Kai Chang

Kai Chang
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Kai Chang

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Pub Categories

Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect (27)
Computer Science - Learning (8)
Physics - Materials Science (7)
Physics - Superconductivity (6)
Statistics - Machine Learning (6)
Computer Science - Computation and Language (5)
Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (3)
Physics - Other (2)
Quantum Physics (2)
Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2)
Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (1)
Physics - Optics (1)
Physics - General Physics (1)
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence (1)
Computer Science - Distributed; Parallel; and Cluster Computing (1)
Statistics - Methodology (1)

Publications Authored By Kai Chang

We theoretically propose that, the single crystal formed TaS is a new type of topological semimetal, hosting ring-shaped gapless nodal lines and triply degenerate points (TDPs) in the absence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In the presence of SOC, the each TDP splits into four TDPs along the high symmetric line in the momentum space, and one of the nodal ring remains closed due to the protection of the mirror reflection symmetry, while another nodal ring is fully gapped and transforms into six pairs ofWeyl points (WPs) carrying opposite chirality. The electronic structures of the projected surfaces are also discussed, the unique Fermi arcs are observed and the chirality remains or vanishes depending on the projection directions. Read More

This work presents theoretical demonstration of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in monolayer phosphorene nanorings (PNR). Atomistic quantum transport simulations of PNR are employed to investigate the impact of multiple modulation sources on the sample conductance. In presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, we find that the conductance of both armchair and zigzag PNR oscillate periodically in a low-energy window as a manifestation of the AB effect. Read More

Time-reversal ($\mathcal{T}$-) symmetry is fundamental to many physical processes. Typically, $\mathcal{T}$-breaking for microscopic processes requires the presence of magnetic field. However, for 2D massless Dirac billiards, $\mathcal{T}$-symmetry is broken automatically by the mass confinement, leading to chiral quantum scars. Read More

The integration of different two-dimensional materials within a multilayer van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure offers a promising technology for realizing high performance opto-electronic devices such as photodetectors and light sources1-3. Transition metal dichalcogenides, e.g. Read More

Automatic photo cropping is an important tool for improving visual quality of digital photos without resorting to tedious manual selection. Traditionally, photo cropping is accomplished by determining the best proposal window through visual quality assessment or saliency detection. In essence, the performance of an image cropper highly depends on the ability to correctly rank a number of visually similar proposal windows. Read More

The single-particle Green's function (GF) of mesoscopic structures plays a central role in mesoscopic quantum transport. The recursive GF technique is a standard tool to compute this quantity numerically, but it lacks physical transparency and is limited to relatively small systems. Here we present a numerically efficient and physically transparent GF formalism for a general layered structure. Read More

Creating, detecting, and manipulating Majorana fermions (MFs) in condensed matters have attracted tremendous interest due to their relevance to topological quantum computing. A single-mode MF platform combining helical edge state of a quantum spin Hall insulator (QSHI), s-wave superconductor, and magnetic insulator was proposed early on, taking advantages of the spin-polarized single-mode dispersion and the absence of non-magnetic scattering inherent in the helical states. Moreover, the edge modes may be gapped out by nearby nanoscale magnetic insulator due to the breaking of time-reversal-symmetry (TRS), localizing a pair of Majorana bound states. Read More

The blind application of machine learning runs the risk of amplifying biases present in data. Such a danger is facing us with word embedding, a popular framework to represent text data as vectors which has been used in many machine learning and natural language processing tasks. We show that even word embeddings trained on Google News articles exhibit female/male gender stereotypes to a disturbing extent. Read More

We demonstrate theoretically the coexistence of Dirac semimetal and topological insulator phases in InSb/$\alpha$-Sn conventional semiconductor superlattices, based on advanced first-principles calculations combined with low-energy $k\cdot p$ theory. By proper interfaces designing, a large interface polarization emerges when the growth direction is chosen along {[}111{]}. Such an intrinsic polarized electrostatic field reduces band gap largely and invert the band structure finally, leading to emerge of the topological Dirac semimetal phase with a pair of Dirac nodes appearing along the (111) crystallographic direction near the $\Gamma$ point. Read More

Machine learning algorithms are optimized to model statistical properties of the training data. If the input data reflects stereotypes and biases of the broader society, then the output of the learning algorithm also captures these stereotypes. In this paper, we initiate the study of gender stereotypes in {\em word embedding}, a popular framework to represent text data. Read More

We investigated the electronic and optoelectronic properties of vertical van der Waals heterostructure photodetectors using layered p type GaSe and n type InSe, with graphene as the transparent electrodes. Not only the photocurrent peaks from the layered GaSe and InSe themselves were observed, also the interlayer optical transition peak was observed, which is consistent with the first-principles calculation. The built-in electric field between p-n heterojunction and the advantage of the graphene electrodes can effectively separate the photo-induced electron-hole pairs, and thus lead to the response time down to 160 {\mu}s. Read More

The Bayesian computer model calibration method has proven to be effective in a wide range of applications. In this framework, input parameters are tuned by comparing model outputs to observations. However, this methodology becomes computationally expensive for large spatial model outputs. Read More

We predict a novel quantum interference based on the negative refraction across a semiconductor P-N junction: with a local pump on one side of the junction, the response of a local probe on the other side behaves as if the disturbance emanates not from the pump but instead from its mirror image about the junction. This phenomenon is guaranteed by translational invariance of the system and matching of Fermi surfaces of the constituent materials, thus it is robust against other details of the junction (e.g. Read More

We study the problem of structured prediction under test-time budget constraints. We propose a novel approach applicable to a wide range of structured prediction problems in computer vision and natural language processing. Our approach seeks to adaptively generate computationally costly features during test-time in order to reduce the computational cost of prediction while maintaining prediction performance. Read More

We propose an experimentally feasible scheme for generating entangled terahertz photon pairs in topological insulator quantum dots (TIQDs). We demonstrate theoretically that in generic TIQDs: 1) the fine structure splitting, which is the obstacle to produce entangled photons in conventional semiconductor quantum dots, is inherently absent for one-dimensional massless excitons due to the time-reversal symmetry; 2) the selection rules obey winding number conservation instead of the conventional angular momentum conservation between edge states with a linear dispersion. With these two advantages, the entanglement of the emitted photons during the cascade in our scheme is robust against unavoidable disorders and irregular shapes of the TIQDs. Read More

IllinoisSL is a Java library for learning structured prediction models. It supports structured Support Vector Machines and structured Perceptron. The library consists of a core learning module and several applications, which can be executed from command-lines. Read More

We present a comparative theoretical study of the effects of standard Anderson and magnetic disorders on the topological phases of two-dimensional Rashba spin-orbit coupled superconductors, with the initial state to be either topologically trivial or nontrivial. Using the self-consistent Born approximation approach, we show that the presence of Anderson disorders will drive a topological superconductor into a topologically trivial superconductor in the weak coupling limit. Even more strikingly, a topologically trivial superconductor can be driven into a topological superconductor upon diluted doping of independent magnetic disorders, which gradually narrow, close, and reopen the quasi-particle gap in a nontrivial manner. Read More

It was proposed that a dilute semimetal is unstable against the formation of an exciton insulator, however experimental confirmations have remained elusive. We investigate the origin of bulk energy gap in inverted InAs/GaSb quantum wells (QWs) which naturally host spatially-separated electrons and holes, using charge-neutral point density (no~po) in gated-device as a tuning parameter. We find two distinct regimes of gap formation, that for I), no >> 5x1010/cm2, a soft gap opens predominately by electron-hole hybridization; and for II), approaching the dilute limit no~ 5x1010/cm2, a hard gap opens leading to a true bulk insulator with quantized edge states. Read More

We theoretically investigate the electronic and magneto-optical properties of rectangular, hexangular, and triangular monolayer phosphorene quantum dots (MPQDs) utilizing the tight-binding method. The electronic states, density of states, electronic density distribution, and Laudau levels as well as the optical absorption spectrum are calculated numerically. Our calculations show that: (1) edge states appear in the band gap in all kinds of MPQDs regardless of their shapes and edge configurations due to the anisotropic electron hopping in monolayer phosphorene (MLP). Read More

Training structured prediction models is time-consuming. However, most existing approaches only use a single machine, thus, the advantage of computing power and the capacity for larger data sets of multiple machines have not been exploited. In this work, we propose an efficient algorithm for distributedly training structured support vector machines based on a distributed block-coordinate descent method. Read More

Development of new, high quality functional materials has been at the forefront of condensed matter research. The recent advent of two-dimensional black phosphorus has greatly enriched the material base of two-dimensional electron systems. Significant progress has been made to achieve high mobility black phosphorus two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) since the development of the first black phosphorus field-effect transistors (FETs)$^{1-4}$. Read More

We demonstrate that a dependency parser can be built using a credit assignment compiler which removes the burden of worrying about low-level machine learning details from the parser implementation. The result is a simple parser which robustly applies to many languages that provides similar statistical and computational performance with best-to-date transition-based parsing approaches, while avoiding various downsides including randomization, extra feature requirements, and custom learning algorithms. Read More

The stoichiometric "111" iron-based superconductor, LiFeAs, has attacted great research interest in recent years. For the first time, we have successfully grown LiFeAs thin film by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on SrTiO3(001) substrate, and studied the interfacial growth behavior by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (LT-STM). The effects of substrate temperature and Li/Fe flux ratio were investigated. Read More

Based on the Born-Oppemheimer approximation, we divide total electron Hamiltonian in a spinorbit coupled system into slow orbital motion and fast interband transition process. We find that the fast motion induces a gauge field on slow orbital motion, perpendicular to electron momentum, inducing a topological phase. From this general designing principle, we present a theory for generating artificial gauge field and topological phase in a conventional two-dimensional electron gas embedded in parabolically graded GaAs/In$_{x}$Ga$_{1-x}$As/GaAs quantum wells with antidot lattices. Read More

Methods for learning to search for structured prediction typically imitate a reference policy, with existing theoretical guarantees demonstrating low regret compared to that reference. This is unsatisfactory in many applications where the reference policy is suboptimal and the goal of learning is to improve upon it. Can learning to search work even when the reference is poor? We provide a new learning to search algorithm, LOLS, which does well relative to the reference policy, but additionally guarantees low regret compared to deviations from the learned policy: a local-optimality guarantee. Read More

We investigate theoretically the Landau levels (LLs) and magneto-transport properties of phosphorene under a perpendicular magnetic field within the framework of the effective \textbf{\emph{k$\cdot$p}} Hamiltonian and tight-binding (TB) model. At low field regime, we find that the LLs linearly depend both on the LL index $n$ and magnetic field $B$, which is similar with that of conventional semiconductor two-dimensional electron gas. The Landau splittings of conduction and valence band are different and the wavefunctions corresponding to the LLs are strongly anisotropic due to the different anisotropic effective masses. Read More

Many machine learning applications involve jointly predicting multiple mutually dependent output variables. Learning to search is a family of methods where the complex decision problem is cast into a sequence of decisions via a search space. Although these methods have shown promise both in theory and in practice, implementing them has been burdensomely awkward. Read More

We investigate theoretically the electronic structure of graphene and boron nitride (BN) lateral heterostructures, which were fabricated in recent experiments. The first-principles density functional calculation demonstrates that a huge intrinsic transverse electric field can be induced in the graphene nanoribbon region, and depends sensitively on the edge configuration of the lateral heterostructure. The polarized electric field originates from the charge mismatch at the BN-graphene interfaces. Read More

We investigate the scattering and localization properties of edge and bulk states in a disordered two-dimensional topological insulator when they coexist at the same fermi energy. Due to edge-bulk backscattering (which is not prohibited \emph{a priori} by topology or symmetry), Anderson disorder makes the edge and bulk states localized indistinguishably. Two methods are proposed to effectively decouple them and to restore robust transport. Read More

Theories based on General Relativity or Quantum Mechanics have taken a leading position in macroscopic and microscopic Physics, but fail when used in the other extremity. Thus, we try to establish a new structure of united theory based on General Relativity by forming certain spacetime property and a new model of particle. This theory transforms the Riemann curvature tensor into spacetime density scalar so that gravitational field can be added to the Quantum Mechanics, and supposes the electromagnetic field in General Relativity to be a kind of spacetime fluid. Read More

We observed electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based four-wave mixing (FWM) in the pulsed regime at low light levels. The FWM conversion efficiency of 3.8(9)% was observed in a four-level system of cold 87Rb atoms using a driving laser pulse with a peak intensity of approximately 80 {\mu}W/cm^2, corresponding to an energy of approximately 60 photons per atomic cross section. Read More

We demonstrate theoretically that interface engineering can drive Germanium, one of the most commonly-used semiconductors, into topological insulating phase. Utilizing giant electric fields generated by charge accumulation at GaAs/Ge/GaAs opposite semiconductor interfaces and band folding, the new design can reduce the sizable gap in Ge and induce large spin-orbit interaction, which lead to a topological insulator transition. Our work provides a new method on realizing TI in commonly-used semiconductors and suggests a promising approach to integrate it in well developed semiconductor electronic devices. Read More

The application of a perpendicular electric field can drive silicene into a gapless state, characterized by two nearly fully spin-polarized Dirac cones owing to both relatively large spin-orbital interactions and inversion symmetry breaking. Here we argue that since inter-valley scattering from non-magnetic impurities is highly suppressed by time reversal symmetry, the physics should be effectively single-Dirac-cone like. Through numerical calculations, we demonstrate that there is no significant backscattering from a single impurity that is non-magnetic and unit-cell uniform, indicating a stable delocalized state. Read More

We prepare single layer potassium-doped iron selenide (110) film by molecular beam expitaxy. Such a single layer film can be viewed as a two-dimensional system composed of weakly coupled two-leg iron ladders. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy reveals that superconductivity is developed in this two-leg ladder system. Read More

The generation of valley current is a fundamental goal in graphene valleytronics but no practical ways of its realization are known yet. We propose a workable scheme for the generation of bulk valley current in a graphene mechanical resonator through adiabatic cyclic deformations of the strains and chemical potential in the suspended region. The accompanied strain gauge fields can break the spatial mirror symmetry of the problem within each of the two inequivalent valleys, leading to a fnite valley current due to quantum pumping. Read More

We elucidate the existing controversies in the newly discovered K-doped iron selenide (KxFe2-ySe2-z) superconductors. The stoichiometric KFe2Se2 with \surd2\times\surd2 charge ordering was identified as the parent compound of KxFe2-ySe2-z superconductor using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The superconductivity is induced in KFe2Se2 by either Se vacancies or interacting with the anti-ferromagnetic K2Fe4Se5 compound. Read More

Large-area MoS2 atomic layers are synthesized on SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition using MoO3 and S powders as the reactants. Optical, microscopic and electrical measurements suggest that the synthetic process leads to the growth of MoS2 monolayer. The TEM images verify that the synthesized MoS2 sheets are highly crystalline. Read More

Searching for superconducting materials with high transition temperature (TC) is one of the most exciting and challenging fields in physics and materials science. Although superconductivity has been discovered for more than 100 years, the copper oxides are so far the only materials with TC above 77 K, the liquid nitrogen boiling point. Here we report an interface engineering method for dramatically raising the TC of superconducting films. Read More

We present a general theory about electron orbital motions in topological insulators. An in-plane electric field drives spin-up and spin-down electrons bending to opposite directions, and skipping orbital motions, a counterpart of the integer quantum Hall effect, are formed near the boundary of the sample. The accompanying Zitterbewegung can be found and controlled by tuning external electric fields. Read More

Alkali-doped iron selenide is the latest member of high Tc superconductor family, and its peculiar characters have immediately attracted extensive attention. We prepared high-quality potassium-doped iron selenide (KxFe2-ySe2) thin films by molecular beam epitaxy and unambiguously demonstrated the existence of phase separation, which is currently under debate, in this material using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The stoichiometric superconducting phase KFe2Se2 contains no iron vacancies, while the insulating phase has a \surd5\times\surd5 vacancy order. Read More

We study theoretically the RKKY interaction between magnetic impurities on the surface of three-dimensional topological insulators, mediated by the helical Dirac electrons. Exact analytical expression shows that the RKKY interaction consists of the Heisenberg-like, Ising-like and DM-like terms. It provides us a new way to control surface magnetism electrically. Read More

We investigate theoretically the electron states in HgTe quantum dots (QDs) with inverted band structures. In sharp contrast to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, the quantum states in the gap of HgTe quantum dot with an inverted band structure are fully spin-polarized, and show ring-like density distributions near the boundary of the QD and spin-angular momentum locking. The persistent charge currents and magnetic moments, i. Read More

We demonstrate theoretically how local strains in graphene can be tailored to generate a valley polarized current. By suitable engineering of local strain profiles, we find that electrons in opposite valleys (K or K') show different Brewster-like angles and Goos-H\"anchen shifts, exhibiting a close analogy with light propagating behavior. In a strain-induced waveguide, electrons in K and K' valleys have different group velocities, which can be used to construct a valley filter in graphene without the need for any external fields. Read More

We propose a simple method to detect the relative strength of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-obit interactions in quantum wells (QWs) without relying on the directional-dependent physical quantities. This method utilize the asymmetry of critical gate voltages that leading to the remarkable signals of SU(2) symmetry, which happens to reflect the intrinsic structure inversion asymmetry of the QW. We support our proposal by the numerical calculation of in-plane relaxation times based on the self-consistent eight-band Kane model. Read More

We demonstrate that a p-n junction created electrically in HgTe quantum wells with inverted band-structure exhibits interesting intraband and interband tunneling processes. We find a perfect intraband transmission for electrons injected perpendicularly to the interface of the p-n junction. The opacity and transparency of electrons through the p-n junction can be tuned by changing the incidence angle, the Fermi energy and the strength of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Read More

We investigate theoretically the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation time by solving the eight-band Kane model and Poisson equation self-consistently. Our results show distinct behavior with the single-band model due to the anomalous spin-orbit interactions in narrow band-gap semiconductors, and agree well with the experiment values reported in recent experiment (K. L. Read More

We demonstrate theoretically that electric field can drive a quantum phase transition between band insulator to topological insulator in CdTe/HgCdTe/CdTe quantum wells. The numerical results suggest that the electric field could be used as a switch to turn on or off the topological insulator phase, and temperature can affect significantly the phase diagram for different gate voltage and compositions. Our theoretical results provide us an efficient way to manipulate the quantum phase of HgTe quantum wells. Read More

We theoretically investigate resonant tunneling through S- and U-shaped nanostructured graphene nanoribbons. A rich structure of resonant tunneling peaks are found eminating from different quasi-bound states in the middle region. The tunneling current can be turned on and off by varying the Fermi energy. Read More

We investigate theoretically the effects of the Coulomb interaction and spin-orbit interactions (SOIs) on the anisotropic transport property of semiconductor quantum wires embedded in (110) plane. The anisotropy of the dc conductivity can be enhanced significantly by the Coulomb interaction for infinite-long quantum wires. But it is smeared out in quantum wires with finite length, while the ac conductivity still shows anisotropic behavior, from which one can detect and distinguish the strengths of the Rashba SOI and Dresselhaus SOI. Read More

We demonstrate in theory that it is possible to all-electrically manipulate the RKKY interaction in a quasi-one-dimensional electron gas embedded in a semiconductor heterostructure, in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction. In an undoped semiconductor quantum wire where intermediate excitations are gapped, the interaction becomes the short-ranged Bloembergen-Rowland super-exchange interaction. Owing to the interplay of different types of spin-orbit interaction, the interaction can be controlled to realize various spin models, e. Read More