Kang Wang

Kang Wang
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Kang Wang
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Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (25)
 
Physics - Materials Science (19)
 
Physics - Other (5)
 
Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics (2)
 
Mathematical Physics (2)
 
Mathematics - Mathematical Physics (2)
 
Mathematics - Dynamical Systems (2)
 
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (2)
 
Quantitative Biology - Neurons and Cognition (2)
 
Physics - Computational Physics (1)
 
Nuclear Experiment (1)
 
Physics - Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (1)
 
Quantum Physics (1)
 
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1)
 
Physics - Optics (1)
 
Mathematics - Numerical Analysis (1)
 
Astrophysics of Galaxies (1)
 
High Energy Physics - Theory (1)
 
Physics - Superconductivity (1)
 
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1)

Publications Authored By Kang Wang

Full-energy peak (FEP) efficiencies of a HPGe detector equipped with an ultra-low background shield system are calibrated with the Monte Carlo method and further examined using summing peaks in a numerical way. Radionuclides $^{241}$Am, $^{137}$Cs, $^{60}$Co, $^{133}$Ba and $^{152}$Eu are used to construct the simulation model with the toolkit GEANT4. True summing \mbox{coincidence} factors (TSCFs) of $^{60}$Co, $^{133}$Ba and $^{152}$Eu are calculated and result in an improvement up to about 20\% in the FEP efficiency curve. Read More

Neuronal firing activities have attracted a lot of attention since a large population of spatiotemporal patterns in the brain is the basis for adaptive behavior and can also reveal the signs for various neurological disorders including Alzheimer's, schizophrenia, epilepsy and others. Here, we study the dynamics of a simple neuronal network using different sets of settings on a neuromorphic chip. We observed three different types of collective neuronal firing activities, which agree with the clinical data taken from the brain. Read More

The influence of the noncommutativity on the average speed of a relativistic electron interacting with a uniform magnetic field within the minimum evolution time is investigated. We find that it is possible for the wave packet of the electron to travel faster than the speed of light in vacuum because of the noncommutativity. It suggests that due to the noncommutativity, Lorentz invariance is violated in the relativistic quantum mechanics region. Read More

This paper proposes an efficient method for computing partial eigenvalues of large sparse matrices what can be called the inexact inverse power method (IIPM). It is similar to the inexact Rayleigh quotient method and inexact Jacobi-Davidson method that it uses only a low precision approximate solution for the inner iteration. But this method uses less memory than inexact Jacobi-Davidson method and has stronger convergence performance than inexact Rayleigh quotient method. Read More

Ferromagnetism in topological insulators (TIs) opens a topologically non-trivial exchange band gap, providing an exciting platform to manipulate the topological order through an external magnetic field. Here, we experimentally show that the surface of an antiferromagnetic thin film can independently control the topological order of the top and the bottom surface states of a TI thin film through proximity couplings. During the magnetization reversal in a field scan, two intermediate spin configurations stem from unsynchronized magnetic switchings of the top and the bottom AFM/TI interfaces. Read More

The interfacial Dzyaloshinskii Moriya Interaction (DMI) in ultrathin magnetic thin film heterostructures provides a new approach for controlling spin textures on mesoscopic length scales. Here we investigate the dependence of the interfacial DMI constant D on a Pt wedge insertion layer in Ta_CoFeB_Pt(wedge)_MgO thin films by observing the asymmetric spin wave dispersion using Brillouin light scattering. Continuous tuning of D by more than a factor of three is realized by inserting less than one monolayer of Pt. Read More

In many stochastic dynamical systems, ordinary chaotic behavior is preceded by a full-dimensional phase that exhibits 1/f-type power-spectra and/or scale-free statistics of (anti)instantons such as neuroavalanches, earthquakes, etc. In contrast with the phenomenological concept of self-organized criticality, the recently found approximation-free supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS) identifies this phase as the noise-induced chaos (N-phase), i.e. Read More

After the recognition of the possibility to implement Majorana fermions using the building blocks of solid-state matters, the detection of this peculiar particle has been an intense focus of research. Here we experimentally demonstrate a collection of Majorana fermions living in a one-dimensional transport channel at the boundary of a superconducting quantum anomalous Hall insulator thin film. A series of topological phase changes are controlled by the reversal of the magnetization, where a half-integer quantized conductance plateau (0. Read More

Magnetic topological insulators such as Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 provide a platform for the realization of versatile time-reversal symmetry-breaking physics. By constructing heterostructures with N\'eel order in an antiferromagnetic CrSb and magnetic topological order in Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3, we realize emergent interfacial magnetic phenomena which can be tailored through artificial structural engineering. Through deliberate geometrical design of heterostructures and superlattices, we demonstrate the use of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in manipulating the magnetic properties of the topological surface massive Dirac fermions. Read More

Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) based on CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB structures is of great interest due to its application in the spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM). Large interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is required to achieve high thermal stability. Here we use first-principles calculations to investigate the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of MgO/CoFe/capping layer structures, where the capping materials include 5d metals Hf, Ta, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au and 6p metals Tl, Pb, Bi. Read More

In this paper, we investigate numerically the stochastic ABC model, a toy model in the theory of astrophysical kinematic dynamos, within the recently proposed supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS). STS characterises stochastic differential equations (SDEs) by the spectrum of the stochastic evolution operator (SEO) on elements of the exterior algebra or differentials forms over the system's phase space, X. STS can thereby classify SDEs as chaotic or non-chaotic by identifying the phenomenon of stochastic chaos with the spontaneously broken topological supersymmetry that all SDEs possess. Read More

Light confinement induced by resonant states in aperiodic photonic structures are interesting for many applications. A particular case of these resonances can be found in 2D quasi-crystalline arrangements of dielectric cylinders. These systems present a rather isotropic band gap as well as isolated in-gap photonic states (as a result of spatially localized resonances). Read More

The well-known Hall effect describes the transverse deflection of charged particles (electrons or holes) in an electric-current carrying conductor under the influence of perpendicular magnetic fields, as a result of the Lorentz force. Similarly, it is intriguing to examine if quasi-particles without an electric charge, but with a topological charge, show related transverse motion. Chiral magnetic skyrmions with a well-defined spin topology resulting in a unit topological charge serve as good candidates to test this hypothesis. Read More

Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected spin textures that exhibit many fascinating features. As compared to the well-studied cryogenic Bloch skyrmions in bulk materials, we focus on the room-temperature N\'eel skyrmions in thin-film systems with an interfacial broken inversion symmetry in this article. Specifically, we show the stabilization, the creation, and the implementation of N\'eel skyrmions that are enabled by the electrical current-induced spin-orbit torques. Read More

Electric-field manipulation of magnetic order has proved of both fundamental and technological importance in spintronic devices. So far, electric-field control of ferromagnetism, magnetization and magnetic anisotropy has been explored in various magnetic materials, but the efficient electric-field control of spin-orbit torque (SOT) still remains elusive. Here, we report the effective electric-field control of a giant SOT in a Cr-doped topological insulator (TI) thin film using a top-gate FET structure. Read More

With the development of Internet culture, cuteness has become a popular concept. Many people are curious about what factors making a person look cute. However, there is rare research to answer this interesting question. Read More

Considerable evidence suggests that variations in the properties of topological insulators (TIs) at the nanoscale and at interfaces can strongly affect the physics of topological materials. Therefore, a detailed understanding of surface states and interface coupling is crucial to the search for and applications of new topological phases of matter. Currently, no methods can provide depth profiling near surfaces or at interfaces of topologically inequivalent materials. Read More

Spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) attracts extensive attentions due to its non-volatility, high density and low power consumption. The core device in STT-MRAM is CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which possesses a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio as well as a large value of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). It has been experimentally proven that a capping layer coating on CoFeB layer is essential to obtain a strong PMA. Read More

We theoretically study equilibrium and dynamic properties of nanosized magnetic skyrmions in thin magnetic films with broken inversion symmetry, where electric field couples to magnetization via spin-orbit coupling. Based on a symmetry-based phenomenology and micromagnetic simulations we show that this electric-field coupling, via renormalizing the micromagnetic energy, modifies the equilibrium properties of the skyrmion. This change, in turn, results in a significant alteration of the current-induced skyrmion motion. Read More

We report measurements of the polar Kerr effect, proportional to the out-of-plane component of the magnetization, in thin films of the magnetically doped topological insulator $(\text{Cr}_{0.12}\text{Bi}_{0.26}\text{Sb}_{0. Read More

Natural dynamics is often dominated by sudden nonlinear processes such as neuroavalanches, gamma-ray bursts, solar flares \emph{etc}. that exhibit scale-free statistics much in the spirit of the logarithmic Ritcher scale for earthquake magnitudes. On phase diagrams, stochastic dynamical systems (DSs) exhibiting this type of dynamics belong to the finite-width phase (N-phase for brevity) that precedes ordinary chaotic behavior and that is known under such names as noise-induced chaos, self-organized criticality, dynamical complexity \emph{etc. Read More

We report a study of enhancing the magnetic ordering in a model magnetically doped topological insulator (TI), Bi2-xCrxSe3, via the proximity effect using a high-TC ferrimagnetic insulator Y3Fe5O12. The FMI provides the TI with a source of exchange interaction yet without removing the nontrivial surface state. By performing the elemental specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements, we have unequivocally observed an enhanced TC of 50 K in this magnetically doped TI/FMI heterostructure. Read More

After decades of searching for the dissipationless transport in the absence of any external magnetic field, quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator (TI) films. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the 6 quintuple-layer (Cr0. Read More

Soap bubbles form when blowing air through a suspended thin film of soapy water and this phenomenon entertains children and adults alike. The formation of soap bubbles from thin films is accompanied by topological transitions, and thus the natural question arises whether this concept is applicable to the generation of other topological states. Here we show how a magnetic topological structure, namely a skyrmion bubble, can be generated in a solid state system in a similar manner. Read More

We report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and longitudinal resistivity under 1 ohm per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by non-local measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally-activated carriers, which can be eliminated by taking advantage of an unexpected magnetocaloric effect. Read More

We report electrical spin injection and detection in degenerately doped n-type Ge channels using Mn5Ge3C0.8/Al2O3/n^{+}-Ge tunneling contacts for spin injection and detection. The whole structure is integrated on a Si wafer for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatibility. Read More

Microwave detectors based on the spin-transfer torque diode effect are among the key emerging spintronic devices. By utilizing the spin of electrons in addition to charge, they have the potential to overcome the theoretical performance limits of their semiconductor (Schottky) counterparts, which cannot operate at low input power. Here, we demonstrate nanoscale microwave detectors exhibiting record-high detection sensitivity of 75400 mV mW$^{-1}$ at room temperature, without any external bias fields, for input microwave power down to 10 nW. Read More

The concept of deterministic dynamical chaos has a long history and is well established by now. Nevertheless, its field theoretic essence and its stochastic generalization have been revealed only very recently. Within the newly found supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS), all stochastic differential equations (SDEs) possess topological or de Rahm supersymmetry and stochastic chaos is the phenomenon of its spontaneous breakdown. Read More

Magnetic interaction with the gapless surface states in topological insulator (TI) has been predicted to give rise to a few exotic quantum phenomena. However, the effective magnetic doping of TI is still challenging in experiment. Using first-principles calculations, the magnetic doping properties (V, Cr, Mn and Fe) in three strong TIs (Bi$_{2}$Se$_{3}$, Bi$_{2}$Te$_{3}$ and Sb$_{2}$Te$_{3}$) are investigated. Read More

Magnetization switching by current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) is of great interest due to its potential applications for ultralow-power memory and logic devices. In order to be of technological interest, SOT effects need to switch ferromagnets with a perpendicular (out-of-plane) magnetization. Currently, however, this typically requires the presence of an in-plane external magnetic field, which is a major obstacle for practical applications. Read More

We theoretically study the equilibrium and dynamic properties of nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) and magnetic wires, in which an electric field controls the magnetic anisotropy through spin-orbit coupling. By performing micromagnetic simulations, we construct a rich phase diagram and find that, in particular, the equilibrium magnetic textures can be tuned between Neel and Bloch domain walls in an elliptical MTJ. Furthermore, we develop a phenomenological model of a quasi-one-dimensional domain wall confined by a parabolic potential and show that, near the Neel-to-Bloch-wall transition, a pulsed electric field induces precessional domain-wall motion which can be used to reverse the chirality of a Neel wall and even depin it. Read More

The spin-transfer nano-oscillator (STNO) offers the possibility of using the transfer of spin angular momentum via spin-polarized currents to generate microwave signals. However, at present STNO microwave emission mainly relies on both large drive currents and external magnetic fields. These issues hinder the implementation of STNOs for practical applications in terms of power dissipation and size. Read More

Variability effects in graphene can result from the surrounding environment and the graphene material itself, which form a critical issue in examining the feasibility of graphene devices for large-scale production. From the reliability and yield perspective, these variabilities cause fluctuations in the device performance, which should be minimized via device engineering. From the metrology perspective, however, the variability effects can function as novel probing mechanisms, in which the 'signal fluctuations' can be useful for potential sensing applications. Read More

We demonstrate excitation of ferromagnetic resonance in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) by the combined action of voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) and spin transfer torque (ST). Our measurements reveal that GHz-frequency VCMA torque and ST in low-resistance MTJs have similar magnitudes, and thus that both torques are equally important for understanding high-frequency voltage-driven magnetization dynamics in MTJs. As an example, we show that VCMA can increase the sensitivity of an MTJ-based microwave signal detector to the sensitivity level of semiconductor Schottky diodes. Read More

We numerically study the thermal stability properties of computer memory storage realized by a magnetic ellipse. In the case of practical magnetic random-access memory devices, the bit can form a spin texture during switching events. To study the energy barrier for thermally-induced switching, we develop a variational procedure to force the bit to traverse a smooth path through configuration space between the points of stability. Read More

We report the first experimental demonstration of electrical spin injection, transport and detection in bulk germanium (Ge). The non-local magnetoresistance in n-type Ge is observable up to 225K. Our results indicate that the spin relaxation rate in the n-type Ge is closely related to the momentum scattering rate, which is consistent with the predicted Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism for Ge. Read More

We report an experimental investigation of the edge effect on the room-temperature transport in graphene nanoribbon and graphene sheet (both single-layer and bilayer). By measuring the resistance scaling behaviors at both low and high carrier densities, we show that the transport of single-layer nanoribbons lies in a strong localization regime, which can be attributed to an edge effect. We find that this edge effect can be weakened by enlarging the width, decreasing the carrier densities or adding an extra layer. Read More

We propose a concept of magnetic logic circuits engineering, which takes an advantage of magnetization as a computational state variable and exploits spin waves for information transmission. The circuits consist of magneto-electric cells connected via spin wave buses. We present the result of numerical modeling showing the magneto-electric cell switching as a function of the amplitude as well as the phase of the spin wave. Read More

Conductance fluctuation is usually unavoidable in graphene nanoribbons (GNR) due to the presence of disorder along its edges. By measuring the low-frequency noise in GNR devices, we find that the conductance fluctuation is strongly correlated with the density-of-states of GNR. In single-layer GNR, the gate-dependence of noise shows peaks whose positions quantitatively match the subband positions in the band structures of GNR. Read More

Scattering mechanisms in graphene are critical to understanding the limits of signal-to-noise-ratios of unsuspended graphene devices. Here we present the four-probe low frequency noise (1/f) characteristics in back-gated single layer graphene (SLG) and bilayer graphene (BLG) samples. Contrary to the expected noise increase with the resistance, the noise for SLG decreases near the Dirac point, possibly due to the effects of the spatial charge inhomogeneity. Read More

We describe and analyze a cellular nonlinear network based on magnetic nanostructures for image processing. The network consists of magneto-electric cells integrated onto a common ferromagnetic film - spin wave bus. The magneto-electric cell is an artificial two-phase multiferroic structure comprising piezoelectric and ferromagnetic materials. Read More

We argue that surface magnetization of a metallic ferromagnet can be turned on and off isothermally by an applied voltage. For this, the material's electron subsystem must be close enough to the boundary between para- and ferromagnetic regions on the electron density scale. For the 3d series, the boundary is between Ni and Cu, which makes their alloy a primary candidate. Read More

We propose and analyze a spin wave amplifier aimed to enhance the amplitude of the propagating spin wave via the magnetoelectric effect. The amplifier is a two-layer multiferroic structure, which comprises piezoelectric and ferromagnetic materials. By applying electric field to the piezoelectric layer, the stress is produced. Read More

We demonstrate a three-terminal spin wave-based device utilizing spin wave interference. The device consists of three coplanar transmission lines inductively coupled to the 100nm thick CoFe film. Two spin wave signals are excited by microwave fields produced by electric current in two sets of lines, and the output signal is detected by the third set. Read More

The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a topologically non-trivial state of quantum matter which preserves time-reversal symmetry; it has an energy gap in the bulk, but topologically robust gapless states at the edge. Recently, this novel effect has been predicted and observed in HgTe quantum wells. In this work we predict a similar effect arising in Type-II semiconductor quantum wells made from InAs/GaSb/AlSb. Read More

We propose and describe a magnetic NanoFabric which provides a route to building reconfigurable spin-based logic circuits compatible with conventional electron-based devices. A distinctive feature of the proposed NanoFabric is that a bit of information is encoded into the phase of the spin wave signal. It makes possible to transmit information without the use of electric current and utilize wave interference for useful logic functionality. Read More

We present a feasibility study of logic circuits utilizing spin waves for information transmission and processing. As an alternative approach to the transistor-based architecture, logic circuits with spin wave bus do not use charge as an information carrier. In this work we describe the general concept of logic circuits with spin wave bus and illustrate its performance by numerical simulations based on available experimental data. Read More

This Letter reports a new wave phenomenon. We show that wave energy can be stored in random media. Associated with such energy storage is a global collective behavior. Read More

We present a model for quantum computation using n steady 3-level atoms or 3-level quantum dots, kept inside a quantum electro-dynamics (QED) cavity. Our model allows one-qubit operations and the two-qubit controlled-NOT gate as required for universal quantum computation. The n quantum bits are described by two energy levels of each atom/dot. Read More