K. Immer

K. Immer
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K. Immer

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Astrophysics of Galaxies (19)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (2)

Publications Authored By K. Immer

The formation of deuterated molecules is favoured at low temperatures and high densities. Therefore, the deuteration fraction D$_{frac}$ is expected to be enhanced in cold, dense prestellar cores and to decrease after protostellar birth. Previous studies have shown that the deuterated forms of species such as N2H+ (formed in the gas phase) and CH3OH (formed on grain surfaces) can be used as evolutionary indicators and to constrain their dominant formation processes and time-scales. Read More

We investigate the use of 183 GHz H2O masers for characterization of the physical conditions and mass loss process in the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars. We used APEX SEPIA Band 5 to observe the 183 GHz H2O line towards 2 Red Supergiant and 3 Asymptotic Giant Branch stars. Simultaneously, we observed lines in 28SiO v0, 1, 2 and 3, and for 29SiO v0 and 1. Read More

The inner few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), is our closest laboratory for understanding star formation in the extreme environments (hot, dense, turbulent gas) that once dominated the universe. We present an update on the first large-area survey to expose the sites of star formation across the CMZ at high-resolution in submillimeter wavelengths: the CMZoom survey with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We identify the locations of dense cores and search for signatures of embedded star formation. Read More

The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) at the center of our Galaxy is the best template to study star formation processes under extreme conditions, similar to those in high-redshift galaxies. We observed on-the-fly maps of para-H$_{2}$CO transitions at 218 GHz and 291 GHz towards seven Galactic Center clouds. From the temperature-sensitive integrated intensity line ratios of H$_{2}$CO(3$_{2,1}-$2$_{2,0}$)/H$_{2}$CO(3$_{0,3}-$2$_{0,2}$) and H$_{2}$CO(4$_{2,2}-$3$_{2,1}$)/H$_{2}$CO(4$_{0,4}-$3$_{0,3}$) in combination with radiative transfer models, we produce gas temperature maps of our targets. Read More

We have developed an iterative procedure to systematically combine the millimeter and submillimeter images of OB cluster-forming molecular clouds, which were taken by ground based (CSO, JCMT, APEX, IRAM-30m) and space telescopes (Herschel, Planck). For the seven luminous ($L$$>$10$^{6}$ $L_{\odot}$) Galactic OB cluster-forming molecular clouds selected for our analyses, namely W49A, W43-Main, W43-South, W33, G10.6-0. Read More

We present a line survey of the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220, taken with the newly installed SEPIA Band 5 instrument on APEX. We illustrate the capacity of SEPIA to detect the 183.3 GHz H2O 31,3-22,0 line against the atmospheric H2O absorption feature. Read More

Using spectral-line observations of HNCO, N2H+, and HNC, we investigate the kinematics of dense gas in the central ~250 pc of the Galaxy. We present SCOUSE (Semi-automated multi-COmponent Universal Spectral-line fitting Engine), a line fitting algorithm designed to analyse large volumes of spectral-line data efficiently and systematically. Unlike techniques which do not account for complex line profiles, SCOUSE accurately describes the {l, b, v_LSR} distribution of CMZ gas, which is asymmetric about Sgr A* in both position and velocity. Read More

The Galactic center is the closest region in which we can study star formation under extreme physical conditions like those in high-redshift galaxies. We measure the temperature of the dense gas in the central molecular zone (CMZ) and examine what drives it. We mapped the inner 300 pc of the CMZ in the temperature-sensitive J = 3-2 para-formaldehyde (p-H$_2$CO) transitions. Read More

The object W33 is a giant molecular cloud that contains star forming regions at various evolutionary stages from quiescent clumps to developed H II regions. Since its star forming regions are located at the same distance and the primary material of the birth clouds is probably similar, we conducted a comparative chemical study to trace the chemical footprint of the different phases of evolution. We observed six clumps in W33 with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope at 280 GHz and the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 230 GHz. Read More

We report measurements of trigonometric parallaxes for six high-mass star-forming regions in the Scutum spiral arm of the Milky Way as part of the BeSSeL Survey. Combining our measurements with 10 previous measurements from the BeSSeL Survey yields a total sample of 16 sources in the Scutum arm with trigonometric parallaxes in the Galactic longitude range from 5 deg to 32 deg. Assuming a logarithmic spiral model, we estimate a pitch angle of 19. Read More

Over 100 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for masers associated with young, high-mass stars have been measured with the BeSSeL Survey, a VLBA key science project, the EVN, and the Japanese VERA project. These measurements provide strong evidence for the existence of spiral arms in the Milky Way, accurately locating many arm segments and yielding spiral pitch angles ranging from 7 to 20 degrees. The widths of spiral arms increase with distance from the Galactic center. Read More

We present deep Very Large Array H66$\alpha$ radio recombination line (RRL) observations of the two cometary HII regions in DR 21. With these sensitive data, we test the "hybrid" bow shock/champagne flow model previously proposed for the DR 21 HII regions. The ionized gas down the tail of the southern HII region is redshifted by up to ~30 km/s with respect to the ambient molecular gas, as expected in the hybrid scenario. Read More

We report trigonometric parallax measurements of masers in the massive star forming complex W43 from VLBA observations as part of the BeSSeL Survey. Based on measurements of three 12 GHz methanol maser sources (G029.86-00. Read More

We report four trigonometric parallaxes for high-mass star-forming regions within 4 kpc of the Galactic center. These measurements were made with the VLBA as part of the BeSSeL Survey. By associating these sources kinematically with large-scale features in CO and HI longitude-velocity diagrams, we begin to outline some major features of the inner Milky Way: the Connecting arm, the near and far 3 kpc arms, and the Norma arm. Read More

We report trigonometric parallaxes for water masers in the G012.88+0.48 region and in the massive star forming complex W33 (containing G012. Read More

The Galactic center dust ridge consists of a narrow string of massive condensations identified in submillimeter dust continuum emission. To determine whether new high-mass stars are forming in this region, we performed new observations at 870 $\mu$m with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope and at 8.4 GHz with the Very Large Array. Read More

We present 5--38 $\mu$m spectroscopic observations of a sample of 68 ISOGAL sources with unknown natures, taken with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. Based on the characteristics and the slope of their spectra we classified the sources as young or late-type evolved objects. These sources were selected to test selection criteria based on the ISOGAL [7]--[15] color and the spatial extent parameter $\sigma_{\rm 15}$. Read More

We present the results of a survey of radio continuum sources near the Galactic plane using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Our observations are designed to identify compact extragalactic sources of milliarcsecond size that can be used for parallax measurements in the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy Survey. We selected point sources from the NVSS and CORNISH catalogs with flux densities above 30 mJy and within $1. Read More

Astrometric Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of maser sources in the Milky Way are used to map the spiral structure of our Galaxy and to determine fundamental parameters such as the rotation velocity ($\Theta_0$) and curve and the distance to the Galactic center (R$_0$). Here, we present an update on our first results, implementing a recent change in the knowledge about the Solar motion. It seems unavoidable that the IAU recommended values for R$_0$ and $\Theta_0$ need a substantial revision. Read More