Katsuaki Asano - Dept. of Physics, Ritsumeikan Univ.

Katsuaki Asano
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Katsuaki Asano
Dept. of Physics, Ritsumeikan Univ.

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (29)
Astrophysics (16)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (3)
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (3)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)
Physics - Plasma Physics (1)

Publications Authored By Katsuaki Asano

The observed radial profiles of the X-ray emission from Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) have been claimed to conflict with the standard one-dimensional (1-D) steady model. However, the 1-D model has not been tested to reproduce both the volume-integrated spectrum and the radial profile of the surface brightness, simultaneously. We revisit the 1-D steady model and apply it to PWNe 3C 58 and G21. Read More

We discuss likely sources of cosmic rays in the $10^{15}-10^{20}$ eV range and their possible very high energy neutrino and gamma-ray signatures which could serve to identify these sources and constrain their physics. Among these sources we discuss in particular low luminosity gamma-ray bursts, including choked and shock-breakout objects, tidal disruption events and white dwarf mergers. Among efforts aimed at simultaneous secondary multi-messenger detections we discuss the AMON program. Read More

The bright long gamma-ray burst GRB 141207A was observed by the {\it Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope} and detected by both instruments onboard. The observations show that the spectrum in the prompt phase is not well described by the canonical empirical Band function alone, and that an additional power-law component is needed. In the early phase of the prompt emission, a modified blackbody with a hard low-energy photon index ($\alpha$ = +0. Read More

Recent $\gamma$-ray observations suggest that the particle acceleration occurs at the outer region of the pulsar magnetosphere. The magnetic field lines in the outer acceleration region (OAR) are connected to the neutron star surface (NSS). If copious electron--positron pairs are produced near the NSS, such pairs flow into the OAR and screen the electric field there. Read More

We propose a novel model to produce ultrahigh-energy cosmic-rays (UHECRs) in gamma-ray burst jets. After the prompt gamma-ray emission, hydrodynamical turbulence is excited in the GRB jets at or before the afterglow phase. The mildly relativistic turbulence stochastically accelerates protons. Read More

The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor reported the possible detection of the gamma-ray counterpart of a binary black hole merger event, GW150914. We show that the gamma-ray emission is caused by a relativistic outflow with Lorentz factor larger than 10. Subsequently, debris outflow pushes the ambient gas to form a shock, which is responsible for the afterglow synchrotron emission. Read More

We study stochastic acceleration models for the Fermi bubbles. Turbulence is excited just behind the shock front via Kelvin--Helmholtz, Rayleigh--Taylor, or Richtmyer--Meshkov instabilities, and plasma particles are continuously accelerated by the interaction with the turbulence. The turbulence gradually decays as it goes away from the shock fronts. Read More

The spectral shape of the prompt emissions of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is typically expressed by the Band function: smooth joining of two power-law functions for high-energy and low-energy regions. To reveal the origin of the Band function, we revisit the stochastic acceleration model, in which electrons are accelerated via scattering with turbulent waves in the GRB outflow. The balance between the acceleration and synchrotron cooling yields a narrow energy-distribution similar to the Maxwellian distribution. Read More

The very short and bright flare of 3C 279 detected with {\it Fermi}-LAT in 2013 December is tested by a model with stochastic electron acceleration by turbulences. Our time-dependent simulation shows that the very hard spectrum and asymmetric light curve are successfully reproduced by changing only the magnetic field from the value in the steady period. The maximum energy of electrons drastically grows with the decrease of the magnetic field, which yields a hard photon spectrum as observed. Read More

Gamma-Ray Bursts are the most energetic explosions in the Universe, and are among the most promising for detecting multiple non-electromagnetic signals, including cosmic rays, high energy neutrinos and gravitational waves. The multi-GeV to TeV gamma-ray range of GRB could have significant contributions from hadronic interactions, mixed with more conventional leptonic contributions. This energy range is important for probing the source physics, including overall energetics, the shock parameters and the Lorentz factor. Read More

Induced Compton scattering (ICS) is an interaction between intense electro-magnetic radiations and plasmas, where ICS transfers the energy from photons to plasmas. Although ICS is important for laser plasma interactions in laboratory experiments and for radio emission from pulsars propagating in pulsar wind plasmas, the detail of photon cooling process has not been understood. The problem is that, when ICS dominates, evolution of photon spectra is described as a nonlinear convection equation, which makes photon spectra to be multi-valued. Read More

We examine the applicability of the stochastic electron acceleration to two high synchrotron peaked blazars, Mrk 421 and Mrk 501, assuming synchrotron self-Compton emission of gamma-rays. Our model considers an emitting region moving at relativistic speed, where non-thermal electrons are accelerated and attain a steady-state energy spectrum together with the photons they emit. The kinetic equations of the electrons and photons are solved numerically, given a stationary wave number spectrum of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) disturbances, which are responsible for the electron acceleration and escape. Read More

We revisit the neutrino and ultra high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) production from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with time-dependent simulations for the proton-induced cascades. This method can generate self-consistent photon, neutrino and escaped neutron spectra. To obtain the integrated background spectra, we take into account the distributions of the burst luminosity and pulse duration timescale. Read More

The second-order Fermi acceleration (Fermi-II) driven by turbulence may be responsible for the electron acceleration in blazar jets. We test this model with time-dependent simulations. The hard electron spectrum predicted by the Fermi-II process agrees with the hard photon spectrum of 1ES 1101-232. Read More

We present the results of the search for a correlation between giant radio pulses (GRPs) at 1.4 GHz and hard X-rays at 15-75 keV from the Crab pulsar. We made simultaneous ground and satellite observations of the Crab pulsar over 12 hours in three occasions in April 2010, March and September 2011, and got a sample of 1. Read More

We outline the science prospects for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory operating at energies above few tens of GeV. With its low energy threshold, large effective area and rapid slewing capabilities, CTA will be able to measure the spectra and variability of GRBs at multi-GeV energies with unprecedented photon statistics, and thereby break new ground in elucidating the physics of GRBs, which is still poorly understood. Such measurements will also provide crucial diagnostics of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray and neutrino production in GRBs, advance observational cosmology by probing the high-redshift extragalactic background light and intergalactic magnetic fields, and contribute to fundamental physics by testing Lorentz invariance violation with high precision. Read More

We calculate the high energy neutrino spectrum from gamma-ray bursts where the emission arises in a dissipative jet photosphere determined by either baryonically or magnetically dominated dynamics, and compare these neutrino spectra to those obtained in conventional internal shock models. We also calculate the diffuse neutrino spectra based on these models, which appear compatible with the current IceCube 40+59 constraints. While a re-analysis based on the models discussed here and the data from the full array would be needed, it appears that only those models with the most extreme parameters are close to being constrained at present. Read More

Gamma-ray bursts are the most concentrated explosions in the Universe. They have been detected electromagnetically at energies up to tens of GeV, and it is suspected that they could be active at least up to TeV energies. It is also speculated that they could emit cosmic rays and neutrinos at energies reaching up to the $10^{18}-10^{20}$ eV range. Read More

The temporal--spectral evolution of the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is simulated numerically for both leptonic and hadronic models. For weak enough magnetic fields, leptonic models can reproduce the few seconds delay of the onset of GeV photon emission observed by Fermi-LAT, due to the slow growth of the target photon field for inverse Compton scattering. However, even for stronger magnetic fields, the GeV delay can be explained with hadronic models, due to the long acceleration timescale of protons and the continuous photopion production after the end of the particle injection. Read More

{\it Fermi} satellite has detected extra spectral components in GeV energy range in several GRBs. Those components have power-law shapes, which may contribute to also X-ray band. The limited photon statistics make it difficult to determine the origin of GeV photons, namely internal or external shocks. Read More

We study effects of particle re-acceleration (or heating) in the post-shock region via magnetohydrodynamic/plasma turbulence, in the context of a mixed hadronic-leptonic model for the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), using both analytical and numerical methods. We show that stochastically accelerated (or heated) leptons, which are injected via pp and pg reactions and subsequent pair cascades, are plausibly able to reproduce the Band function spectra with alpha~1 and beta~2-3 in the ~MeV range. An additional hard component coming from the proton-induced cascade emission is simultaneously expected, which is compatible with observed extra power-law spectra far above the MeV range. Read More

We present calculations of the time evolution of the prompt spectra of gamma-ray burst models involving generic internal dissipation regions, including internal shocks, either by itself or in the presence of an external photon source such as a photosphere. The method uses a newly developed time-dependent code involving synchrotron emission and absorption, inverse Compton scattering and pair formation. The models reproduce the typical observed Band spectra and their generic time evolution, including the appearance of an extra keV-GeV component, whose delay in simple SSC models, however, is only partially able to explain the several seconds observed GeV delays. Read More

Recent radio observations reveal the existence of mini radio lobes in active galaxies with their scales of $\sim 10 {\rm pc}$. The lobes are expected to be filled with shock accelerated electrons and protons. In this work, we examine the photon spectra from the mini lobes, properly taking the hadronic processes into account. Read More

Relativistic astrophysical phenomena such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei often require long-lived strong magnetic field. Here, we report on three-dimensional special-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to explore the amplification and decay of macroscopic turbulence dynamo excited by the so-called Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI; a Rayleigh-Taylor type instability). This instability is an inevitable outcome of interactions between shock and ambient density fluctuations. Read More

A fraction of gamma-ray bursts exhibit distinct spectral features in their prompt emission below few 10s of keV that exceed simple extrapolations of the low-energy power-law portion of the Band spectral model. This is also true for the prompt optical emission observed in several bursts. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we model such low-energy spectral excess components as hadronic cascade emission initiated by photomeson interactions of ultra-high-energy protons accelerated within GRB outflows. Read More

Hadronic emission from parsec size radio lobes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is discussed. The lobes are composed of shocked jet plasmaand expected to be filled with high energy particles. By using the Monte Carlo simulation, we calculate the photon spectra from the lobes including photo-meson interaction processes. Read More

A short gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 detected by {\it Fermi} shows an extra spectral component between 10 MeV and 30 GeV, an addition to a more usual low-energy ($<10$ MeV) Band component. In general, such an extra component could originate from accelerated protons. In particular, inverse Compton emission from secondary electron-positron pairs and proton synchrotron emission are competitive models for reproducing the hard spectrum of the extra component in GRB 090510. Read More

Affiliations: 1for the JEM-EUSO collaboration, 2for the JEM-EUSO collaboration, 3for the JEM-EUSO collaboration

JEM-EUSO is a mission to study ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) by measuring the fluorescence light from giant air showers at the altitude of the International Space Station. In the tilted mode, JEM-EUSO will become very sensitive to the \v{C}erenkov light from the earth skimming tau neutrinos at the energy range of $10^{16-18}$eV. In this paper we will discuss high-energy tau neutrinos from nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Read More

Through detailed numerical simulations, we demonstrate that relativistic outflows (Lorentz factor $\Gamma \sim 7$) of electron-positron pairs can be produced by radiative acceleration even when the flow starts from a nearly pair equilibrium state at subrelativistic temperatures. Contrary to the expectation that pairs annihilate during an expansion stage for such low temperatures, we find that most pairs can survive for the situations obtained in our previous work. This is because in the outflow-generating region the dynamical timescale is short enough even though the fireball is optically thick to scattering. Read More

The prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is widely thought to be radiation from accelerated electrons, but an appreciably larger amount of energy could be carried by accelerated protons, particularly if GRBs are the sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). We model the expected photon spectra for such "proton-dominated" GRBs in the internal shock scenario through Monte Carlo simulations, accounting for various processes related to high-energy electrons and protons. Besides proton and muon synchrotron components, emission from photomeson-induced secondary pair cascades becomes crucial, generally enhancing the GeV-TeV and/or eV-keV photons and offering a signature of UHE protons. Read More

In the framework of the internal shock scenario, we model the broadband prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with emphasis on the GeV-TeV bands, utilizing Monte Carlo simulations that include various processes associated with electrons and protons accelerated to high energies. While inverse Compton emission from primary electrons is often dominant, different proton-induced mechanisms can also give rise to distinct high-energy components, such as synchrotron emission from protons, muons or secondary electrons/positrons injected via photomeson interactions. In some cases, they give rise to double spectral breaks that can serve as unique signatures of ultra-high-energy protons. Read More

Regenerated high-energy emissions from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are studied in detail. If the intrinsic primary spectrum extends to the TeV range, these very high-energy photons are absorbed by the cosmic infrared background (CIB). Created high-energy electron-positron pairs up-scatter mainly cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, and secondary photons are generated in the GeV-TeV range. Read More

Motivated by relativistic jets observed in active galactic nuclei (AGN), we simulate outflows of electron-positron pairs strongly coupled with photons from normal electron-proton plasmas. Using multi-fluid approximation and a Monte Carlo method of radiative transfer, we obtain spherically symmetric, steady solutions of radiation and pair outflows for the luminosity $L \leq 10^{47}$ erg ${\rm s^{-1}}$. For microphysics, Coulomb scattering, Compton scattering, bremsstrahlung, electron-positron pair annihilation and creation are taken into account. Read More

We numerically calculate the energy and momentum transfer rates due to Coulomb scattering between two fluids moving with a relative velocity. The results are fitted by simple functions. The fitting formulae are useful to simulate outflows from active galactic nuclei and compact high energy sources. Read More

In the proton counterflow model of a pulsar magnetosphere that we have recently proposed, non-relativistic protons are supplied from the magnetosphere to flow toward the pulsar surface and screen an electric field above the polar cap region. In this Letter, we show that the proton counterflow is also suitable for the bunching of pair plasma. The two-stream instability is easily excited and can produce bunches of pairs with a relevant length scale to emit coherent curvature radiation. Read More

On 2004 December 27, a giant flare from the soft gamma repeater 1806$-$20 was observed. The radiation mechanism of the initial peak of the flare would be controversial. In this letter we point out that very high-energy cosmic rays would be produced in the case that the flare was caused by internal shocks, as is usually considered for gamma-ray bursts. Read More

Using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate photopion production from Fermi-accelerated protons and the resulting neutrino production in gamma-ray bursts. Unless internal shocks occur at quite large distance from the center, ultra high-energy protons are depleted by photopion production and synchrotron radiation. Internal shocks at fiducial distance cause neutrino bursts, which accompany gamma-ray bursts originating from electromagnetic cascades. Read More

We propose a new mechanism to screen the electric field in the pulsar polar cap. Previous studies have shown that if an electron beam from the stellar surface is accelerated to energies high enough to create electron-positron pairs, the required electric field parallel to the magnetic field lines is too strong to be screened out by the produced pairs. We argue here that if non-relativistic protons are supplied from the magnetosphere to flow towards the stellar surface, they can provide an anode to screen out such a strong electric field. Read More

Motivated by the particle acceleration problem in pulsars, we numerically investigate electrostatic instability of electron-positron pairs injected in an external electric field. The electric field is expected to be so strong that we cannot neglect effects of spatial variation in the 0-th order distribution functions on the scale of the plasma oscillation. We assume that pairs are injected mono-energetically with 4-velocity $u_0>0$ in a constant external electric field by which electrons (positrons) are accelerated (decelerated). Read More

Gamma-ray bursts are generally considered to be the result of internal shocks generated in an inhomogeneous relativistic outflow that arises from a fireball. In such shocks, the Fermi acceleration of protons is naturally expected to be at least as efficient as that of electrons. We investigate the consequences of proton acceleration in the residual thermal photon field of a fireball, especially those on the emission spectra of photons. Read More

The fireball, the promising model of the gamma-ray burst (GRB), is an opaque radiation plasma, whose energy is significantly greater than its rest mass. We numerically simulate the evolution of the fireball heated by the neutrino-antineutrino annihilation process for the spherically symmetric case. We also derive analytical energy and momentum deposition rates via neutrino scattering with thermalized electron-positron pairs in the fireball. Read More

Using idealized models of the accretion disk we investigate the relativistic effects on the energy deposition rate via neutrino pair annihilation near the rotation axis of a Kerr black hole. Neutrinos are emitted from the accretion disk. The bending of neutrino trajectories and the redshift due to the disk rotation and gravitation are taken into consideration. Read More

We study semianalytically the gravitational effects on neutrino pair annihilation near the neutrinosphere and around the thin accretion disk. For the disk case, we assume that the accretion disk is isothermal and that the gravitational field is dominated by the Schwarzschild black hole. General relativistic effects are studied only near the rotation axis. Read More

Affiliations: 1Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Oita National College of Technology, 2Dept. of Physics, Ritsumeikan Univ.
Category: Astrophysics

We study density cusps in the center of clusters of galaxies to reconcile X-ray mass estimates with gravitational lensing masses. For various mass density models with cusps we compute X-ray surface brightness distribution, and fit them to observations to measure the range of parameters in the density models. The Einstein radii estimated from these density models are compared with Einstein radii derived from the observed arcs for Abell 2163, Abell 2218, and RX J1347. Read More