# K. Levin - University of Chicago

## Contact Details

NameK. Levin |
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AffiliationUniversity of Chicago |
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CityChicago |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## External Links |
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## Pub CategoriesPhysics - Superconductivity (30) Physics - Strongly Correlated Electrons (11) Physics - Other (4) Statistics - Machine Learning (2) Physics - Atomic Physics (1) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1) Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms (1) |

## Publications Authored By K. Levin

In this paper we demonstrate the necessity of including the generally omitted collective mode contributions in calculations of the Meissner effect for non-uniform superconductors. We consider superconducting pairing with non-zero center of mass momentum, as is relevant to high transition temperature cuprates, cold atoms, and quantum chromodynamic superconductors. For the concrete example of the Fulde-Ferrell phase we present a quantitative calculation of the superfluid density, showing the collective mode contributions are not only appreciable but that they derive from the amplitude mode of the order parameter. Read More

Optical control and manipulation of cold atoms has become an important topic in condensed matter. Widely employed are optical lattice shaking experiments which allow the introduction of artificial gauge fields, the design of topological bandstructures, and more general probing of quantum critical phenomena. Here we develop new numerical methods to simulate these periodically driven systems by implementing lattice shaking directly. Read More

We show that topological phases should be realizable in readily available and well studied heterostructures. In particular we identify a new class of topological materials which are well known in spintronics: helical ferromagnet-superconducting junctions. We note that almost all previous work on topological heterostructures has focused on creating Majorana modes at the proximity interface in effectively two-dimensional or one-dimensional systems. Read More

Given a graph in which a few vertices are deemed interesting a priori, the vertex nomination task is to order the remaining vertices into a nomination list such that there is a concentration of interesting vertices at the top of the list. Previous work has yielded several approaches to this problem, with theoretical results in the setting where the graph is drawn from a stochastic block model (SBM), including a vertex nomination analogue of the Bayes optimal classifier. In this paper, we prove that maximum likelihood (ML)-based vertex nomination is consistent, in the sense that the performance of the ML-based scheme asymptotically matches that of the Bayes optimal scheme. Read More

We study a trapped two-dimensional spin-imbalanced Fermi gas over a range of temperatures. In the moderate temperature regime, associated with current experiments, we find reasonable semi-quantitative agreement with the measured density profiles as functions of varying spin imbalance and interaction strength. Our calculations show that, in contrast to the three-dimensional case, the phase separation which appears as a spin balanced core, can be associated with non-condensed fermion pairs. Read More

Manifold learning and dimensionality reduction techniques are ubiquitous in science and engineering, but can be computationally expensive procedures when applied to large data sets or when similarities are expensive to compute. To date, little work has been done to investigate the tradeoff between computational resources and the quality of learned representations. We present both theoretical and experimental explorations of this question. Read More

In this paper we show how to redress a shortcoming of the path integral scheme for fermionic superfluids and superconductors. This approach is built around a simultaneous calculation of electrodynamics and thermodynamics. An important sum rule, the compressibility sum rule, fails to be satisfied in the usual calculation of the electromagnetic and thermodynamic response at the Gaussian fluctuation level. Read More

We present a general diagrammatic theory for determining consistent electromagnetic response functions in strongly correlated fermionic superfluids. The general treatment of correlations beyond BCS theory requires a new theoretical formalism not contained in the current literature. Among concrete examples are a rather extensive class of theoretical models which incorporate BCS-BEC crossover as applied to the ultra cold Fermi gases, along with theories specifically associated with the high-$T_c$ cuprates. Read More

In this paper we follow the analysis and protocols of recent experiments, combined with simple theory, to arrive at a physical understanding of quasi-condensation in two dimensional Fermi gases. We find that quasi-condensation mirrors Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless behavior in many ways, including the emergence of a strong zero momentum peak in the pair momentum distribution. Importantly, the disappearance of this quasi-condensate occurs at a reasonably well defined crossover temperature. Read More

We investigate the effects of topological order on the transition temperature, $T_c$, and response functions in fermionic superfluids with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and a transverse Zeeman field in three dimensions. Our calculations, relevant to the ultracold atomic Fermi gases, include fluctuations beyond mean-field theory and are compatible with $f$-sum rules. Reminiscent of the $p_x + i p_y$ superfluid, the topological phase is stabilized when driven away from the Bose-Einstein condensation and towards the BCS limit. Read More

We explore clustering problems in the streaming sliding window model in both general metric spaces and Euclidean space. We present the first polylogarithmic space $O(1)$-approximation to the metric $k$-median and metric $k$-means problems in the sliding window model, answering the main open problem posed by Babcock, Datar, Motwani and O'Callaghan, which has remained unanswered for over a decade. Our algorithm uses $O(k^3 \log^6 n)$ space and $\operatorname{poly}(k, \log n)$ update time. Read More

We derive expressions for spin and density correlation functions in the (greatly enhanced) pseudogap phase of spin-orbit coupled Fermi superfluids. Density-density correlation functions are found to be relatively insensitive to the presence of these Rashba effects. To arrive at spin-spin correlation functions we derive new $f$-sum rules, valid even in the absence of a spin conservation law. Read More

There is a multiplicity of charge ordered, pairing-based or pair density wave theories of the cuprate pseudogap, albeit arising from different microscopic mechanisms. For mean field schemes (of which there are many) we demonstrate here that they have precise implications for two body physics in the same way that they are able to address the one body physics of photoemission spectroscopy. This follows because the full vertex can be obtained exactly from the Ward-Takahashi identity. Read More

We report the crystal structure, magnetization and neutron scattering measurements on the double perovskite Ba$_2$YOsO$_6$. The $Fm\overline{3}m$ space group is found both at 290~K and 3.5~K with cell constants $a_0 = 8. Read More

We investigate equilibration processes shortly after sudden perturbations are applied to ultracold trapped superfluids. We show the similarity of phase imprinting and localized density depletion perturbations, both of which initially are found to produce "phase walls". These planar defects are associated with a sharp gradient in the phase. Read More

In this paper we address the ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density $\eta/s$ in bosonic and fermionic superfluids. A small $\eta/s$ is associated with nearly perfect fluidity, and more general measures of the fluidity perfection/imperfection are of wide interest to a number of communities. We use a Kubo approach to concretely address this ratio via low temperature transport associated with the quasi-particles. Read More

Essential to understanding the cuprate pseudogap phase is a study of the charge (and spin) response functions, which we address here via a consistent approach to the Fermi arcs and the Fermi pockets scenario of Yang, Rice and Zhang (YRZ). The two schemes are demonstrated to be formally similar, and to share a common physics platform; we use this consolidation to address the inclusion of vertex corrections which have been omitted in YRZ applications. We show vertex corrections can be easily implemented in a fashion analytically consistent with sum rules and that they yield important contributions to most observables. Read More

We address the physics of equilibration in ultracold atomic gases following a quench of the interaction parameter. We focus on the momentum distribution of the excitations, $n_{\mathbf k}$, and observe that larger ${\mathbf k}$ modes will equilibrate faster, as has been claimed in recent experimental work. We identify three time regimes. Read More

We present numerical simulations of phase imprinting experiments in ultracold trapped Fermi gases which are in good agreement with recent, independent experimental results. Our focus is on the sequence and evolution of defects using the fermionic time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation, which contains dissipation necessary for equilibration. In contrast to other simulations we introduce small, experimentally unavoidable symmetry breaking, particularly that associated with thermal fluctuations and with the phase imprinting tilt angle, and illustrate their dramatic effects. Read More

In this paper we compare Bose transport in normal phase atomic gases with its counterpart in Fermi gases, illustrating the non-universality of two dimensional bosonic transport associated with different dissipation mechanisms. Near the superfluid transition temperature $T_c$, a striking similarity between the fermionic and bosonic transport emerges because super-conducting(fluid) fluctuation transport for Fermi gases is dominated by the bosonic, Cooper pair component. As in fluctuation theory, one finds that the Seebeck coefficient changes sign at $T_c$ and the Lorenz number approaches zero at $T_c$. Read More

We address quantum oscillation experiments in high Tc superconductors and the evidence from these experiments for a pseudogap versus a Fermi liquid phase at high magnetic fields. As a concrete alternative to a Fermi liquid phase, the pseudogap state we consider derives from earlier work within a Gor'kov-based Landau level approach. Here the normal state pairing gap in the presence of high fields is spatially non-uniform, incorporating small gap values. Read More

We address conservation laws associated with current, momentum and energy and show how they can be satisfied within many body theories which focus on pair correlations. Of interest are two well known t-matrix theories which represent many body theories which incorporate pairing in the normal state. The first of these is associated with Nozieres Schmitt-Rink theory, while the second involves the t-matrix of a BCS-Leggett like state as identified by Kadanoff and Martin. Read More

We present a theoretical study of the compressibility, $\kappa$, in a Fermi gas with attractive contact interactions, providing predictions for the strongly-attractive regime and the superfluid phase. Our work emphasizes the compressibility sum rule and gauge invariance as constraints on $\kappa$ and we show how within a particular $t$-matrix approach, these can be satisfied in the normal phase when no approximations are made. For tractability, approximations must be introduced, and it is believed that thermodynamical approaches to $\kappa$ are more reliable, than correlation function based schemes. Read More

We study the static and dynamic behavior of charge ordering within a d-wave pair pseudogap (pg) scenario. This is addressed using a density-density correlation function derived from the standard pg self energy, $\Sigma$ and compatible with the longitudinal and transverse sum rules. The broadening factor $\gamma$ in $\Sigma$ reflects the breaking of pairs into constituent fermions. Read More

In this paper we study the transient dynamics of a Bose superfluid subsequent to an interaction quench. Essential for equilibration is a source of dissipation which we include following the approach of Caldeira and Leggett. Here we solve the equations of motion exactly by integrating out an environmental bath. Read More

We present fundamental constraints required for a consistent linear response theory of fermionic superfluids and address temperatures both above and below the transition temperature $T_c$. We emphasize two independent constraints, one associated with gauge invariance (and the related Ward identity) and another associated with the compressibility sum rule, both of which are satisfied in strict BCS theory. However, we point out that it is the rare many body theory which satisfies both of these. Read More

In this paper we apply the emerging- consensus understanding of the fermionic self energy deduced from angle resolved photoemisssion spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments to deduce the implications for orbital diamagnetism in the underdoped cuprates. Many theories using many different starting points have arrived at a broadened BCS-like form for the normal state self energy associated with a d-wave excitation gap, as is compatible with ARPES data. Establishing compatibility with the f-sum rules, we show how this self energy, along with the constraint that there is no Meissner effect in the normal phase are sufficient to deduce the orbital susceptibility. Read More

In this paper we deduce transport properties in the presence of a pseudogap associated with precursor superconductivity. Our theoretical analysis is based on the widely adopted self energy expression reflecting this normal state gap, which has appeared in interpretations of photoemission and in other experiments. Thus, it should be generally applicable. Read More

We address the important question of how to characterize the normal state of fermionic superfluids under the influence of a strong effective magnetic field, implemented through rapid rotation or novel artificial field techniques. We consider the effects of crossing from BCS to BEC and the role of non-condensed pairs, or pseudogap effects. Using a simple extension of Gor'kov theory we demonstrate how these pairs organize above the transition $T_c$ into precursors of a vortex configuration, which are associated with distortions of the ideal Abrikosov lattice. Read More

This is a comment on Phys. Rev. Lett. Read More

The study of ultracold atomic Fermi gases is a rapidly exploding subject which is defining new directions in condensed matter and atomic physics. Quite generally what makes these gases so important is their remarkable tunability and controllability. Using a Feshbach resonance one can tune the attractive two-body interactions from weak to strong and thereby make a smooth crossover from a BCS superfluid of Cooper pairs to a Bose-Einstein condensed superfluid. Read More

Transport studies seem to be one of the strongest lines of support for a preformed pair approach to the pseudogap. In this paper we provide a fresh, physically transparent look at two important quantities: the diamagnetic susceptibility and conductivity. We use a three dimensional preformed pair framework which has had some success in the cold Fermi gases and in the process we reconcile recently observed inconsistencies. Read More

We extend Gor'kov theory to address superconducting pairing at high magnetic fields and general temperatures with arbitrary attractive interaction strength. This analysis begins with a new interpretation of the high-field Gor'kov gap equation which we associate with an instability in a generalized particle-particle ladder series. Importantly, this interpretation of the non-linear gap equation enables a treatment of pairing which is distinct from condensation. Read More

We address how the finite frequency real conductivity $\sigma(\omega)$ in the underdoped cuprates is affected by the pseudogap, contrasting the behavior above and below $T_c$. The f-sum rule is analytically shown to hold. Here we presume the pseudogap is associated with non-condensed pairs arising from stronger-than-BCS attraction. Read More

We study the spontaneous formation of vortices during the superfluid condensation in a trapped fermionic gas subjected to a rapid thermal quench via evaporative cooling. Our work is based on the numerical solution of the time dependent crossover Ginzburg-Landau equation coupled to the heat diffusion equation. We quantify the evolution of condensate density and vortex length as a function of a crossover phase parameter from BCS to BEC. Read More

We address recent spin transport experiments in ultracold unitary Fermi gases. We provide a theoretical understanding for how the measured temperature dependence of the spin diffusivity at low $T$ can disagree with the expected behavior of a Fermi liquid (FL) while the spin susceptiblity(following the experimental protocols) is consistent with a Fermi liquid picture. We show that the experimental protocols for extracting $\chi_s$ are based on a FL presumption; relaxing this leads to consistency within (but not proof of) a pseudogap-based approach. Read More

**Authors:**Makoto Kishimoto

^{1}, Sebastian F. Hoenig

^{2}, Robert Antonucci

^{3}, Richard Barvainis

^{4}, Takayuki Kotani

^{5}, Konrad R. W. Tristram

^{6}, Gerd Weigelt

^{7}, Ken Levin

^{8}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}MPIfR,

^{2}UCSB,

^{3}UCSB,

^{4}NSF,

^{5}ISAS,

^{6}MPIfR,

^{7}MPIfR,

^{8}SSO

**Category:**Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics

We are now exploring the inner region of Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with the Keck interferometer in the near-infrared. Adding to the four targets previously studied, we report measurements of the K-band (2.2 um) visibilities for four more targets, namely AKN120, IC4329A, Mrk6, and the radio-loud QSO 3C273 at z=0. Read More

We calculate the dc conductivity $\sigma$ in a pseudogapped high $T_c$ superconductor within a theory which is consistent with gauge invariance. Our results contain additional terms beyond those identified previously. Although it has been thought that lifetime effects dominate the $T$ dependence of transport, here we show (consistent with growing experimental support) that the temperature dependence of the effective carrier number $(n/m(T))_{\rm{eff}}$ plays a critical role and thereby leads to the contrasting behavior between over and under-doped regimes. Read More

In this paper, we examine in a unified fashion dissipative transport in strongly correlated systems. We thereby demonstrate the connection between "bad metals" (such as the high temperature superconductors) and "perfect fluids" (such as the ultracold Fermi gases, near unitarity). One motivation of this work is to communicate to the high energy physics community some of the central unsolved problems in high $T_c$ superconductors. Read More

We compute the shear viscosity, $\eta$, at general temperatures $T$, in a BCS-BEC crossover scheme which is demonstrably consistent with conservation laws. The study of $\eta$ is important because it constrains microscopic theories by revealing the excitation spectra. The onset of a normal state pairing gap and the contribution from pair degrees of freedom imply that $\eta$ at low $T$ becomes small, rather than exhibiting the upturn predicted by most others. Read More

We show how the difference between the finite temperature T structure factors, called S_-, associated with spin and density, can be used as a indication of superfluidity in ultracold Fermi gases. This observation can be exploited in two photon Bragg scattering experiments on gases which undergo BCS- Bose Einstein condensation crossover. Essential to our calculations is a proper incorporation of spin and particle number conservation laws which lead to compatibility at general T with two f-sum rules. Read More

We show how Fermi liquid theory can be applied to ultra-cold Fermi gases, thereby expanding their "simulation" capabilities to a class of problems of interest to multiple physics sub-disciplines. We introduce procedures for measuring and calculating position dependent Landau parameters. This lays the ground work for addressing important controversial issues: (i) the suggestion that thermodynamically, the normal state of a unitary gas is indistinguishable from a Fermi liquid (ii) that a fermionic system with strong repulsive contact interactions is associated with either ferromagnetism or localization; this relates as well to $^3$He and its p-wave superfluidity. Read More

Using a precursor superconductivity scenario for the cuprates we present a theory for the temperature dependent behavior of the spectral gaps associated with four distinct spectroscopies: angle resolved photoemission (ARPES), differential conductance $dI/dV$, quasi-particle interference spectroscopy, and the autocorrelated ARPES pattern. We find good agreement for a range of existing experiments and make predictions for others. Our theory, which incorporates the necessary (observed) contrast between the nodal and anti-nodal response, shows how different nodal gap shapes are associated with these alternative spectroscopies. Read More

This paper presents a comparison of two finite-temperature BCS-Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover theories above the transition temperature: Nozieres Schmitt-Rink (NSR) theory and finite $T$-extended BCS-Leggett theory. The comparison is cast in the form of numerical studies of the behavior of the fermionic spectral function both theoretically and as constrained by (primarily) radio frequency (RF) experiments. Both theories include pair fluctuations and exhibit pseudogap effects, although the nature of this pseudogap is very different. Read More

In this paper we explore the behavior of the quasi-particle interference pattern (QPI) of scanning tunneling microscopy as a function of temperature, $T$. After insuring a minimal consistency with photoemission, we find that the QPI pattern is profoundly sensitive to quasi-particle coherence and that it manifests two energy gap scales. The nearly dispersionless QPI pattern above $T_c$ is consistent with data on moderately underdoped cuprates. Read More

We show how, within a preformed pair scenario for the cuprate pseudogap, the nodal and antinodal responses in angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy necessarily have very different temperature $T$ dependences. We examine the behavior and the contrasting $T$ dependences for a range of temperatures both below and above $T_c$. Our calculations are based on a fully microscopic $T$-matrix approach for addressing pairing correlations in a regime where the attraction is stronger than BCS and the coherence length is anomalously short. Read More

We determine the superfluid transition temperature $T_c$ and related finite temperature phase diagrams for the entire BCS-Bose Einstein condensation crossover in a homogeneous mixture of $^{6}$Li and $^{40}$K atoms with population imbalance. Our work is motivated by the recent observation of an inter-species Feshbach resonance. Pairing fluctuation effects, which significantly reduce $T_c$ from the onset temperature for pairing ($T^*$), provide reasonable estimates of $T_c$ and indicate that the inter-species superfluid phase should be accessible in future experiments. Read More

The subject of BCS - Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is particularly exciting because of its realization in ultracold Fermi gases and its possible relevance to high temperature superconductors. In the paper we review that body of theoretical work on this subject which represents a natural extension of the seminal papers by Leggett and by Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink (NSR). The former addressed only the ground state, now known as the "BCS-Leggett" wave-function and the key contributions of the latter pertain to calculations of the superfluid transition temperature $T_c$. Read More

In this paper we present an overview of radio frequency (RF) spectroscopy in the atomic Fermi superfluids. An ultimate goal is to suggest new directions in the cold gas research agenda from the condensed matter perspective.Our focus is on the experimental and theoretical literature of cold gases and photoemission spectroscopy of the cuprates particularly as it pertains to areas of overlap. Read More

In this paper we address the behavior of the superfluid transition temperature $T_c$ in the attractive Hubbard model. We study systematically the effects of pairing fluctuations and address all filling fractions over the entire range of attractive interaction strength. While the attractive Hubbard model can be regarded as the generalization of BCS to Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover to a lattice, we find that the BEC limit of this Hubbard model is very different from that of jellium, owing to the strong inter-site repulsion between pairs, which becomes important near half filling when the on-site attraction is strong. Read More