# Kai Chen - Fermi National Accelerator Lab

## Contact Details

NameKai Chen |
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AffiliationFermi National Accelerator Lab |
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CityBatavia |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesMathematics - Information Theory (11) Computer Science - Information Theory (11) High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (9) Quantum Physics (7) High Energy Physics - Experiment (5) Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (5) Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (5) Computer Science - Cryptography and Security (4) Physics - Materials Science (3) Computer Science - Learning (2) Physics - Accelerator Physics (2) Statistics - Machine Learning (2) Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (2) Computer Science - Computation and Language (2) Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (1) Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture (1) Physics - Optics (1) Computer Science - Software Engineering (1) Physics - Chemical Physics (1) Physics - Statistical Mechanics (1) Physics - Computational Physics (1) Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry (1) Physics - Popular Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By Kai Chen

In this paper, we propose a Polar coding scheme for parallel Gaussian channels. The encoder knows the sum rate of the parallel channels but does not know the rate of any channel. By using the nesting property of Polar code, we design a coding/decoding scheme to achieve the sum rates. Read More

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol was proposed to remove all the detector side channel attacks, while its security relies on the trusted encoding systems. Here we propose a one-sided MDI-QKD (1SMDI-QKD) protocol, which enjoys detection loophole-free advantage, and at the same time weakens the state preparation assumption in MDI-QKD. The 1SMDI-QKD can be regarded as a modified MDI-QKD, in which Bob's encoding system is trusted, while Alice's is uncharacterized. Read More

This paper presents a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based page segmentation method for handwritten historical document images. We consider page segmentation as a pixel labeling problem, i.e. Read More

Singlet exciton fission (SF), the conversion of one spin-singlet exciton (S1) into two spin-triplet excitons (T1), could provide a means to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit in photovoltaics. SF as measured by the decay of S1 has been shown to occur efficiently and independently of temperature even when the energy of S1 is as much as 200 meV less than 2T1. Here, we study films of TIPS-tetracene using transient optical spectroscopy and show that the initial rise of the triplet pair state (TT) occurs in 300 fs, matched by rapid loss of S1 stimulated emission, and that this process is mediated by the strong coupling of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. Read More

Inspired by the boom of the consumer IoT market, many device manufacturers, start-up companies and technology giants have jumped into the space. Unfortunately, the exciting utility and rapid marketization of IoT, come at the expense of privacy and security. Industry reports and academic work have revealed many attacks on IoT systems, resulting in privacy leakage, property loss and large-scale availability problems. Read More

Hypergraph states, a generalization of graph states, constitute a large class of quantum states with intriguing non-local properties and have promising applications in quantum information science and technology. In this paper, we generalize hypergraph states to qudit hypergraph states, i.e. Read More

We present the systematical decomposition results of three-dimensional (3D) fragmentation functions (FFs) from parton correlators for spin-1 hadron. We choose one of the best process $e^+e^-\to V\pi X$ to study the 3D and tensor polarization dependent FFs. By making a general kinematic analysis we show that the cross section is expressed by 81 independent structure functions, and get the results of the azimuthal and spin asymmetries. Read More

A logarithmic oscillator has been proposed recently to serve as a thermostat recently since it has a peculiar property of infinite heat capacity according to the virial theorem. In order to examine its feasibility by numerical simulations, a modified logarithmic potential has been applied in previous studies to eliminate the singularity at origin. The role played by the modification has been elucidated in the present study. Read More

Polar codes are the first class of constructive channel codes achieving the symmetric capacity of the binary-input discrete memoryless channels. But the corresponding code length is limited to the power of two. In this paper, we establish a systematic framework to design the rate-compatible punctured polar (RCPP) codes with arbitrary code length. Read More

We present for the first time the complete twist-4 result for the semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering $e^- N \to e^-qX$ with polarized electron and proton beams at the tree level of pQCD. The calculations have been carried out using the formulism obtained after collinear expansion where the multiple gluon scattering are taken into account and gauge links are obtained automatically in a systematical way. The results show in particular that there are twist-4 contributions to all the eight twist-2 structure functions for $e^- N \to e^-hX$ that correspond to the eight twist-2 transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions. Read More

Recently, discriminatively learned correlation filters (DCF) has drawn much attention in visual object tracking community. The success of DCF is potentially attributed to the fact that a large amount of samples are utilized to train the ridge regression model and predict the location of object. To solve the regression problem in an efficient way, these samples are all generated by circularly shifting from a search patch. Read More

**Authors:**Lannan Luo, Qiang Zeng, Chen Cao, Kai Chen, Jian Liu, Limin Liu, Neng Gao, Min Yang, Xinyu Xing, Peng Liu

Android Framework is a layer of software that exists in every Android system managing resources of all Android apps. A vulnerability in Android Framework can lead to severe hacks, such as destroying user data and leaking private information. With tens of millions of Android devices unpatched due to Android fragmentation, vulnerabilities in Android Framework certainly attract attackers to exploit them. Read More

The longitudinal polarization of hyperons in $e^+e^-$ annihilation at high energies depends on the longitudinal polarization of the quark produced at the $e^+e^-$ annihilation vertex whereas the spin alignment of vector mesons is independent of it. They exhibit very different energy dependences. We use the longitudinal polarization of Lambda hyperon and the spin alignment of $K^*$ as examples and present numerical results of energy dependences. Read More

We prove the K\"unneth formula for the irregular Hodge filtrations on the exponentially twisted de Rham and the Higgs cohomologies of smooth quasi-projective complex varieties. The method involves a careful study of the underlying chain complexes under a certain elimination of indeterminacy. Read More

For accelerator physics experiment, the Front-End (FE) electronics components are subjected to a radiation background. GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) architecture is a protocol developed by CERN, to provide high-speed (4.8 Gbps) radiation hard optical link for data transmission. Read More

Various paradoxes about the relativity theory have been developed since the birth of this theory. Each paradox somewhat shows people's query about the relativity theory, and solving of each paradox demonstrates the correctness of relativity theory once again. In this paper, four paradoxes about the special theory of relativity are brought forward: displacement paradox, electromagnetic transformation paradox, Doppler paradox and magnetic force paradox. Read More

We present the systematic results for three dimensional fragmentation functions of spin one hadrons defined via quark-quark correlator. There are totally 72 such fragmentation functions, among them 18 are twist-2, 36 are twist-3 and 18 are twist-4. We also present the relationships between the twist-3 parts and those defined via quark-gluon-quark correlator obtained from the QCD equation of motion. Read More

One of the main challenges of visual object tracking comes from the arbitrary appearance of objects. Most existing algorithms try to resolve this problem as an object-specific task, i.e. Read More

Scene text recognition plays an important role in many computer vision applications. The small size of available public available scene text datasets is the main challenge when training a text recognition CNN model. In this paper, we propose a CNN based Chinese text recognition algorithm. Read More

Candidate text region extraction plays a critical role in convolutional neural network (CNN) based text detection from natural images. In this paper, we propose a CNN based scene text detection algorithm with a new text region extractor. The so called candidate text region extractor I-MSER is based on Maximally Stable Extremal Region (MSER), which can improve the independency and completeness of the extracted candidate text regions. Read More

Angular momentum transport in magnetic multilayered structures plays a central role in spintronic physics and devices. The angular momentum currents or spin currents are carried by either quasi-particles such as electrons and magnons, or by macroscopic order parameters such as local magnetization of ferromagnets. Based on the generic interface exchange interaction, we develop a microscopic theory that describes interfacial spin conductance for various interfaces among non-magnetic metals, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic insulators. Read More

ATLAS LAr calorimeter will perform its Phase-I upgrade during the long shut down (LS2) in 2018, a new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) will be designed and installed. Several commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) multichannel high-speed ADCs have been selected as possible backups of the radiation tolerant ADC ASICs for LTDB. In order to evaluate the radiation tolerance of these back up commercial ADCs, we developed an ADC radiation tolerance characterization system, which includes the ADC boards, data acquisition (DAQ) board, signal generator, external power supplies and a host computer. Read More

We report large enhancement of thermally injected spin current in normal metal (NM)/antiferromagnet(AF)/yttrium iron garnet(YIG), where a thin AF insulating layer of NiO or CoO can enhance spin current from YIG to a NM by up to a factor of 10. The spin current enhancement in NM/AF/YIG, with a pronounced maximum near the N\'eel temperature of the thin AF layer, has been found to scale linearly with the spin-mixing conductance at the NM/YIG interface for NM = 3d, 4d, and 5d metals. Calculations of spin current enhancement and spin mixing conductance are qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. Read More

The boundary between classical and quantum correlations is well characterised by linear constraints called Bell inequalities. It is much harder to characterise the boundary of the quantum set itself in the space of no-signaling correlations. For the points on the quantum boundary that violate maximally some Bell inequalities, Oppenheim and Wehner [Science 330, 1072 (2010)] pointed out a complex property: the optimal measurements of Alice steer Bob's local state to the eigenstate of an effective operator corresponding to its maximal eigenvalue. Read More

Coupling mechanical degrees of freedom with plasmonic resonances has potential applications in optomechanics, sensing, and active plasmonics. Here we demonstrate a suspended two-wire plasmonic nano-antenna acting like a nano-electrometer. The antenna wires are supported and electrically connected via thin leads without disturbing the antenna resonance. Read More

A rateless coding scheme transmits incrementally more and more coded bits over an unknown channel until all the information bits are decoded reliably by the receiver. We propose a new rateless coding scheme based on polar codes, and we show that this scheme is capacity-achieving, i.e. Read More

Polar codes under cyclic redundancy check aided successive cancellation list (CA-SCL) decoding can outperform the turbo codes and the LDPC codes when code lengths are configured to be several kilobits. In order to reduce the decoding complexity, a novel tree-pruning scheme for the \mbox{SCL/CA-SCL} decoding algorithms is proposed in this paper. In each step of the decoding procedure, the candidate paths with metrics less than a threshold are dropped directly to avoid the unnecessary computations for the path searching on the descendant branches of them. Read More

We present a short overview on the studies of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions of the nucleon. The aim of such studies is to provide a three dimensional imagining of the nucleon and a comprehensive description of semi-inclusive high energy reactions. By comparing with the theoretical framework that we have for the inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering and the one-dimensional imaging of the nucleon, we summarize what we need to do in order to construct such a comprehensive theoretical framework for semi-inclusive processes in terms of three dimensional gauge invariant parton distributions. Read More

In this paper, we propose a decision-aided scheme for parallel SC-List decoding of polar codes. At the parallel SC-List decoder, each survival path is extended based on multiple information bits, therefore the number of split paths becomes very large and the sorting to find the top L paths becomes very complex. We propose a decision-aided scheme to reduce the number of split paths and thus reduce the sorting complexity. Read More

On modern operating systems, applications under the same user are separated from each other, for the purpose of protecting them against malware and compromised programs. Given the complexity of today's OSes, less clear is whether such isolation is effective against different kind of cross-app resource access attacks (called XARA in our research). To better understand the problem, on the less-studied Apple platforms, we conducted a systematic security analysis on MAC OS~X and iOS. Read More

We present the systematic results for three dimensional fragmentation functions defined via the quark-quark correlator for hadrons with spin 0, 1/2 and 1 respectively. These results are presented in terms of a spin independent part, a vector polarization dependent part and a tensor polarization dependent part. For spin 0 hadrons, only the spin independent part is needed, for spin 1/2 hadron, the polarization independent and vector polarization dependent parts are present, while for spin 1 hadrons, all the three parts exist. Read More

Low-temperature-resistivity plateau observed in $\rm SmB_6$ single crystal,which is due to surface, not bulk, conduction has been confirmed from electrical transport measurements. Recently, the correlation between bulk thermodynamic measurements and the low-temperature-resistance plateau in $\rm SmB_6$ have been investigated and a change in Sm valence at the surface has been obtained from x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Here we show that the statement of the report are not supported by the results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Read More

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering demonstrates that two parties share entanglement even if the measurement devices of one party are untrusted. Here, going beyond this bipartite concept, we develop a novel formalism to explore a large class of EPR steering from generic multipartite quantum systems of arbitrarily high dimensionality and degrees of freedom, such as graph states and hyperentangled systems. All of these quantum characteristics of genuine high-order EPR steering can be efficiently certified with few measurement settings in experiments. Read More

Electronic components used in high energy physics experiments are subjected to a radiation background composed of high energy hadrons, mesons and photons. These particles can induce permanent and transient effects that affect the normal device operation. Ionizing dose and displacement damage can cause chronic damage which disable the device permanently. Read More

By applying the collinear expansion to the semi-inclusive hadron production process $e^++e^-\to h+\bar q(jet)+X$ at high energies, we construct a theoretical framework where the leading and higher twist contributions at the leading perturbative QCD can be calculated systematically. With this framework, we calculate the contributions up to twist-3 for spin-0, spin-1/2 and spin-1 hadrons respectively. We present the results for the hadronic tensors, the differential cross sections, the azimuthal asymmetries, and the polarizations of the hadrons. Read More

Vulnerabilities and imperfections of single-photon detectors have been shown to compromise security for quantum key distribution (QKD). The measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD) appears to be the most appealing solution to solve the issues. However, in practice one faces severe obstacles of having significantly lower key generation rate, difficult two photon interferences, and remote synchronization etc. Read More

Data center networks need to provide low latency, especially at the tail, as demanded by many interactive applications. To improve tail latency, existing approaches require modifications to switch hardware and/or end-host operating systems, making them difficult to be deployed. We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of RepNet, an application layer transport that can be deployed today. Read More

Radiation-tolerant, high speed, high density and low power commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are planned to be used in the upgrade to the Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter front end (FE) trigger readout electronics. Total ionization dose (TID) and single event effect (SEE) are two important radiation effects which need to be characterized on COTS ADCs. In our initial TID test, Texas Instruments (TI) ADS5272 was identified to be the top performer after screening a total 17 COTS ADCs from different manufacturers with dynamic range and sampling rate meeting the requirements of the FE electronics. Read More

The polar codes are proven to be capacity-achieving and are shown to have equivalent or even better finite-length performance than the turbo/LDPC codes under some improved decoding algorithms over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. Polar coding is based on the so-called channel polarization phenomenon induced by a transform over the underlying binary-input channel. The channel polarization is found to be universal in many signal processing problems and has been applied to the coded modulation schemes. Read More

A hybrid automatic repeat request scheme with Chase combing (HARQ-CC) of polar codes is proposed. The existing analysis tools of the underlying rate-compatible punctured polar (RCPP) codes for additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels are extended to Rayleigh fading channels. Then, an approximation bound of the throughput efficiency for the polar coded HARQ-CC scheme is derived. Read More

The recently introduced continuous Skip-gram model is an efficient method for learning high-quality distributed vector representations that capture a large number of precise syntactic and semantic word relationships. In this paper we present several extensions that improve both the quality of the vectors and the training speed. By subsampling of the frequent words we obtain significant speedup and also learn more regular word representations. Read More

Sphere decoding (SD) of polar codes is an efficient method to achieve the error performance of maximum likelihood (ML) decoding. But the complexity of the conventional sphere decoder is still high, where the candidates in a target sphere are enumerated and the radius is decreased gradually until no available candidate is in the sphere. In order to reduce the complexity of SD, a stack SD (SSD) algorithm with an efficient enumeration is proposed in this paper. Read More

**Authors:**LBNE Collaboration, Corey Adams

^{1}, David Adams

^{2}, Tarek Akiri

^{3}, Tyler Alion

^{4}, Kris Anderson

^{5}, Costas Andreopoulos

^{6}, Mike Andrews

^{7}, Ioana Anghel

^{8}, João Carlos Costa dos Anjos

^{9}, Maddalena Antonello

^{10}, Enrique Arrieta-Diaz

^{11}, Marina Artuso

^{12}, Jonathan Asaadi

^{13}, Xinhua Bai

^{14}, Bagdat Baibussinov

^{15}, Michael Baird

^{16}, Baha Balantekin

^{17}, Bruce Baller

^{18}, Brian Baptista

^{19}, D'Ann Barker

^{20}, Gary Barker

^{21}, William A. Barletta

^{22}, Giles Barr

^{23}, Larry Bartoszek

^{24}, Amit Bashyal

^{25}, Matt Bass

^{26}, Vincenzo Bellini

^{27}, Pietro Angelo Benetti

^{28}, Bruce E. Berger

^{29}, Marc Bergevin

^{30}, Eileen Berman

^{31}, Hans-Gerd Berns

^{32}, Adam Bernstein

^{33}, Robert Bernstein

^{34}, Babu Bhandari

^{35}, Vipin Bhatnagar

^{36}, Bipul Bhuyan

^{37}, Jianming Bian

^{38}, Mary Bishai

^{39}, Andrew Blake

^{40}, Flor Blaszczyk

^{41}, Erik Blaufuss

^{42}, Bruce Bleakley

^{43}, Edward Blucher

^{44}, Steve Blusk

^{45}, Virgil Bocean

^{46}, F. Boffelli

^{47}, Jan Boissevain

^{48}, Timothy Bolton

^{49}, Maurizio Bonesini

^{50}, Steve Boyd

^{51}, Andrew Brandt

^{52}, Richard Breedon

^{53}, Carl Bromberg

^{54}, Ralph Brown

^{55}, Giullia Brunetti

^{56}, Norman Buchanan

^{57}, Bill Bugg

^{58}, Jerome Busenitz

^{59}, E. Calligarich

^{60}, Leslie Camilleri

^{61}, Giada Carminati

^{62}, Rachel Carr

^{63}, Cesar Castromonte

^{64}, Flavio Cavanna

^{65}, Sandro Centro

^{66}, Alex Chen

^{67}, Hucheng Chen

^{68}, Kai Chen

^{69}, Daniel Cherdack

^{70}, Cheng-Yi Chi

^{71}, Sam Childress

^{72}, Brajesh Chandra Choudhary

^{73}, Georgios Christodoulou

^{74}, Cabot-Ann Christofferson

^{75}, Eric Church

^{76}, David Cline

^{77}, Thomas Coan

^{78}, Alfredo Cocco

^{79}, Joao Coelho

^{80}, Stephen Coleman

^{81}, Janet M. Conrad

^{82}, Mark Convery

^{83}, Robert Corey

^{84}, Luke Corwin

^{85}, Jack Cranshaw

^{86}, Daniel Cronin-Hennessy

^{87}, A. Curioni

^{88}, Helio da Motta

^{89}, Tristan Davenne

^{90}, Gavin S. Davies

^{91}, Steven Dazeley

^{92}, Kaushik De

^{93}, Andre de Gouvea

^{94}, Jeffrey K. de Jong

^{95}, David Demuth

^{96}, Chris Densham

^{97}, Milind Diwan

^{98}, Zelimir Djurcic

^{99}, R. Dolfini

^{100}, Jeffrey Dolph

^{101}, Gary Drake

^{102}, Stephen Dye

^{103}, Hongue Dyuang

^{104}, Daniel Edmunds

^{105}, Steven Elliott

^{106}, Muhammad Elnimr

^{107}, Sarah Eno

^{108}, Sanshiro Enomoto

^{109}, Carlos O. Escobar

^{110}, Justin Evans

^{111}, A. Falcone

^{112}, Lisa Falk

^{113}, Amir Farbin

^{114}, Christian Farnese

^{115}, Angela Fava

^{116}, John Felde

^{117}, S. Fernandes

^{118}, Fernando Ferroni

^{119}, Farshid Feyzi

^{120}, Laura Fields

^{121}, Alex Finch

^{122}, Mike Fitton

^{123}, Bonnie Fleming

^{124}, Jack Fowler

^{125}, Walt Fox

^{126}, Alex Friedland

^{127}, Stu Fuess

^{128}, Brian Fujikawa

^{129}, Hugh Gallagher

^{130}, Raj Gandhi

^{131}, Gerald Garvey

^{132}, Victor M. Gehman

^{133}, Gianluigi de Geronimo

^{134}, Daniele Gibin

^{135}, Ronald Gill

^{136}, Ricardo A. Gomes

^{137}, Maury C. Goodman

^{138}, Jason Goon

^{139}, Nicholas Graf

^{140}, Mathew Graham

^{141}, Rik Gran

^{142}, Christopher Grant

^{143}, Nick Grant

^{144}, Herbert Greenlee

^{145}, Leland Greenler

^{146}, Sean Grullon

^{147}, Elena Guardincerri

^{148}, Victor Guarino

^{149}, Evan Guarnaccia

^{150}, Germano Guedes

^{151}, Roxanne Guenette

^{152}, Alberto Guglielmi

^{153}, Marcelo M. Guzzo

^{154}, Alec T. Habig

^{155}, Robert W. Hackenburg

^{156}, Haleh Hadavand

^{157}, Alan Hahn

^{158}, Martin Haigh

^{159}, Todd Haines

^{160}, Thomas Handler

^{161}, Sunej Hans

^{162}, Jeff Hartnell

^{163}, John Harton

^{164}, Robert Hatcher

^{165}, Athans Hatzikoutelis

^{166}, Steven Hays

^{167}, Eric Hazen

^{168}, Mike Headley

^{169}, Anne Heavey

^{170}, Karsten Heeger

^{171}, Jaret Heise

^{172}, Robert Hellauer

^{173}, Jeremy Hewes

^{174}, Alexander Himmel

^{175}, Matthew Hogan

^{176}, Pedro Holanda

^{177}, Anna Holin

^{178}, Glenn Horton-Smith

^{179}, Joe Howell

^{180}, Patrick Hurh

^{181}, Joey Huston

^{182}, James Hylen

^{183}, Richard Imlay

^{184}, Jonathan Insler

^{185}, G. Introzzi

^{186}, Zeynep Isvan

^{187}, Chris Jackson

^{188}, John Jacobsen

^{189}, David E. Jaffe

^{190}, Cat James

^{191}, Chun-Min Jen

^{192}, Marvin Johnson

^{193}, Randy Johnson

^{194}, Robert Johnson

^{195}, Scott Johnson

^{196}, William Johnston

^{197}, John Johnstone

^{198}, Ben J. P. Jones

^{199}, H. Jostlein

^{200}, Thomas Junk

^{201}, Richard Kadel

^{202}, Karl Kaess

^{203}, Georgia Karagiorgi

^{204}, Jarek Kaspar

^{205}, Teppei Katori

^{206}, Boris Kayser

^{207}, Edward Kearns

^{208}, Paul Keener

^{209}, Ernesto Kemp

^{210}, Steve H. Kettell

^{211}, Mike Kirby

^{212}, Joshua Klein

^{213}, Gordon Koizumi

^{214}, Sacha Kopp

^{215}, Laura Kormos

^{216}, William Kropp

^{217}, Vitaly A. Kudryavtsev

^{218}, Ashok Kumar

^{219}, Jason Kumar

^{220}, Thomas Kutter

^{221}, Franco La Zia

^{222}, Kenneth Lande

^{223}, Charles Lane

^{224}, Karol Lang

^{225}, Francesco Lanni

^{226}, Richard Lanza

^{227}, Tony Latorre

^{228}, John Learned

^{229}, David Lee

^{230}, Kevin Lee

^{231}, Qizhong Li

^{232}, Shaorui Li

^{233}, Yichen Li

^{234}, Zepeng Li

^{235}, Jiang Libo

^{236}, Steve Linden

^{237}, Jiajie Ling

^{238}, Jonathan Link

^{239}, Laurence Littenberg

^{240}, Hu Liu

^{241}, Qiuguang Liu

^{242}, Tiankuan Liu

^{243}, John Losecco

^{244}, William Louis

^{245}, Byron Lundberg

^{246}, Tracy Lundin

^{247}, Jay Lundy

^{248}, Ana Amelia Machado

^{249}, Cara Maesano

^{250}, Steve Magill

^{251}, George Mahler

^{252}, David Malon

^{253}, Stephen Malys

^{254}, Francesco Mammoliti

^{255}, Samit Kumar Mandal

^{256}, Anthony Mann

^{257}, Paul Mantsch

^{258}, Alberto Marchionni

^{259}, William Marciano

^{260}, Camillo Mariani

^{261}, Jelena Maricic

^{262}, Alysia Marino

^{263}, Marvin Marshak

^{264}, John Marshall

^{265}, Shiegenobu Matsuno

^{266}, Christopher Mauger

^{267}, Konstantinos Mavrokoridis

^{268}, Nate Mayer

^{269}, Neil McCauley

^{270}, Elaine McCluskey

^{271}, Kirk McDonald

^{272}, Kevin McFarland

^{273}, David McKee

^{274}, Robert McKeown

^{275}, Robert McTaggart

^{276}, Rashid Mehdiyev

^{277}, Dongming Mei

^{278}, A. Menegolli

^{279}, Guang Meng

^{280}, Yixiong Meng

^{281}, David Mertins

^{282}, Mark Messier

^{283}, William Metcalf

^{284}, Radovan Milincic

^{285}, William Miller

^{286}, Geoff Mills

^{287}, Sanjib R. Mishra

^{288}, Nikolai Mokhov

^{289}, Claudio Montanari

^{290}, David Montanari

^{291}, Craig Moore

^{292}, Jorge Morfin

^{293}, Ben Morgan

^{294}, William Morse

^{295}, Zander Moss

^{296}, Célio A. Moura

^{297}, Stuart Mufson

^{298}, David Muller

^{299}, Jim Musser

^{300}, Donna Naples

^{301}, Jim Napolitano

^{302}, Mitch Newcomer

^{303}, Ryan Nichol

^{304}, Tim Nicholls

^{305}, Evan Niner

^{306}, Barry Norris

^{307}, Jaroslaw Nowak

^{308}, Helen O'Keeffe

^{309}, Roberto Oliveira

^{310}, Travis Olson

^{311}, Brian Page

^{312}, Sandip Pakvasa

^{313}, Ornella Palamara

^{314}, Jon Paley

^{315}, Vittorio Paolone

^{316}, Vaia Papadimitriou

^{317}, Seongtae Park

^{318}, Zohreh Parsa

^{319}, Kinga Partyka

^{320}, Bob Paulos

^{321}, Zarko Pavlovic

^{322}, Simon Peeters

^{323}, Andy Perch

^{324}, Jon D. Perkin

^{325}, Roberto Petti

^{326}, Andre Petukhov

^{327}, Francesco Pietropaolo

^{328}, Robert Plunkett

^{329}, Chris Polly

^{330}, Stephen Pordes

^{331}, Maxim Potekhin

^{332}, Renato Potenza

^{333}, Arati Prakash

^{334}, Oleg Prokofiev

^{335}, Xin Qian

^{336}, Jennifer L. Raaf

^{337}, Veljko Radeka

^{338}, Igor Rakhno

^{339}, Yorck Ramachers

^{340}, Regina Rameika

^{341}, John Ramsey

^{342}, A. Rappoldi

^{343}, G. L. Raselli

^{344}, Peter Ratoff

^{345}, Shreyas Ravindra

^{346}, Brian Rebel

^{347}, Juergen Reichenbacher

^{348}, Dianne Reitzner

^{349}, Sergio Rescia

^{350}, Martin Richardson

^{351}, Kieth Rielage

^{352}, Kurt Riesselmann

^{353}, Matt Robinson

^{354}, Leon Rochester

^{355}, Michael Ronquest

^{356}, Marc Rosen

^{357}, M. Rossella

^{358}, Carlo Rubbia

^{359}, Russ Rucinski

^{360}, Sandeep Sahijpal

^{361}, Himansu Sahoo

^{362}, Paola Sala

^{363}, Delia Salmiera

^{364}, Nicholas Samios

^{365}, Mayly Sanchez

^{366}, Alberto Scaramelli

^{367}, Heidi Schellman

^{368}, Richard Schmitt

^{369}, David Schmitz

^{370}, Jack Schneps

^{371}, Kate Scholberg

^{372}, Ettore Segreto

^{373}, Stanley Seibert

^{374}, Liz Sexton-Kennedy

^{375}, Mike Shaevitz

^{376}, Peter Shanahan

^{377}, Rahul Sharma

^{378}, Terri Shaw

^{379}, Nikolaos Simos

^{380}, Venktesh Singh

^{381}, Gus Sinnis

^{382}, William Sippach

^{383}, Tomasz Skwarnicki

^{384}, Michael Smy

^{385}, Henry Sobel

^{386}, Mitch Soderberg

^{387}, John Sondericker

^{388}, Walter Sondheim

^{389}, Alexandre Sousa

^{390}, Neil J. C. Spooner

^{391}, Michelle Stancari

^{392}, Ion Stancu

^{393}, Dorota Stefan

^{394}, Andy Stefanik

^{395}, James Stewart

^{396}, Sheldon Stone

^{397}, James Strait

^{398}, Matthew Strait

^{399}, Sergei Striganov

^{400}, Gregory Sullivan

^{401}, Yujing Sun

^{402}, Louise Suter

^{403}, Andrew Svenson

^{404}, Robert Svoboda

^{405}, Barbara Szczerbinska

^{406}, Andrzej Szelc

^{407}, Matthew Szydagis

^{408}, Stefan Söldner-Rembold

^{409}, Richard Talaga

^{410}, Matthew Tamsett

^{411}, Salman Tariq

^{412}, Rex Tayloe

^{413}, Charles Taylor

^{414}, David Taylor

^{415}, Artin Teymourian

^{416}, Harry Themann

^{417}, Matthew Thiesse

^{418}, Jenny Thomas

^{419}, Lee F. Thompson

^{420}, Mark Thomson

^{421}, Craig Thorn

^{422}, Matt Thorpe

^{423}, Xinchun Tian

^{424}, Doug Tiedt

^{425}, Walter Toki

^{426}, Nikolai Tolich

^{427}, M. Torti

^{428}, Matt Toups

^{429}, Christos Touramanis

^{430}, Mani Tripathi

^{431}, Igor Tropin

^{432}, Yun-Tse Tsai

^{433}, Craig Tull

^{434}, Martin Tzanov

^{435}, Jon Urheim

^{436}, Shawn Usman

^{437}, Mark Vagins

^{438}, Gustavo Valdiviesso

^{439}, Rick Van Berg

^{440}, Richard Van de Water

^{441}, Peter Van Gemmeren

^{442}, Filippo Varanini

^{443}, Gary Varner

^{444}, Kamran Vaziri

^{445}, Gueorgui Velev

^{446}, Sandro Ventura

^{447}, Chiara Vignoli

^{448}, Brett Viren

^{449}, Dan Wahl

^{450}, Abby Waldron

^{451}, Christopher W. Walter

^{452}, Hanguo Wang

^{453}, Wei Wang

^{454}, Karl Warburton

^{455}, David Warner

^{456}, Ryan Wasserman

^{457}, Blake Watson

^{458}, Alfons Weber

^{459}, Wenzhao Wei

^{460}, Douglas Wells

^{461}, Matthew Wetstein

^{462}, Andy White

^{463}, Hywel White

^{464}, Lisa Whitehead

^{465}, Denver Whittington

^{466}, Joshua Willhite

^{467}, Robert J. Wilson

^{468}, Lindley Winslow

^{469}, Kevin Wood

^{470}, Elizabeth Worcester

^{471}, Matthew Worcester

^{472}, Tian Xin

^{473}, Kevin Yarritu

^{474}, Jingbo Ye

^{475}, Minfang Yeh

^{476}, Bo Yu

^{477}, Jae Yu

^{478}, Tianlu Yuan

^{479}, A. Zani

^{480}, Geralyn P. Zeller

^{481}, Chao Zhang

^{482}, Chao Zhang

^{483}, Eric D. Zimmerman

^{484}, Robert Zwaska

^{485}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Yale University,

^{2}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{3}Duke University,

^{4}Univ. of South Carolina,

^{5}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{6}Univ. of Liverpool,

^{7}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{8}Iowa State University,

^{9}Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas,

^{10}Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso,

^{11}Michigan State University,

^{12}Syracuse University,

^{13}Syracuse University,

^{14}South Dakota School of Mines and Technology,

^{15}Univ. of Padova,

^{16}Indiana University,

^{17}Univ. of Wisconsin,

^{18}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{19}Indiana University,

^{20}Univ. of South Dakota,

^{21}Univ. of Warwick,

^{22}Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

^{23}Univ. of Oxford,

^{24}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{25}Univ. of Texas,

^{26}Colorado State University,

^{27}Univ. di Catania,

^{28}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{29}Colorado State University,

^{30}Univ. of California,

^{31}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{32}Univ. of California,

^{33}Lawrence Livermore National Lab,

^{34}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{35}Univ. of Houston,

^{36}Panjab University,

^{37}Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,

^{38}Univ. of Minnesota,

^{39}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{40}Univ. of Cambridge,

^{41}Louisiana State University,

^{42}Univ. of Maryland,

^{43}South Dakota State University,

^{44}Univ. of Chicago,

^{45}Syracuse University,

^{46}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{47}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{48}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{49}Kansas State University,

^{50}Univ. of Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca,

^{51}Univ. of Warwick,

^{52}Univ. of Texas,

^{53}Univ. of California,

^{54}Michigan State University,

^{55}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{56}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{57}Colorado State University,

^{58}Univ. of Tennessee,

^{59}Univ. of Alabama,

^{60}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{61}Columbia University,

^{62}Univ. of California,

^{63}Columbia University,

^{64}Univ. Federal de Goias,

^{65}Yale University,

^{66}Univ. of Padova,

^{67}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{68}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{69}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{70}Colorado State University,

^{71}Columbia University,

^{72}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{73}Univ. of Delhi,

^{74}Univ. of Liverpool,

^{75}South Dakota School of Mines and Technology,

^{76}Yale University,

^{77}Univ. of California,

^{78}Southern Methodist University,

^{79}Univ. di Napoli,

^{80}Tufts University,

^{81}Univ. of Colorado,

^{82}Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

^{83}SLAC National Acceleratory Laboratory,

^{84}South Dakota School of Mines and Technology,

^{85}South Dakota School of Mines and Technology,

^{86}Argonne National Lab,

^{87}Univ. of Minnesota,

^{88}Univ. of Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca,

^{89}Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas,

^{90}STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,

^{91}Iowa State University,

^{92}Lawrence Livermore National Lab,

^{93}Univ. of Texas,

^{94}Northwestern University,

^{95}Univ. of Oxford,

^{96}Univ. of Minnesota,

^{97}STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,

^{98}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{99}Argonne National Lab,

^{100}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{101}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{102}Argonne National Lab,

^{103}Univ. of Hawaii,

^{104}Univ. of South Carolina,

^{105}Michigan State University,

^{106}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{107}Univ. of Alabama,

^{108}Univ. of Maryland,

^{109}Univ. of Washington,

^{110}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{111}Univ. of Manchester,

^{112}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{113}Univ. of Sussex,

^{114}Univ. of Texas,

^{115}Univ. of Padova,

^{116}Univ. of Padova,

^{117}Univ. of Maryland,

^{118}Univ. of Alabama,

^{119}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{120}Univ. of Wisconsin,

^{121}Northwestern University,

^{122}Lancaster University,

^{123}STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,

^{124}Yale University,

^{125}Duke University,

^{126}Indiana University,

^{127}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{128}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{129}Lawrence Berkeley National Lab,

^{130}Tufts University,

^{131}Harish-Chandra Research Institute,

^{132}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{133}Lawrence Berkeley National Lab,

^{134}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{135}Univ. of Padova,

^{136}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{137}Univ. Federal de Goias,

^{138}Argonne National Lab,

^{139}Univ. of South Dakota,

^{140}Univ. of Pittsburgh,

^{141}SLAC National Acceleratory Laboratory,

^{142}Univ. of Minnesota,

^{143}Univ. of California,

^{144}Lancaster University,

^{145}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{146}Univ. of Wisconsin,

^{147}Univ. of Pennsylvania,

^{148}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{149}Argonne National Lab,

^{150}Virginia Tech,

^{151}Univ. Estadual de Feira de Santana,

^{152}Yale University,

^{153}Univ. of Padova,

^{154}Univ. de Campinas,

^{155}Univ. of Minnesota,

^{156}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{157}Univ. of Texas,

^{158}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{159}Univ. of Warwick,

^{160}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{161}Univ. of Tennessee,

^{162}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{163}Univ. of Sussex,

^{164}Colorado State University,

^{165}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{166}Univ. of Tennessee,

^{167}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{168}Boston University,

^{169}South Dakota Science and Technology Authority,

^{170}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{171}Yale University,

^{172}South Dakota Science and Technology Authority,

^{173}Univ. of Maryland,

^{174}Univ. of Manchester,

^{175}Duke University,

^{176}Colorado State University,

^{177}Univ. de Campinas,

^{178}University College London,

^{179}Kansas State University,

^{180}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{181}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{182}Michigan State University,

^{183}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{184}Louisiana State University,

^{185}Louisiana State University,

^{186}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{187}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{188}Univ. of Texas,

^{189}Univ. of Maryland,

^{190}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{191}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{192}Virginia Tech,

^{193}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{194}Univ. of Cincinnati,

^{195}Univ. of Colorado,

^{196}Univ. of Colorado,

^{197}Colorado State University,

^{198}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{199}Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

^{200}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{201}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{202}Lawrence Berkeley National Lab,

^{203}Univ. of Minnesota,

^{204}Columbia University,

^{205}Univ. of Washington,

^{206}Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

^{207}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{208}Boston University,

^{209}Univ. of Pennsylvania,

^{210}Univ. de Campinas,

^{211}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{212}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{213}Univ. of Pennsylvania,

^{214}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{215}Univ. of Texas,

^{216}Lancaster University,

^{217}Univ. of California,

^{218}Univ. of Sheffield,

^{219}Panjab University,

^{220}Univ. of Hawaii,

^{221}Louisiana State University,

^{222}Univ. di Catania,

^{223}Univ. of Pennsylvania,

^{224}Drexel University,

^{225}Univ. of Texas,

^{226}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{227}Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

^{228}Univ. of Pennsylvania,

^{229}Univ. of Hawaii,

^{230}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{231}Univ. of California,

^{232}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{233}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{234}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{235}Duke University,

^{236}Univ. of South Carolina,

^{237}Boston University,

^{238}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{239}Virginia Tech,

^{240}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{241}Univ. of Houston,

^{242}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{243}Southern Methodist University,

^{244}Univ. of Notre Dame,

^{245}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{246}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{247}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{248}Univ. of Texas,

^{249}INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso,

^{250}Univ. of California,

^{251}Argonne National Lab,

^{252}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{253}Argonne National Lab,

^{254}National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency,

^{255}Univ. di Catania,

^{256}Univ. of Delhi,

^{257}Tufts University,

^{258}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{259}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{260}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{261}Virginia Tech,

^{262}Univ. of Hawaii,

^{263}Univ. of Colorado,

^{264}Univ. of Minnesota,

^{265}Univ. of Cambridge,

^{266}Univ. of Hawaii,

^{267}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{268}Univ. of Liverpool,

^{269}Tufts University,

^{270}Univ. of Liverpool,

^{271}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{272}Princeton University,

^{273}Univ. of Rochester,

^{274}Kansas State University,

^{275}College of William and Mary,

^{276}South Dakota State University,

^{277}Univ. of Texas,

^{278}Univ. of South Dakota,

^{279}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{280}Univ. of Padova,

^{281}Univ. of California,

^{282}Univ. of Alabama,

^{283}Indiana University,

^{284}Louisiana State University,

^{285}Univ. of Hawaii,

^{286}Univ. of Minnesota,

^{287}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{288}Univ. of South Carolina,

^{289}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{290}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{291}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{292}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{293}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{294}Univ. of Warwick,

^{295}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{296}Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

^{297}ABC Federal University,

^{298}Indiana University,

^{299}SLAC National Acceleratory Laboratory,

^{300}Indiana University,

^{301}Univ. of Pittsburgh,

^{302}Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst,

^{303}Univ. of Pennsylvania,

^{304}University College London,

^{305}STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,

^{306}Indiana University,

^{307}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{308}Lancaster University,

^{309}Lancaster University,

^{310}Univ. de Campinas,

^{311}Tufts University,

^{312}Michigan State University,

^{313}Univ. of Hawaii,

^{314}Yale University,

^{315}Argonne National Lab,

^{316}Univ. of Pittsburgh,

^{317}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{318}Univ. of Texas,

^{319}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{320}Yale University,

^{321}Univ. of Wisconsin,

^{322}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{323}Univ. of Sussex,

^{324}University College London,

^{325}Univ. of Sheffield,

^{326}Univ. of South Carolina,

^{327}South Dakota School of Mines and Technology,

^{328}Univ. of Padova,

^{329}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{330}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{331}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{332}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{333}Univ. di Catania,

^{334}Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

^{335}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{336}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{337}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{338}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{339}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{340}Univ. of Warwick,

^{341}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{342}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{343}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{344}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{345}Lancaster University,

^{346}Univ. of Texas,

^{347}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{348}Univ. of Alabama,

^{349}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{350}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{351}Univ. of Sheffield,

^{352}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{353}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{354}Univ. of Sheffield,

^{355}SLAC National Acceleratory Laboratory,

^{356}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{357}Univ. of Hawaii,

^{358}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{359}INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso,

^{360}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{361}Panjab University,

^{362}Argonne National Lab,

^{363}Univ. di Milano,

^{364}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{365}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{366}Iowa State University,

^{367}Univ. di Milano,

^{368}Northwestern University,

^{369}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{370}Univ. of Chicago,

^{371}Tufts University,

^{372}Duke University,

^{373}Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso,

^{374}Univ. of Pennsylvania,

^{375}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{376}Columbia University,

^{377}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{378}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{379}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{380}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{381}Banaras Hindu University,

^{382}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{383}Columbia University,

^{384}Syracuse University,

^{385}Univ. of California,

^{386}Univ. of California,

^{387}Syracuse University,

^{388}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{389}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{390}Univ. of Cincinnati,

^{391}Univ. of Sheffield,

^{392}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{393}Univ. of Alabama,

^{394}Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso,

^{395}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{396}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{397}Syracuse University,

^{398}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{399}Univ. of Chicago,

^{400}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{401}Univ. of Maryland,

^{402}Univ. of Hawaii,

^{403}Argonne National Lab,

^{404}Univ. of South Carolina,

^{405}Univ. of California,

^{406}Dakota State University,

^{407}Yale University,

^{408}Univ. of California,

^{409}Univ. of Manchester,

^{410}Argonne National Lab,

^{411}Univ. of Sussex,

^{412}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{413}Indiana University,

^{414}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{415}South Dakota Science and Technology Authority,

^{416}Univ. of California,

^{417}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{418}Univ. of Sheffield,

^{419}University College London,

^{420}Univ. of Sheffield,

^{421}Univ. of Cambridge,

^{422}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{423}STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,

^{424}Univ. of South Carolina,

^{425}South Dakota School of Mines and Technology,

^{426}Colorado State University,

^{427}Univ. of Washington,

^{428}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{429}Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

^{430}Univ. of Liverpool,

^{431}Univ. of California,

^{432}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{433}SLAC National Acceleratory Laboratory,

^{434}Lawrence Berkeley National Lab,

^{435}Louisiana State University,

^{436}Indiana University,

^{437}National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency,

^{438}Kavli IPMU, Univ. of Tokyo,

^{439}Univ. Federal de Alfenas em Poços de Caldas,

^{440}Univ. of Pennsylvania,

^{441}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{442}Argonne National Lab,

^{443}Univ. of Padova,

^{444}Univ. of Hawaii,

^{445}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{446}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{447}Univ. of Padova,

^{448}Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso,

^{449}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{450}Univ. of Wisconsin,

^{451}Univ. of Sussex,

^{452}Duke University,

^{453}Univ. of California,

^{454}College of William and Mary,

^{455}Univ. of Sheffield,

^{456}Colorado State University,

^{457}Colorado State University,

^{458}Univ. of Texas,

^{459}Univ. of Oxford,

^{460}Univ. of South Dakota,

^{461}South Dakota School of Mines and Technology,

^{462}Univ. of Chicago,

^{463}Univ. of Texas,

^{464}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{465}Univ. of Houston,

^{466}Indiana University,

^{467}South Dakota Science and Technology Authority,

^{468}Colorado State University,

^{469}Univ. of California,

^{470}Univ. of South Carolina,

^{471}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{472}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{473}Iowa State University,

^{474}Los Alamos National Laboratory,

^{475}Southern Methodist University,

^{476}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{477}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{478}Univ. of Texas,

^{479}Univ. of Colorado,

^{480}Univ. of Pavia, INFN Sezione di Pavia,

^{481}Fermi National Accelerator Lab,

^{482}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{483}Brookhaven National Lab,

^{484}Univ. of Colorado,

^{485}Fermi National Accelerator Lab

The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Read More

A practical $2^m$-ary polar coded modulation (PCM) scheme with optimal constellation labeling is proposed. To efficiently find the optimal labeling rule, the search space is reduced by exploiting the symmetry properties of the channels. Simulation results show that the proposed PCM scheme can outperform the bit-interleaved turbo coded modulation scheme used in the WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) mobile communication systems by up to 1. Read More

A hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) scheme based on a novel class of rate-compatible polar (\mbox{RCP}) codes are proposed. The RCP codes are constructed by performing punctures and repetitions on the conventional polar codes. Simulation results over binary-input additive white Gaussian noise channels (BAWGNCs) show that, using a low-complexity successive cancellation (SC) decoder, the proposed HARQ scheme performs as well as the existing schemes based on turbo codes and low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Read More

The newly discovered "Higgs" boson h^0, being lighter than the top quark t, opens up new probes for flavor and mass generation. In the general two Higgs doublet model, new ct, cc and tt Yukawa couplings could modify h^0 properties. If t --> ch^0 occurs at the percent level, the observed ZZ^* and \gamma\gamma signal events may have accompanying cbW activity coming from t\bar{t} feeddown. Read More

We propose two novel model architectures for computing continuous vector representations of words from very large data sets. The quality of these representations is measured in a word similarity task, and the results are compared to the previously best performing techniques based on different types of neural networks. We observe large improvements in accuracy at much lower computational cost, i. Read More

**Authors:**Hong-fei Zhang

^{1}, Jian Wang

^{2}, Ke Cui, Chun-li Luo, Sheng-zhao Lin, Lei Zhou, Hao Liang, Teng-yun Chen, Kai Chen, Jian-wei Pan

**Affiliations:**

^{1}IEEE member,

^{2}IEEE member

A real-time Quantum Key Distribution System is developed in this paper. In the system, based on the feature of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), secure key extraction control and algorithm have been optimally designed to perform sifting, error correction and privacy amplification altogether in real-time. In the QKD experiment information synchronization mechanism and high-speed classic data channel are designed to ensure the steady operation of the system. Read More

**Authors:**Jian-Yu Wang, Bin Yang, Sheng-Kai Liao, Liang Zhang, Qi Shen, Xiao-Fang Hu, Jin-Cai Wu, Shi-Ji Yang, Hao Jiang, Yan-Lin Tang, Bo Zhong, Hao Liang, Wei-Yue Liu, Yi-Hua Hu, Yong-Mei Huang, Bo Qi, Ji-Gang Ren, Ge-Sheng Pan, Juan Yin, Jian-Jun Jia, Yu-Ao Chen, Kai Chen, Chen-Zhi Peng, Jian-Wei Pan

**Category:**Quantum Physics

Quantum key distribution (QKD), provides the only intrinsically unconditional secure method for communication based on principle of quantum mechanics. Compared with fiber-based demonstrations-, free-space links could provide the most appealing solution for much larger distance. Despite of significant efforts, so far all realizations rely on stationary sites. Read More

As improved versions of successive cancellation (SC) decoding algorithm, successive cancellation list (SCL) decoding and successive cancellation stack (SCS) decoding are used to improve the finite-length performance of polar codes. Unified descriptions of SC, SCL and SCS decoding algorithms are given as path searching procedures on the code tree of polar codes. Combining the ideas of SCL and SCS, a new decoding algorithm named successive cancellation hybrid (SCH) is proposed, which can achieve a better trade-off between computational complexity and space complexity. Read More