Kristian Seip

Kristian Seip
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Mathematics - Functional Analysis (24)
 
Mathematics - Complex Variables (24)
 
Mathematics - Number Theory (12)
 
Mathematics - Classical Analysis and ODEs (9)
 
Physics - Optics (2)
 
Mathematics - Probability (2)
 
Physics - General Physics (1)
 
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (1)
 
Mathematical Physics (1)
 
Mathematics - Spectral Theory (1)

Publications Authored By Kristian Seip

We combine our version of the resonance method with certain convolution formulas for $\zeta(s)$ and $\log\, \zeta(s)$. This leads to a new $\Omega$ result for $|\zeta(1/2+it)|$: The maximum of $|\zeta(1/2+it)|$ on the interval $1 \le t \le T$ is at least $\exp\left((1+o(1)) \sqrt{\log T \log\log\log T/\log\log T}\right)$. We also obtain conditional results for $S(t):=1/\pi$ times the argument of $\zeta(1/2+it)$ and $S_1(t):=\int_0^t S(\tau)d\tau$. Read More

We improve Montgomery's $\Omega$-results for $|\zeta(\sigma+it)|$ in the strip $1/2<\sigma<1$ and give in particular lower bounds for the maximum of $|\zeta(\sigma+it)|$ on $\sqrt{T}\le t \le T$ that are uniform in $\sigma$. We give similar lower bounds for the maximum of $|\sum_{n\le x} n^{-1/2-it}|$ on intervals of length much larger than $x$. We rely on our recent work on lower bounds for maxima of $|\zeta(1/2+it)|$ on long intervals, as well as work of Soundararajan, G\'{a}l, and others. Read More

For a Dirichlet series symbol $g(s) = \sum_{n \geq 1} b_n n^{-s}$, the associated Volterra operator $\mathbf{T}_g$ acting on a Dirichlet series $f(s)=\sum_{n\ge 1} a_n n^{-s}$ is defined by the integral $f\mapsto -\int_{s}^{+\infty} f(w)g'(w)\,dw$. We show that $\mathbf{T}_g$ is a bounded operator on the Hardy space $\mathcal{H}^p$ of Dirichlet series with $0 < p < \infty$ if and only if the symbol $g$ satisfies a Carleson measure condition. When appropriately restricted to one complex variable, our condition coincides with the standard Carleson measure characterization of ${\operatorname{BMOA}}(\mathbb{D})$. Read More

We present some open problems and describe briefly some possible research directions in the emerging theory of Hardy spaces of Dirichlet series and their intimate counterparts, Hardy spaces on the infinite-dimensional torus. Links to number theory are emphasized throughout the paper. Read More

We prove that \[ \sum_{k,{\ell}=1}^N\frac{(n_k,n_{\ell})^{2\alpha}}{(n_k n_{\ell})^{\alpha}} \ll N^{2-2\alpha} (\log N)^{b(\alpha)} \] holds for arbitrary integers $1\le n_1<\cdots < n_N$ and $0<\alpha<1/2$ and show by an example that this bound is optimal, up to the precise value of the exponent $b(\alpha)$. This estimate complements recent results for $1/2\le \alpha \le 1$ and shows that there is no "trace" of the functional equation for the Riemann zeta function in estimates for such GCD sums when $0<\alpha<1/2$. Read More

It is shown that the maximum of $|\zeta(1/2+it)|$ on the interval $T^{1/2}\le t \le T$ is at least $\exp\left((1/\sqrt{2}+o(1)) \sqrt{\log T \log\log\log T/\log\log T}\right)$. Our proof uses Soundararajan's resonance method and a certain large GCD sum. The method of proof shows that the absolute constant $A$ in the inequality \[ \sup_{1\le n_1<\cdots < n_N} \sum_{k,{\ell}=1}^N\frac{\gcd(n_k,n_{\ell})}{\sqrt{n_k n_{\ell}}} \ll N \exp\left(A\sqrt{\frac{\log N \log\log\log N}{\log\log N}}\right), \] established in a recent paper of ours, cannot be taken smaller than $1$. Read More

It is observed that the infinite matrix with entries $(\sqrt{mn}\log (mn))^{-1}$ for $m, n\ge 2$ appears as the matrix of the integral operator $\mathbf{H}f(s):=\int_{1/2}^{+\infty}f(w)(\zeta(w+s)-1)dw$ with respect to the basis $(n^{-s})_{n\ge 2}$; here $\zeta(s)$ is the Riemann zeta function and $H$ is defined on the Hilbert space ${\mathcal H}^2_0$ of Dirichlet series vanishing at $+\infty$ and with square-summable coefficients. This infinite matrix defines a multiplicative Hankel operator according to Helson's terminology or, alternatively, it can be viewed as a bona fide (small) Hankel operator on the infinite-dimensional torus ${\Bbb T}^{\infty}$. By analogy with the standard integral representation of the classical Hilbert matrix, this matrix is referred to as the multiplicative Hilbert matrix. Read More

We consider the random functions $S_N(z):=\sum_{n=1}^N z(n) $, where $z(n)$ is the completely multiplicative random function generated by independent Steinhaus variables $z(p)$. It is shown that ${\Bbb E} |S_N|\gg \sqrt{N}(\log N)^{-0.05616}$ and that $({\Bbb E} |S_N|^q)^{1/q}\gg_{q} \sqrt{N}(\log N)^{-0. Read More

We establish a connection between the $L^2$ norm of sums of dilated functions whose $j$th Fourier coefficients are $\mathcal{O}(j^{-\alpha})$ for some $\alpha \in (1/2,1)$, and the spectral norms of certain greatest common divisor (GCD) matrices. Utilizing recent bounds for these spectral norms, we obtain sharp conditions for the convergence in $L^2$ and for the almost everywhere convergence of series of dilated functions. Read More

By a theorem of Bayart, $\varphi$ generates a bounded composition operator on the Hardy space $\Hp$of Dirichlet series ($1\le p<\infty$) only if $\varphi(s)=c_0 s+\psi(s)$, where $c_0$ is a nonnegative integer and $\psi$ a Dirichlet series with the following mapping properties: $\psi$ maps the right half-plane into the half-plane $\Real s >1/2$ if $c_0=0$ and is either identically zero or maps the right half-plane into itself if $c_0$ is positive. It is shown that the $n$th approximation numbers of bounded composition operators on $\Hp$ are bounded below by a constant times $r^n$ for some $00$ when $c_0$ is positive. Both results are best possible. Read More

The $L^q$ norm of a Dirichlet polynomial $F(s)=\sum_{n=1}^{N} a_n n^{-s}$ is defined as \[\| F\|_q:=(\lim_{T\to\infty}\frac{1}{T}\int_{0}^T |F(it)|^qdt)^{1/q}\] for $0Read More

It is proved that \[ \sum_{k,{\ell}=1}^N\frac{\gcd(n_k,n_{\ell})}{\sqrt{n_k n_{\ell}}} \ll N\exp\left(C\sqrt{\frac{\log N \log\log\log N}{\log\log N}}\right) \] holds for arbitrary integers $1\le n_1<\cdots < n_N$. This bound is essentially better than that found in a recent paper of Aistleitner, Berkes, and Seip and can not be improved by more than possibly a power of $1/\sqrt{\log\log\log N}$. The proof relies on ideas from classical work of G\'{a}l, the method of Aistleitner, Berkes, and Seip, and a certain completeness property of extremal sets of square-free numbers. Read More

A general method for estimating the approximation numbers of composition operators on $\Ht$, using finite-dimensional model subspaces, is studied and applied in the case when the symbol of the operator maps the unit disc to a domain whose boundary meets the unit circle at just one point. The exact rate of decay of the approximation numbers is identified when this map is sufficiently smooth at the point of tangency; it follows that a composition operator with any prescribed slow decay of its approximation numbers can be explicitly constructed. Similarly, an asymptotic expression for the approximation numbers is found when the mapping has a sharp cusp at the distinguished boundary point. Read More

By a theorem of Gordon and Hedenmalm, $\varphi$ generates a bounded composition operator on the Hilbert space $\mathscr{H}^2$ of Dirichlet series $\sum_n b_n n^{-s}$ with square-summable coefficients $b_n$ if and only if $\varphi(s)=c_0 s+\psi(s)$, where $c_0$ is a nonnegative integer and $\psi$ a Dirichlet series with the following mapping properties: $\psi$ maps the right half-plane into the half-plane $\operatorname{Re} s >1/2$ if $c_0=0$ and is either identically zero or maps the right half-plane into itself if $c_0$ is positive. It is shown that the $n$th approximation numbers of bounded composition operators on $\mathscr{H}^2$ are bounded below by a constant times $r^n$ for some $00$ when $c_0$ is positive. Both results are best possible. Read More

Upper bounds for GCD sums of the form [\sum_{k,{\ell}=1}^N\frac{(\gcd(n_k,n_{\ell}))^{2\alpha}}{(n_k n_{\ell})^\alpha}] are proved, where $(n_k)_{1 \leq k \leq N}$ is any sequence of distinct positive integers and $0<\alpha \le 1$; the estimate for $\alpha=1/2$ solves in particular a problem of Dyer and Harman from 1986, and the estimates are optimal except possibly for $\alpha=1/2$. The method of proof is based on identifying the sum as a certain Poisson integral on a polydisc; as a byproduct, estimates for the largest eigenvalues of the associated GCD matrices are also found. The bounds for such GCD sums are used to establish a Carleson--Hunt-type inequality for systems of dilated functions of bounded variation or belonging to $\lip12$, a result that in turn settles two longstanding problems on the a. Read More

The Dirichlet--Hardy space $\Ht$ consists of those Dirichlet series $\sum_n a_n n^{-s}$ for which $\sum_n |a_n|^2<\infty$. It is shown that the Blaschke condition in the half-plane $\operatorname{Re} s>1/2$ is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a nontrivial function $f$ in $\Ht$ vanishing on a given bounded sequence. The proof implies in fact a stronger result: every function in the Hardy space $H^2$ of the half-plane $\operatorname{Re} s>1/2$ can be interpolated by a function in $\Ht$ on such a Blaschke sequence. Read More

By theorems of Ferguson and Lacey (d=2) and Lacey and Terwilleger (d>2), Nehari's theorem is known to hold on the polydisc D^d for d>1, i.e., if H_\psi is a bounded Hankel form on H^2(D^d) with analytic symbol \psi, then there is a function \phi in L^\infty(\T^d) such that \psi is the Riesz projection of \phi. Read More

Carleson measures and interpolating and sampling sequences for weighted Bergman spaces on the unit disk are described for weights that are radial and grow faster than the standard weights $(1-|z|)^{-\alpha}$, $0<\alpha<1$. These results make the Hardy space $H^2$ appear naturally as a "degenerate" endpoint case for the class of Bergman spaces under study. Read More

Carleson's corona theorem is used to obtain two results on cyclicity of singular inner functions in weighted Bergman-type spaces on the unit disk. Our method proof requires no regularity conditions on the weights. Read More

Hankel operators with anti-holomorphic symbols are studied for a large class of weighted Fock spaces on $\cn$. The weights defining these Hilbert spaces are radial and subject to a mild smoothness condition. In addition, it is assumed that the weights decay at least as fast as the classical Gaussian weight. Read More

The norm of the Riesz projection from $L^\infty(\T^n)$ to $L^p(\T^n)$ is considered. It is shown that for $n=1$, the norm equals $1$ if and only if $p\le 4$ and that the norm behaves asymptotically as $p/(\pi e)$ when $p\to \infty$. The critical exponent $p_n$ is the supremum of those $p$ for which the norm equals $1$. Read More

Weighted discrete Hilbert transforms $(a_n)_n \mapsto \sum_n a_n v_n/(z-\gamma_n)$ from $\ell^2_v$ to a weighted $L^2$ space are studied, with $\Gamma=(\gamma_n)$ a sequence of distinct points in the complex plane and $v=(v_n)$ a corresponding sequence of positive numbers. In the special case when $|\gamma_n|$ grows at least exponentially, bounded transforms of this kind are described in terms of a simple relative to the Muckenhoupt $(A_2)$ condition. The special case when $z$ is restricted to another sequence $\Lambda$ is studied in detail; it is shown that a bounded transform satisfying a certain admissibility condition can be split into finitely many surjective transforms, and precise geometric conditions are found for invertibility of such two weight transforms. Read More

Weighted discrete Hilbert transforms $(a_n)_n \mapsto \big(\sum_n a_n v_n/(\lambda_j-\gamma_n)\big)_j$ from $\ell^2_v$ to $\ell^2_w$ are considered, where $\Gamma=(\gamma_n)$ and $\Lambda=(\lambda_j)$ are disjoint sequences of points in the complex plane and $v=(v_n)$ and $w=(w_j)$ are positive weight sequences. It is shown that if such a Hilbert transform is unitary, then $\Gamma\cup\Lambda$ is a subset of a circle or a straight line, and a description of all unitary discrete Hilbert transforms is then given. A characterization of the orthogonal bases of reproducing kernels introduced by L. Read More

The Bohnenblust--Hille inequality says that the $\ell^{\frac{2m}{m+1}}$-norm of the coefficients of an $m$-homogeneous polynomial $P$ on $\C^n$ is bounded by $\| P\|_\infty$ times a constant independent of $n$, where $\|\cdot \|_\infty$ denotes the supremum norm on the polydisc $\D^n$. The main result of this paper is that this inequality is hypercontractive, i.e. Read More

The Sidon constant for the index set of nonzero m-homogeneous polynomials P in n complex variables is the supremum of the ratio between the l^1 norm of the coefficients of P and the supremum norm of P in D^n. We present an estimate which gives the right order of magnitude for this constant, modulo a factor depending exponentially on m. We use this result to show that the Bohr radius for the polydisc D^n is bounded from below by a constant times sqrt((log n)/n). Read More

We present an example of a complete and minimal Gabor system consisting of time-frequency shifts of a Gaussian, localized at the coordinate axes in the time-frequency plane (phase space). Asymptotically, the number of time-frequency shifts contained in a disk centered at the origin is only 2/pi times the number of points from the von Neumann lattice found in the same disk. Requiring a certain regular distribution in phase space, we show that our system has minimal density among all complete and minimal systems of time-frequency shifts of a Gaussian. Read More

We study the boundary behavior of functions in the Hardy spaces HD^p for ordinary Dirichlet series. Our main result, answering a question of H. Hedenmalm, shows that the classical F. Read More

The resolution associated with the so-called perfect lens of thickness $d$ is $-2\pi d/\ln(|\chi+2|/2)$. Here the susceptibility $\chi$ is a Hermitian function in $H^2$ of the upper half-plane, i.e. Read More

We denote by $\Hp$ the Hilbert space of ordinary Dirichlet series with square-summable coefficients. The main result is that a bounded sequence of points in the half-plane $\sigma >1/2$ is an interpolating sequence for $\Hp$ if and only if it is an interpolating sequence for the Hardy space $H^2$ of the same half-plane. Similar local results are obtained for Hilbert spaces of ordinary Dirichlet series that relate to Bergman and Dirichlet spaces of the half-plane $\sigma >1/2$. Read More

The set of realizable refractive indices as a function of frequency is considered. For passive media we give bounds for the refractive index variation in a finite bandwidth. Special attention is given to the loss and index variation in the case of left-handed materials. Read More

We solve an extremal problem that arises in the study of the refractive indices of passive metamaterials. The problem concerns Hermitian functions in $H^2$ of the upper half-plane, i.e. Read More

We study two problems concerning harmonic measure on "champagne subdomains" of the unit disk. These domains are obtained by removing from the unit disk little disks around sequences of points with a uniform distribution with respect to the pseudohyperbolic metric of the unit disk. We find (I) a necessary and sufficient condition on the decay of the radii of the little disks for the exterior boundary to have positive harmonic measure, and (II) describe sampling and interpolating sequences for Bergman spaces in terms of the harmonic measure on such ``champagne subdomains''. Read More

We prove that a suitably adjusted version of Peter Jones' formula for interpolation by bounded holomorphic functions gives a sharp upper bound for what is known as the constant of interpolation. We show how this leads to precise and computable numerical bounds for this constant. Read More

We solve the problem of Duffin and Schaeffer (1952) of characterizing those sequences of real frequencies which generate Fourier frames. Equivalently, we characterize the sampling sequences for the Paley-Wiener space. The key step is to connect the problem with de Branges' theory of Hilbert spaces of entire functions. Read More

For a function $\varphi$ in $L^2(0,1)$, extended to the whole real line as an odd periodic function of period 2, we ask when the collection of dilates $\varphi(nx)$, $n=1,2,3,\ldots$, constitutes a Riesz basis or a complete sequence in $L^2(0,1)$. The problem translates into a question concerning multipliers and cyclic vectors in the Hilbert space $\cal H$ of Dirichlet series $f(s)=\sum_n a_nn^{-s}$, where the coefficients $a_n$ are square summable. It proves useful to model $\cal H$ as the $H^2$ space of the infinite-dimensional polydisk, or, which is the same, the $H^2$ space of the character space, where a character is a multiplicative homomorphism from the positive integers to the unit circle. Read More

We give a complete description of sampling and interpolation in the Bargmann-Fock space, based on a density concept of Beurling. Roughly speaking, a discrete set is a set of sampling if and only if its density in every part of the plane is strictly larger than that of the von Neumann lattice, and similarly, a discrete set is a set of interpolation if and only if its density in every part of the plane is strictly smaller than that of the von Neumann lattice. Read More