institute of Technology
City
Pasadena
Country
United States

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (38)
 
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (10)
 
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (5)
 
Astrophysics of Galaxies (3)
 
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)

Publications Authored By Kristin K. Madsen

Understanding the origin of the flaring activity from the Galactic center supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, is a major scientific goal of the NuSTAR Galactic plane survey campaign. We report on the data obtained between July 2012 and April 2015, including 27 observations on Sgr A* with a total exposure of ~ 1 Ms. We found a total of ten X-ray flares detected in the NuSTAR observation window, with luminosities in the range of $L_{3-79~keV}$~$(0. Read More

We present results from a NuSTAR observation of the Crab made at a large off-axis angle of 1.5\degree. At these angles X-rays do not pass through the optics, but rather illuminate the detectors directly due to incomplete baffling. Read More

On behalf of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration (IACHEC), we present results from the cross-calibration campaigns in 2012 on 3C 273 and in 2013 on PKS 2155-304 between the then active X-ray observatories Chandra, NuSTAR, Suzaku, Swift and XMM-Newton. We compare measured fluxes between instrument pairs in two energy bands, 1-5 keV and 3-7 keV and calculate an average cross-normalization constant for each energy range. We review known cross-calibration features and provide a series of tables and figures to be used for evaluating cross-normalization constants obtained from other observations with the above mentioned observatories. Read More

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is the first focusing high energy (3-79 keV) X-ray observatory operating for four years from low Earth orbit. The X-ray detector arrays are located on the spacecraft bus with the optics modules mounted on a flexible mast of 10.14m length. Read More

M82 X-1 is one of the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) known, which, assuming Eddington-limited accretion and other considerations, makes it one of the best intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) candidates. However, the ULX may still be explained by super-Eddington accretion onto a stellar-remnant black hole. We present simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra and Swift/XRT observations during the peak of a flaring episode with the aim of modeling the emission of M82 X-1 and yielding insights into its nature. Read More

We present results from the the first campaign of dedicated solar observations undertaken by the \textit{Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray} ({\em NuSTAR}) hard X-ray telescope. Designed as an astrophysics mission, {\em NuSTAR} nonetheless has the capability of directly imaging the Sun at hard X-ray energies ($>$3~keV) with an increase in sensitivity of at least two magnitude compared to current non-focusing telescopes. In this paper we describe the scientific areas where \textit{NuSTAR} will make major improvements on existing solar measurements. Read More

The compact X-ray source in the eclipsing X-ray binary IC 10 X-1 has reigned for years as ostensibly the most massive stellar-mass black hole, with a mass estimated to be about twice that of its closest rival. However, striking results presented recently by Laycock et al. reveal that the mass estimate, based on emission-line velocities, is unreliable and that the mass of the X-ray source is essentially unconstrained. Read More

2015Oct
Affiliations: 1Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 3California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 4Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 5Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 6Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 7Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 8Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 9Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 10Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, 11California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 12California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 13Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 14Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 15Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 16Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 17Georgia College, Department of Chemistry, Physics, and Astronomy, 18Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 19Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 20North-West University, Centre for Space Research, 21Technical University of Denmark, DTU Space, National Space Institute, 22Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 23Washington University in Saint Louis, Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, 24University of Virginia, Department of Astronomy, 25MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics Garching, 26Durham University, Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, 27Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 28North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, 29Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 30Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, UK, 31Penn State University, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 32Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 33University of California, Berkeley, Department of Physics, 34ASI Science Data Center, Italy, 35California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 36Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, UK, 37Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 38Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 39Texas Tech University, Physics Department, 40Nagoya University, Center for Experimental Studies, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, 41University of Maryland, Physics Department, 42RIKEN, 43Univ. of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Astronomy Dept, 44Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 45Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, 46Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 47Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 48Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 49Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 50NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 51Tohoku University, Astronomical Institute, 52NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

This paper describes the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR), a mission proposed to NASA's 2014 Small Explorer (SMEX) announcement of opportunity. PolSTAR measures the linear polarization of 3-50 keV (requirement; goal: 2.5-70 keV) X-rays probing the behavior of matter, radiation and the very fabric of spacetime under the extreme conditions close to the event horizons of black holes, as well as in and around magnetars and neutron stars. Read More

We report on Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of the young rotation-powered radio pulsar PSR B1509$-$58 in the supernova remnant MSH 15$-$52. We confirm the previously reported curvature in the hard X-ray spectrum, showing that a log parabolic model provides a statistically superior fit to the spectrum compared with the standard power law. The log parabolic model describes the NuSTAR data, as well as previously published gamma-ray data obtained with COMPTEL and AGILE, all together spanning 3 keV through 500 MeV. Read More

We present results from multi-wavelength simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg in quiescence. Our coverage with NuSTAR provides the very first opportunity to study the X-ray spectrum of V404 Cyg at energies above 10 keV. The unabsorbed broad-band (0. Read More

We present NuSTAR observations of the powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A, focusing on the central absorbed active galactic nucleus (AGN). Cygnus A is embedded in a cool-core galaxy cluster, and hence we also examine archival XMM-Newton data to facilitate the decomposition of the spectrum into the AGN and intracluster medium (ICM) components. NuSTAR gives a source-dominated spectrum of the AGN out to >70keV. Read More

We present results from a 244\,ks \textit{NuSTAR} observation of 3C\,273 obtained during a cross-calibration campaign with the \textit{Chandra}, \textit{INTEGRAL}, \textit{Suzaku}, \textit{Swift}, and \textit{XMM-Newton} observatories. We show that the spectrum, when fit with a power-law model using data from all observatories except \textit{INTEGRAL} over the 1--78\,keV band, leaves significant residuals in the \textit{NuSTAR} data between 30--78\,keV. The \nustar\ 3--78\,keV spectrum is well-described by an exponentially cutoff power-law ($\Gamma = 1. Read More

We report results from deep observations (~750 ks) of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) with NuSTAR. Using these data, we produce narrow-band images over several energy bands to identify the regions producing the hardest X-rays and to search for radioactive decay line emission from 44Ti. We find that the hardest (>10 keV) X-rays are concentrated in the southwest of Tycho, where recent Chandra observations have revealed high emissivity "stripes" associated with particles accelerated to the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum. Read More

We present the calibration of the \textit{Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array} (\nustar) X-ray satellite. We used the Crab as the primary effective area calibrator and constructed a piece-wise linear spline function to modify the vignetting response. The achieved residuals for all off-axis angles and energies, compared to the assumed spectrum, are typically better than $\pm 2$\% up to 40\,keV and 5--10\,\% above due to limited counting statistics. Read More

We present broadband (3 -- 78 keV) NuSTAR X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the Crab nebula and pulsar. We show that while the phase-averaged and spatially integrated nebula + pulsar spectrum is a power-law in this energy band, spatially resolved spectroscopy of the nebula finds a break at $\sim$9 keV in the spectral photon index of the torus structure with a steepening characterized by $\Delta\Gamma\sim0.25$. Read More

We present deep ($>$2.4 Ms) observations of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant with {\it NuSTAR}, which operates in the 3--79 keV bandpass and is the first instrument capable of spatially resolving the remnant above 15 keV. We find that the emission is not entirely dominated by the forward shock nor by a smooth "bright ring" at the reverse shock. Read More

2014Dec
Affiliations: 1Pennsylvania University, 2INAF - IASF Milano, 3MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 4European Space Astronomy Centre of ESA, 5Space Radiation Lab., California Institute of Technology, 6MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 7University of Tartu, 8Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics, 9Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester

We present the main results of the 9th meeting of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration (IACHEC), held in Warrenton (Virginia) in May 2014. Over 50 scientists directly involved in the calibration of operational and future high-energy missions gathered during 3.5 days to discuss the status of the X-ray payloads inter-calibration, as well as possible ways to improve it. Read More

2014Aug
Affiliations: 1Physics Division, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA, 2Physics Department and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA, 3Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 4Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 5Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 6Physics Department and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA, 7Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA, 8DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 9Physics Division, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA, 10Physics Department and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA, 11Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA, 12Physics Department and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA, 13Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA, 14Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA, 15Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA, 16Physics Division, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA, 17Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA, 18Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA

We report on new broad band spectral and temporal observations of the magnetar 1E 2259+586, which is located in the supernova remnant CTB 109. Our data were obtained simultaneously with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift, and cover the energy range from 0.5-79 keV. Read More

We present the first images of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 15-52 in the hard X-ray band (>8 keV), as measured with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Overall, the morphology of the PWN as measured by NuSTAR in the 3-7 keV band is similar to that seen in Chandra high-resolution imaging. However, the spatial extent decreases with energy, which we attribute to synchrotron energy losses as the particles move away from the shock. Read More

2014Jul
Affiliations: 1Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, India, 2INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, 3Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 4Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, INAF-IAPS, 5Physics Department and Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 6Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, 7Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 8Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 9DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 10Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 11Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, 12Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 13Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, 14Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 15Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, 16Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, 17Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 18USRA, NSSTC, 19NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

We present NuSTAR spectral and timing studies of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) IGR J17544-2619. The spectrum is well-described by a ~1 keV blackbody and a hard continuum component, as expected from an accreting X-ray pulsar. We detect a cyclotron line at 17 keV, confirming that the compact object in IGR J17544-2619 is indeed a neutron star. Read More

We present results of the point spread function (PSF) calibration of the hard X-ray optics of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Immediately post-launch, NuSTAR has observed bright point sources such as Cyg X-1, Vela X-1, and Her X-1 for the PSF calibration. We use the point source observations taken at several off-axis angles together with a ray-trace model to characterize the in-orbit angular response, and find that the ray-trace model alone does not fit the observed event distributions and applying empirical corrections to the ray-trace model improves the fit significantly. Read More

The search for diffuse non-thermal inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been undertaken with many instruments, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. Background and contamination uncertainties present in the data of non-focusing observatories result in lower sensitivity to IC emission and a greater chance of false detection. We present 266ks NuSTAR observations of the Bullet cluster, detected from 3-30 keV. Read More

Sagittarius A* harbors the supermassive black hole that lies at the dynamical center of our Galaxy. Sagittarius A* spends most of its time in a low luminosity emission state but flares frequently in the infrared and X-ray, increasing up to a few hundred fold in brightness for up to a few hours at a time. The physical processes giving rise to the X-ray flares are uncertain. Read More

We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift-XRT, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power-law is required at $>4\sigma$ significance, and its spectral shape varies between two observation epochs at $2\times10^5$ and $10^6$ seconds after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. Read More

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is the first focusing hard X-ray mission in orbit and operates in the 3-79 keV range. NuSTAR's sensitivity is roughly two orders of magnitude better than previous missions in this energy band thanks to its superb angular resolution. Since its launch in 2012 June, NuSTAR has performed excellently and observed many interesting sources including four magnetars, two rotation-powered pulsars and the cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii. Read More

We present results for two Ultraluminous X-ray Sources (ULXs), IC 342 X-1 and IC 342 X-2, using two epochs of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations separated by $\sim$7 days. We observe little spectral or flux variability above 1 keV between epochs, with unabsorbed 0.3--30 keV luminosities being $1. Read More

2013Nov
Affiliations: 1SRL, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, 2UMBC, Baltimore, MD, 3Remeis-Observatory & ECAP, Bamberg, Germany, 4SSL, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 5Universite de Toulouse, Toulouse, France, 6SSL, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 7DTU Space, Lyngby, Denmark, 8SSL, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 9SRL, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, 10, Columbia Astrophysics Lab, New York, NY, 11SRL, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, 12SRL, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, 13U Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 14JPL, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, 15SRL, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, 16NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD

We present NuSTAR observations of Vela X-1, a persistent, yet highly variable, neutron star high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB). Two observations were taken at similar orbital phases but separated by nearly a year. They show very different 3-79 keV flux levels as well as strong variability during each observation, covering almost one order of magnitude in flux. Read More

We report new spectral and temporal observations of the magnetar 1E 1841-045 in the Kes 73 supernova remnant obtained with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Combined with new Swift and archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations, the phase-averaged spectrum is well characterized by a blackbody plus double power-law model, in agreement with previous, multi-mission X-ray results. However, we are unable to reproduce the spectral results reported using Suzaku observations. Read More

2013Oct
Affiliations: 1SSL/UCB, 2MIT, 3Cambridge, 4Univ. of Michigan, 5Cambridge, 6Caltech, 7Univ. of Toulouse and CNRS, 8Univ. of Toulouse and CNRS, 9SSL/UCB, 10DTU Space, 11SSL/UCB and LLNL, 12Caltech, 13Caltech, 14Caltech, 15Columbia, 16Univ. of Michigan, 17Caltech, 18INAF-IAPS, 19CRESST, NASA/GSFC, and Univ. of Maryland, 20Holy Cross, 21JPL, 22Caltech, 23Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Center for Astroparticle Physics, 24NASA/GSFC

The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late-2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ~1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power-law, and reflection components along with absorption from highly ionized material in the system. The high throughput of NuSTAR allows for a very high quality measurement of the complex iron line region as well as the rest of the reflection component. Read More

We present the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULX) NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2. The combined spectral bandpass of the two satellites enables us to produce the first spectrum of X-1 between 0.3 and 30 keV, while X-2 is not significantly detected by NuSTAR above 10 keV. Read More

2013Sep
Affiliations: 1Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 3Institut fuerr Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaat Tuebingen, 4Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 5Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, 6Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, 7Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 8Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 9DTU Space, National Space InstituteLynby, Denmark, 10DTU Space, National Space InstituteLynby, Denmark, 11Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 12Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 13Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 14Institut fuerr Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaat Tuebingen, 15Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 16CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 17Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 18Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 19Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte, 20Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County

Her X-1, one of the brightest and best studied X-ray binaries, shows a cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) near 37 keV. This makes it an ideal target for detailed study with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), taking advantage of its excellent hard X-ray spectral resolution. We observed Her X-1 three times, coordinated with Suzaku, during one of the high flux intervals of its 35d super-orbital period. Read More

The NuSTAR hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834-430 during its 2012 outburst - the first active state of this system observed in the past 19 years. We performed timing and spectral analysis, and measured the X-ray spectrum between 3-79keV with high statistical significance. We find the phase-averaged spectrum to be consistent with that observed in many other magnetized accreting pulsars. Read More

2013Jan

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission, launched on 13 June 2012, is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 -- 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the ~10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X-ray satellites. The inherently low-background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than one-hundred-fold improvement in sensitivity over the collimated or coded-mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. Read More

The capability of NuSTAR to detect polarization in the Compton scattering regime (>50 keV) has been investigated. The NuSTAR mission, flown on June 2012 a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), provides a unique possibility to confirm the findings of INTEGRAL on the polarization of cosmic sources in the hard X-rays. Each of the two focal plane detectors are high resolution pixellated CZT arrays, sensitive in the energy range ~ 3 - 80 keV. Read More

Merger-remnant galaxies with kpc-scale separation dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) should be widespread as a consequence of galaxy mergers and triggered gas accretion onto supermassive black holes, yet very few dual AGNs have been observed. Galaxies with double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are plausible dual AGN candidates, but their double-peaked profiles could also be the result of gas kinematics or AGN-driven outflows and jets on small or large scales. To help distinguish between these scenarios, we have obtained spatial profiles of the AGN emission via follow-up long-slit spectroscopy of 81 double-peaked narrow-line AGNs in SDSS at 0. Read More

The X-ray source CXOXBJ142607.6+353351 (CXOJ1426+35), which was identified in a 172 ks Chandra image in the Bootes field, shows double-peaked rest-frame optical/UV emission lines, separated by 0.69" (5. Read More

2011Jun

We report two new low metallicity blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), WISEP J080103.93+264053.9 (hereafter W0801+26) and WISEP J170233. Read More

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing hard X-ray (5 -- 80 keV) telescope to orbit. NuSTAR will offer a factor 50 -- 100 sensitivity improvement compared to previous collimated or coded mask imagers that have operated in this energy band. In addition, NuSTAR provides sub-arcminute imaging with good spectral resolution over a 12-arcminute field of view. Read More