# Kostas Orginos - University of Arizona and RIKEN-BNL

## Contact Details

NameKostas Orginos |
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AffiliationUniversity of Arizona and RIKEN-BNL |
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Location |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Lattice (50) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (21) Nuclear Theory (19) High Energy Physics - Theory (2) Computer Science - Numerical Analysis (2) High Energy Physics - Experiment (1) Physics - Computational Physics (1) Mathematics - Numerical Analysis (1) Nuclear Experiment (1) |

## Publications Authored By Kostas Orginos

We report a calculation of the nucleon axial form factors $G_A^q(Q^2)$ and $G_P^q(Q^2)$ for all three light quark flavors $q\in\{u,d,s\}$ in the range $0\leq Q^2\lesssim 1.2\text{ GeV}^2$ using lattice QCD. This work was done using a single ensemble with pion mass 317 MeV and made use of the hierarchical probing technique to efficiently evaluate the required disconnected loops. Read More

A lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) calculation of the nuclear matrix element relevant to the $nn\to ppee\overline{\nu}_e\overline{\nu}_e$ transition is described in detail, expanding on the results presented in Ref. [1]. This matrix element, which involves two insertions of the weak axial current, is an important input for phenomenological determinations of double-$\beta$ decay rates of nuclei. Read More

We report on salient features of a mixed lattice QCD action using valence M\"{o}bius Domain-Wall fermions solved on the dynamical $N_f=2+1+1$ HISQ sea-quark ensembles generated by the MILC Collaboration. The approximate chiral symmetry properties of the valence fermions are shown to be significantly improved by utilizing the gradient-flow scheme to first smear the HISQ configurations. The greater numerical cost of the M\"{o}bius Domain-Wall inversions is mitigated by the highly efficient QUDA library optimized for NVIDIA GPU accelerated compute nodes. Read More

The potential importance of short-distance nuclear effects in double-$\beta$ decay is assessed using a lattice QCD calculation of the $nn\rightarrow pp$ transition and effective field theory methods. At the unphysical quark masses used in the numerical computation, these effects, encoded in the isotensor axial polarisability, are found to be of similar magnitude to the nuclear modification of the single axial current, which phenomenologically is the quenching of the axial charge used in nuclear many-body calculations. This finding suggests that nuclear models for neutrinoful and neutrinoless double-$\beta$ decays should incorporate this previously neglected contribution if they are to provide reliable guidance for next-generation neutrinoless double-$\beta$ decay searches. Read More

The Feynman-Hellmann Theorem can be derived from the long Euclidean-time limit of correlation functions determined with functional derivatives of the partition function. Using this insight, we develop an improved method for computing matrix elements of external currents utilizing only two-point correlation functions. Our method applies to matrix elements of any external bi-linear current, including non-zero momentum transfer, flavor-changing, and two-current insertion matrix elements. Read More

We propose a new approach to determining quasi parton distribution functions (PDFs) from lattice quantum chromodynamics. By incorporating the gradient flow, this method guarantees that the lattice quasi PDFs are finite in the continuum limit and evades the thorny, and as yet unresolved, issue of the renormalization of quasi PDFs on the lattice. In the limit that the flow time is much smaller than the length scale set by the nucleon momentum, the moments of the smeared quasi PDF are proportional to those of the light-front PDF. Read More

We present high-statistics estimates of the isovector charges of the nucleon from four 2+1-flavor ensembles generated using Wilson-clover fermions with stout smearing and tree-level tadpole improved Symanzik gauge action at lattice spacings $a=0.114$ and $0.080$ fm and with $M_\pi \approx 315$ and 200 MeV. Read More

Computing disconnected diagrams in Lattice QCD (operator insertion in a quark loop) entails the computationally demanding problem of taking the trace of the all to all quark propagator. We first outline the basic algorithm used to compute a quark loop as well as improvements to this method. Then, we motivate and introduce an algorithm based on the synergy between hierarchical probing and singular value deflation. Read More

I present results from the first lattice QCD calculations of axial-current matrix elements in light nuclei, performed by the NPLQCD collaboration. Precision calculations of these matrix elements, and the subsequent extraction of multi-nucleon axial-current operators, are essential in refining theoretical predictions of the proton-proton fusion cross section, neutrino-nucleus cross sections and $\beta\beta$-decay rates of nuclei. In addition, they are expected to shed light on the phenomenological quenching of $g_A$ that is required in nuclear many-body calculations. Read More

The nuclear matrix element determining the $pp\to d e^+ \nu$ fusion cross section and the Gamow-Teller matrix element contributing to tritium $\beta$-decay are calculated with lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) for the first time. Using a new implementation of the background field method, these quantities are calculated at the SU(3)-flavor-symmetric value of the quark masses, corresponding to a pion mass of $m_\pi$ ~ 806 MeV. The Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium is found to be 0. Read More

Momentum-space derivatives of matrix elements can be related to their coordinate-space moments through the Fourier transform. We derive these expressions as a function of momentum transfer $Q^2$ for asymptotic in/out states consisting of a single hadron. We calculate corrections to the finite volume moments by studying the spatial dependence of the lattice correlation functions. Read More

Lattice QCD calculations with background magnetic fields are used to determine the magnetic moments of the octet baryons. Computations are performed at the physical value of the strange quark mass, and two values of the light quark mass, one corresponding to the SU(3) flavor-symmetric point, where the pion mass is ~ 800 MeV, and the other corresponding to a pion mass ~ 450 MeV. The moments are found to exhibit only mild pion-mass dependence when expressed in terms of appropriately chosen magneton units---the natural baryon magneton. Read More

Many fields require computing the trace of the inverse of a large, sparse matrix. The typical method used for such computations is the Hutchinson method which is a Monte Carlo (MC) averaging over matrix quadratures. To improve its convergence, several variance reductions techniques have been proposed. Read More

We present a detailed analysis of methods to reduce statistical errors and excited-state contamination in the calculation of matrix elements of quark bilinear operators in nucleon states. All the calculations were done on a 2+1 flavor ensemble with lattices of size $32^3 \times 64$ generated using the rational hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm at $a=0.081$~fm and with $M_\pi=312$ MeV. Read More

We present a multiscale thermalization algorithm for lattice gauge theory, which enables efficient parallel generation of uncorrelated gauge field configurations. The algorithm combines standard Monte Carlo techniques with ideas drawn from real space renormalization group and multigrid methods. We demonstrate the viability of the algorithm for pure Yang-Mills gauge theory for both heat bath and hybrid Monte Carlo evolution, and show that it ameliorates the problem of topological freezing up to controllable lattice spacing artifacts. Read More

Nucleon-nucleon systems are studied with lattice quantum chromodynamics at a pion mass of $m_\pi\sim 450~{\rm MeV}$ in three spatial volumes using $n_f=2+1$ flavors of light quarks. At the quark masses employed in this work, the deuteron binding energy is calculated to be $B_d = 14.4^{+3. Read More

Two-nucleon systems are shown to exhibit large scattering lengths in strong magnetic fields at unphysical quark masses, and the trends toward the physical values indicate that such features may exist in nature. Lattice QCD calculations of the energies of one and two nucleons systems are performed at pion masses of $m_\pi\sim 450$ and 806 MeV in uniform, time-independent magnetic fields of strength {\bf B}| \sim 10^{19}$-$10^{20}$ Gauss to determine the response of these hadronic systems to large magnetic fields. Fields of this strength may exist inside magnetars and in peripheral relativistic heavy ion collisions, and the unitary behavior at large scattering lengths may have important consequences for these systems. Read More

Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) is an algorithm that incorporates stochastic modification of the action as part of the process that updates the fields in a Monte Carlo simulation. Such update moves have the potential of lowering or eliminating potential barriers that may cause inefficiencies in exploring the field configuration space. The highly successful Cluster algorithms for spin systems can be derived from the RMC framework. Read More

Lattice QCD with background magnetic fields is used to calculate the magnetic moments and magnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons and of light nuclei with $A\le4$, along with the cross-section for the $M1$ transition $np\rightarrow d\gamma$, at the flavor SU(3)-symmetric point where the pion mass is $m_\pi\sim 806$ MeV. These magnetic properties are extracted from nucleon and nuclear energies in six uniform magnetic fields of varying strengths. The magnetic moments are presented in a recent Letter. Read More

Lattice QCD calculations of two-nucleon systems are used to isolate the short-distance two-body electromagnetic contributions to the radiative capture process $np \to d\gamma$, and the photo-disintegration processes $\gamma^{(\ast)} d \to np$. In nuclear potential models, such contributions are described by phenomenological meson-exchange currents, while in the present work, they are determined directly from the quark and gluon interactions of QCD. Calculations of neutron-proton energy levels in multiple background magnetic fields are performed at two values of the quark masses, corresponding to pion masses of $m_\pi \sim 450$ and 806 MeV, and are combined with pionless nuclear effective field theory to determine these low-energy inelastic processes. Read More

We report a direct lattice QCD calculation of the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors $G_E^s$ and $G_M^s$ in the kinematic range $0 \leq Q^2 \lesssim 1.2\: {\rm GeV}^2$. For the first time, both $G_E^s$ and $G_M^s$ are shown to be nonzero with high significance. Read More

We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose nonlocal operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of nonlocal operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. Read More

We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. Read More

The numerical technique of Lattice QCD holds the promise of connecting the nuclear forces, nuclei, the spectrum and structure of hadrons, and the properties of matter under extreme conditions with the underlying theory of the strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics. A distinguishing, and thus far unique, feature of this formulation is that all of the associated uncertainties, both statistical and systematic can, in principle, be systematically reduced to any desired precision with sufficient computational and human resources. We review the sources of uncertainty inherent in Lattice QCD calculations for nuclear physics, and discuss how each is quantified in current efforts. Read More

We calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with $J^P = \frac12^+$ and $J^P = \frac32^+$. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Read More

We propose a new finite volume renormalization scheme. Our scheme is based on the Gradient Flow applied to both fermion and gauge fields and, much like the Schr\"odinger functional method, allows for a nonperturbative determination of the scale dependence of operators using a step-scaling approach. We give some preliminary results for the pseudo-scalar density in the quenched approximation. Read More

The technique that was used to build the EigCG algorithm for sparse symmetric linear systems is extended to the nonsymmetric case using the BiCG algorithm. We show that, similarly to the symmetric case, we can build an algorithm that is capable of computing a few smallest magnitude eigenvalues and their corresponding left and right eigenvectors of a nonsymmetric matrix using only a small window of the BiCG residuals while simultaneously solving a linear system with that matrix. For a system with multiple right-hand sides, we give an algorithm that computes incrementally more eigenvalues while solving the first few systems and then uses the computed eigenvectors to deflate BiCGStab for the remaining systems. Read More

The standard approach for computing the trace of the inverse of a very large, sparse matrix $A$ is to view the trace as the mean value of matrix quadratures, and use the Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate it. This approach is heavily used in our motivating application of Lattice QCD. Often, the elements of $A^{-1}$ display certain decay properties away from the non zero structure of $A$, but random vectors cannot exploit this induced structure of $A^{-1}$. Read More

A calculation of the interaction potential of two heavy-light mesons in lattice QCD is used to study the existence of tetraquark bound states. The interaction potential of the tetraquark system is calculated on the lattice with 2+1 flavours of dynamical fermions with lattice interpolating fields constructed using colorwave propagators. These propagators provide a new method for constructing all-to-all spatially smeared the interpolating fields, a technique which allows for a better overlap with the ground state wavefunction as well as reduced statistical noise. Read More

We study the scattering of light pseudoscalar mesons ($\pi$, $K$) off charmed mesons ($D$, $D_s$) in full lattice QCD. The S-wave scattering lengths are calculated using L\"uscher's finite volume technique. We use a relativistic formulation for the charm quark. Read More

We consider the problem of calculating the large number of Wick contractions necessary to compute states with the quantum numbers of many baryons in lattice QCD. We consider a constructive approach and a determinant-based approach and show that these methods allow the required contractions to be performed in computationally manageable amount of time for certain choices of interpolating operators. Examples of correlation functions computed using these techniques are shown for the quantum numbers of the light nuclei, He, Be, C, O and Si. Read More

We present a review of the properties of generalized domain wall Fermions, based on a (real) M\"obius transformation on the Wilson overlap kernel, discussing their algorithmic efficiency, the degree of explicit chiral violations measured by the residual mass ($m_{res}$) and the Ward-Takahashi identities. The M\"obius class interpolates between Shamir's domain wall operator and Bori\c{c}i's domain wall implementation of Neuberger's overlap operator without increasing the number of Dirac applications per conjugate gradient iteration. A new scaling parameter ($\alpha$) reduces chiral violations at finite fifth dimension ($L_s$) but yields exactly the same overlap action in the limit $L_s \rightarrow \infty$. Read More

Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at non-zero isospin chemical potential is studied in a canonical approach by analyzing systems of fixed isospin number density. To construct these systems, we develop a range of new algorithms for performing the factorially large numbers of Wick contractions required in multi-hadron systems. We then use these methods to study systems with the quantum numbers of up to 72 $\pi^+$'s on three ensembles of gauge configurations with spatial extents $L\sim$ 2. Read More

Re-weighting is a useful tool that has been employed in Lattice QCD in different contexts including, tuning the strange quark mass, approaching the light quark mass regime, and simulating electromagnetic fields on top of QCD gauge configurations. In case of re-weighting the sea quark mass, the re-weighting factor is given by the ratio of the determinants of two Dirac operators $D_a$ and $D_b$. A popular approach for computing this ratio is to use a pseudofermion representation of the determinant of the composite operator $\Omega=D_a(D_b^\dagger D_b)^{-1} D_a^\dagger$. Read More

In this work, we report a novel technique in lattice QCD for studying the high momentum-transfer region of nucleon form factors. These calculations could give important theoretical input to experiments, such as those of JLab's 12-GeV program and studies of nucleon deformation. There is an extensive history of form-factor calculations on the lattice, primarily with ground states for both the initial and final state. Read More

We use a four-dimensional lattice calculation of the full-QCD (quantum chromodynamics, the non-abliean gauge theory of the strong interactions of quarks and gluons) path integrals needed to determine the masses of the charmed and bottom baryons. In the charm sector, our results are in good agreement with experiment within our systematics, except for the spin-1/2 $\Xi_{cc}$, for which we found the isospin-averaged mass to be $\Xi_{cc}$ to be $3665\pm17\pm14^{+0}_{-78}$ MeV. We predict the mass of the (isospin-averaged) spin-1/2 $\Omega_{cc}$ to be $3763\pm19\pm26^{+13}_{-79}$ {MeV}. Read More

We present high statistics results for the structure of the nucleon from a mixed-action calculation using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions. We perform extrapolations of our data based on different chiral effective field theory schemes and compare our results with available information from phenomenology. We discuss vector and axial form factors of the nucleon, moments of generalized parton distributions, including moments of forward parton distributions, and implications for the decomposition of the nucleon spin. Read More

Low-energy baryon-baryon interactions are calculated in a high-statistics lattice QCD study on a single ensemble of anisotropic clover gauge-field configurations at a pion mass of m_\pi ~ 390 MeV, a spatial volume of L^3 ~ (2.5 fm)^3, and a spatial lattice spacing of b~0.123 fm. Read More

For Hermitian positive definite linear systems and eigenvalue problems, the eigCG algorithm is a memory efficient algorithm that solves the linear system and simultaneously computes some of its eigenvalues. The algorithm is based on the Conjugate-Gradient (CG) algorithm, however, it uses only a window of the vectors generated by the CG algorithm to compute approximate eigenvalues. The number and accuracy of the eigenvectors can be increased by solving more right-hand sides. Read More

**Authors:**LHPC Collaboration, Wolfram Schroers, Jonathan D. Bratt, Robert G. Edwards, Michael Engelhardt, George Taminga Fleming, Philipp Hagler, Huey-Wen Lin, Mei-Feng Lin, Harvey B. Meyer, Bernhard Musch, John W. Negele, Kostas Orginos, Andrew V. Pochinsky, Massimiliano Procura, Dru B. Renner, David G. Richards, Sergey N. Syritsyn, Andre P. Walker-Loud

**Category:**High Energy Physics - Lattice

We present new high-statistics results for nucleon form factors at pion masses of approximately 290, 350, 500, and 600 MeV using a mixed action of domain wall valence quarks on an improved staggered sea. We perform chiral fits to both vector and axial form factors and compare our results to experiment. Read More

We compute the masses of the singly and doubly charmed baryons in full QCD using the relativistic Fermilab action for the charm quark. For the light quarks we use domain-wall fermions in the valence sector and improved Kogut-Susskind sea quarks. We use the low-lying charmonium spectrum to tune our heavy-quark action and as a guide to understanding the discretization errors associated with the heavy quark. Read More

The $\pi^+\Sigma^+$, $\pi^+\Xi^0$, $K^+p$, $K^+n$, and $\overline{K}{}^0 \Xi^0$ scattering lengths are calculated in mixed-action Lattice QCD with domain-wall valence quarks on the asqtad-improved coarse MILC configurations at four light-quark masses, and at two light-quark masses on the fine MILC configurations. Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory with two and three flavors of light quarks is used to perform the chiral extrapolations. To the order we work in the three-flavor chiral expansion, the kaon-baryon processes that we investigate show no signs of convergence. Read More

The M\"obius domain wall action \cite{Brower:2004xi} is a generalization of Shamir's action, which gives exactly the same overlap fermion lattice action as the separation ($L_s$) between the domain walls is taken to infinity. The performance advantages of the algorithm are presented for small ensembles of quenched, full QCD domain wall and Gap domain wall lattices \cite{Vranas:2006zk}. In particular, it is shown that at the larger lattice spacings relevant to current dynamical simulations M\"obius fermions work well together with GapDWF, reducing $L_s$ by more than a factor of two. Read More

We calculate bottom-hadron mass splittings with respect to $B_d$ and $\Lambda_b$ using full QCD with 2+1 flavors of dynamical Kogut-Susskind sea quarks and domain-wall valence quarks along with a static heavy quark. Our lattices have spatial volume of $(2.5{fm})^3$ with lattice spacing about 0. Read More

We present the results of an exploratory Lattice QCD calculation of three-baryon systems through a high-statistics study of one ensemble of anisotropic clover gauge-field configurations with a pion mass of m_\pi ~ 390 MeV. Because of the computational cost of the necessary contractions, we focus on correlation functions generated by interpolating-operators with the quantum numbers of the $\Xi^0\Xi^0 n$ system, one of the least demanding three baryon systems in terms of the number of contractions. We find that the ground state of this system has an energy of E_{\Xi^0\Xi^0n}= 3877. Read More

We present the results of high-statistics calculations of correlation functions generated with single-baryon interpolating operators on an ensemble of dynamical anisotropic gauge-field configurations generated by the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using a tadpole-improved clover fermion action and Symanzik-improved gauge action. A total of 292,500 sets of measurements are made using 1194 gauge configurations of size 20^3 x 128 with an anisotropy parameter \xi= b_s/b_t = 3.5, a spatial lattice spacing of b_s=0. Read More

We study the nucleon, Sigma and cascade octet baryon electromagnetic form factors and the effects of SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking from 2+1-flavor lattice calculations. We find that electric and magnetic radii are similar; the maximum discrepancy is about 10%. In the pion-mass region we explore, both the quark-component and full-baryon moments have small SU(3) symmetry breaking. Read More

We compute the scattering lengths of charmed mesons and charmonia scattering with light hadrons in full QCD. We use Fermilab formulation for the charm quark and domain-wall fermions for the light quarks and staggered sea quarks. Four different light-quark masses are used to extrapolate to the physical point. Read More

There is an extensive history of form factor calculations on the lattice, primarily with ground states for both initial and final states. However, there have never been any radially excited transition form factor calculations. Furthermore, the lattice faces difficulty in extracting signal from noise at large transfer momenta ($Q^2$). Read More

Kaon condensation may play an important role in the structure of hadronic matter at densities greater than that of nuclear matter, as exist in the interior of neutron stars. We present the results of the first lattice QCD investigation of kaon condensation obtained by studying systems containing up to twelve negatively charged kaons. Surprisingly, the properties of the condensate that we calculate are remarkably well reproduced by leading order chiral perturbation theory. Read More