# K. Babu - Oklahoma State University

## Contact Details

NameK. Babu |
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AffiliationOklahoma State University |
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CityStillwater |
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CountryUnited States |
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## Pubs By Year |
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## Pub CategoriesHigh Energy Physics - Phenomenology (38) High Energy Physics - Experiment (21) Physics - Materials Science (8) Nuclear Experiment (4) Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors (3) High Energy Physics - Theory (3) High Energy Physics - Lattice (2) Nuclear Theory (2) Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2) Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1) Computer Science - Computation and Language (1) Physics - Accelerator Physics (1) |

## Publications Authored By K. Babu

The mass and weak interaction eigenstates for the quarks of the third generation are very well aligned, an empirical fact for which the Standard Model offers no explanation. We explore the possibility that this alignment is due to an additional gauge symmetry in the third generation. Specifically, we construct and analyze an explicit, renormalizable model with a gauge boson, $X$, corresponding to the $B-L$ symmetry of the third family. Read More

In recent times, data is growing rapidly in every domain such as news, social media, banking, education, etc. Due to the excessiveness of data, there is a need of automatic summarizer which will be capable to summarize the data especially textual data in original document without losing any critical purposes. Text summarization is emerged as an important research area in recent past. Read More

We show that the photon-photon fusion process contributes significantly to the pair production of doubly charged Higgs bosons at the LHC at a level comparable to the Drell-Yan production. We reinterpret the ATLAS lower limit of 570 GeV (420 GeV) on the mass of $\Delta_{L}^{\pm\pm}$ ($\Delta_{R}^{\pm\pm}$) arising from $SU(2)_L$ triplet (singlet) scalar by including the photon initiated process and derive a new lower limit of 748 GeV (570 GeV), assuming that $\Delta^{\pm \pm}$ decays into $e^\pm e^\pm$ 100% of the time. We have also shown that the 5$\sigma$ discovery reach for ${\Delta_{L}^{\pm\pm}}$ (${\Delta_{R}^{\pm\pm}}$) is 846 GeV (783 GeV) with 100 fb$^{-1}$ luminosity at 13 TeV LHC. Read More

The masses of the charged fermion and the mixing angles among quarks are observed to be strongly hierarchical, while analogous parameters in the neutrino sector appear to be structure-less or anarchical. We develop a class of unified models based on SU(5) symmetry that explains these differing features probabilistically. With the aid of three input parameters that are hierarchical, and with the assumption that all the Yukawa couplings are uncorrelated random variables described by Gaussian distributions, we show by Monte Carlo simulations that the observed features of the entire fermion spectrum can be nicely reproduced. Read More

We study the possibility of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking where loop corrections to the mass parameter of the Higgs boson trigger the symmetry breaking in various extensions of the Standard Model (SM). Although the mechanism fails in the SM, it is shown to be quite successful in several extensions which share a common feature of having an additional scalar around the TeV scale. The positive Higgs mass parameter at a high energy scale is turned negative in the renormalization group flow to lower energy by the cross couplings between the scalars in the Higgs potential. Read More

We show that in SO(10) models, a Yukawa sector consisting of a real $10_H$, a real $120_H$ and a complex $126_H$ of Higgs fields can provide a realistic fit to all fermion masses and mixings, including the neutrino sector. Although the group theory of SO(10) demands that the $10_H$ and $120_H$ be real, most constructions complexify these fields and impose symmetries exterior to SO(10) to achieve predictivity. The proposed new framework with real $10_H$ and real $120_H$ relies only on SO(10) gauge symmetry, and yet has a limited number of Yukawa parameters. Read More

We point out that if the baryon number violating neutron-antineutron oscillation is discovered, it would impose strong limits on the departure from Einstein's equivalence principle at a level of one part in $10^{19}$. If this departure owes its origin to the existence of long-range forces coupled to baryon number $B$ (or $B-L$), it would imply very stringent constraints on the strength of gauge bosons coupling to baryon number current. For instance, if the force mediating baryon number has strength $\alpha_B$ and its range is larger than a megaparsec, we find the limit to be $\alpha_B \leq 2\times 10^{-57}$, which is much stronger than all other existing bounds. Read More

We present a new class of unified models based on SO(10) symmetry which provides insights into the masses and mixings of quarks and leptons, including the neutrinos. The key feature of our proposal is the absence of Higgs boson 10_H belonging to the fundamental representation that is normally employed. Flavor mixing is induced via vector-like fermions in the 16 + 16-bar representation. Read More

We develop the consequences of introducing a purely leptonic, lepton number violating non-standard interaction (NSI) and standard model neutrino mixing with a fourth, sterile neutrino in the analysis of short-baseline, neutrino experiments. We focus on the muon decay at rest (DAR) result from the Liquid Scintillation Neutrino Experiment (LSND) and the Karlsruhe and Rutherford Medium Energy Neutrino Experiment (KARMEN). We make a comprehensive analysis of lepton number violating, NSI effective operators and find nine that affect muon decay relevant to LSND results. Read More

We present a minimal renormalizable non-supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified model with a symmetry breaking sector consisting of Higgs fields in the 54_H + 126_H + 10_H representations. This model admits a single intermediate scale associated with Pati-Salam symmetry along with a discrete parity. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, the unification of gauge couplings and proton lifetime estimates are studied in detail in this framework. Read More

In pure gravity mediation (PGM), the most minimal scheme for the mediation of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking to the visible sector, soft masses for the standard model gauginos are generated at one loop rather than via direct couplings to the SUSY-breaking field. In any concrete implementation of PGM, the SUSY-breaking field is therefore required to carry nonzero charge under some global or local symmetry. As we point out in this note, a prime candidate for such a symmetry might be B-L, the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. Read More

We point out that if neutron--antineutron oscillation is observed in a free neutron oscillation experiment, it will put an upper limit on the strengths of Lorentz invariance violating (LIV) mass operators for neutrons at the level of $10^{-23}$ GeV or so, which would be the most stringent LIV limit for neutrons. We also study constraints on $\Delta B=2$ LIV operators and find that for one particular operator degaussing is not necessary to obtain a visible signal. We also note that observation of $n-\bar{n}$ oscillation signal in the nucleon decay search experiment involving nuclei does not lead to any limit on LIV operators since the nuclear potential difference between neutron and antineutrons will mask any Lorentz violating effect. Read More

We show explicitly that supersymmetric $E_6$ Grand Unified Theory with a Higgs sector consisting of $\{27+\bar{27}+351'+\bar{351'}+78\}$ fields provides a realistic scenario for symmetry breaking and fermion mass generation. While gauge symmetry breaking can be achieved without the $78$ field, its presence is critical for a successful doublet-triplet mass splitting. The Yukawa sector of the model consists of only two symmetric matrices describing all of quark, lepton and neutrino masses and mixings. Read More

**Authors:**C. Adams, J. R. Alonso, A. M. Ankowski, J. A. Asaadi, J. Ashenfelter, S. N. Axani, K. Babu, C. Backhouse, H. R. Band, P. S. Barbeau, N. Barros, A. Bernstein, M. Betancourt, M. Bishai, E. Blucher, J. Bouffard, N. Bowden, S. Brice, C. Bryan, L. Camilleri, J. Cao, J. Carlson, R. E. Carr, A. Chatterjee, M. Chen, S. Chen, M. Chiu, E. D. Church, J. I. Collar, G. Collin, J. M. Conrad, M. R. Convery, R. L. Cooper, D. Cowen, H. Davoudiasl, A. De Gouvea, D. J. Dean, G. Deichert, F. Descamps, T. DeYoung, M. V. Diwan, Z. Djurcic, M. J. Dolinski, J. Dolph, B. Donnelly, D. A. Dwyer, S. Dytman, Y. Efremenko, L. L. Everett, A. Fava, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, B. Fleming, A. Friedland, B. K. Fujikawa, T. K. Gaisser, M. Galeazzi, D. C. Galehouse, A. Galindo-Uribarri, G. T. Garvey, S. Gautam, K. E. Gilje, M. Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C. Goodman, H. Gordon, E. Gramellini, M. P. Green, A. Guglielmi, R. W. Hackenburg, A. Hackenburg, F. Halzen, K. Han, S. Hans, D. Harris, K. M. Heeger, M. Herman, R. Hill, A. Holin, P. Huber, D. E. Jaffe, R. A. Johnson, J. Joshi, G. Karagiorgi, L. J. Kaufman, B. Kayser, S. H. Kettell, B. J. Kirby, J. R. Klein, Yu. G. Kolomensky, R. M. Kriske, C. E. Lane, T. J. Langford, A. Lankford, K. Lau, J. G. Learned, J. Ling, J. M. Link, D. Lissauer, L. Littenberg, B. R. Littlejohn, S. Lockwitz, M. Lokajicek, W. C. Louis, K. Luk, J. Lykken, W. J. Marciano, J. Maricic, D. M. Markoff, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, C. Mauger, K. Mavrokoridis, E. McCluskey, D. McKeen, R. McKeown, G. Mills, I. Mocioiu, B. Monreal, M. R. Mooney, J. G. Morfin, P. Mumm, J. Napolitano, R. Neilson, J. K. Nelson, M. Nessi, D. Norcini, F. Nova, D. R. Nygren, G. D. Orebi Gann, O. Palamara, Z. Parsa, R. Patterson, P. Paul, A. Pocar, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, R. Rameika, G. Ranucci, H. Ray, D. Reyna, G. C. Rich, P. Rodrigues, E. Romero Romero, R. Rosero, S. D. Rountree, B. Rybolt, M. C. Sanchez, G. Santucci, D. Schmitz, K. Scholberg, D. Seckel, M. Shaevitz, R. Shrock, M. B. Smy, M. Soderberg, A. Sonzogni, A. B. Sousa, J. Spitz, J. M. St. John, J. Stewart, J. B. Strait, G. Sullivan, R. Svoboda, A. M. Szelc, R. Tayloe, M. A. Thomson, M. Toups, A. Vacheret, M. Vagins, R. G. Van de Water, R. B. Vogelaar, M. Weber, W. Weng, M. Wetstein, C. White, B. R. White, L. Whitehead, D. W. Whittington, M. J. Wilking, R. J. Wilson, P. Wilson, D. Winklehner, D. R. Winn, E. Worcester, L. Yang, M. Yeh, Z. W. Yokley, J. Yoo, B. Yu, J. Yu, C. Zhang

The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. Read More

We present a comprehensive analysis of the Higgs boson spectra in several versions of the supersymmetric left--right model based on the gauge symmetry $SU(3)_c \times SU(2)_L \times SU(2)_R \times U(1)_{B-L}$. A variety of symmetry breaking sectors are studied, with a focus on the constraints placed on model parameters by the lightest neutral CP even Higgs boson mass $M_h$. The breaking of $SU(2)_R$ symmetry is achieved by Higgs fields transforming either as triplets or doublets, and the electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered by either bi--doublets or doublets. Read More

We show that a neutral scalar field, \sigma, of two Higgs doublet extensions of the Standard Model incorporating the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses can be identified as a consistent {\it warm} dark matter candidate with a mass of order keV. The relic density of $\sigma$ is correctly reproduced by virtue of the late decay of a right-handed neutrino N participating in the seesaw mechanism. Constraints from cosmology determine the mass and lifetime of N to be M_N = 25 GeV - 20 TeV and \tau_N = (10^{-4} - 1) sec. Read More

**Authors:**D. G. Phillips II, W. M. Snow, K. Babu, S. Banerjee, D. V. Baxter, Z. Berezhiani, M. Bergevin, S. Bhattacharya, G. Brooijmans, L. Castellanos, M-C. Chen, C. E. Coppola, R. Cowsik, J. A. Crabtree, P. Das, E. B. Dees, A. Dolgov, P. D. Ferguson, M. Frost, T. Gabriel, A. Gal, F. Gallmeier, K. Ganezer, E. Golubeva, G. Greene, B. Hartfiel, A. Hawari, L. Heilbronn, C. Johnson, Y. Kamyshkov, B. Kerbikov, M. Kitaguchi, B. Z. Kopeliovich, V. B. Kopeliovich, V. A. Kuzmin, C-Y. Liu, P. McGaughey, M. Mocko, R. Mohapatra, N. Mokhov, G. Muhrer, H. P. Mumm, L. Okun, R. W. Pattie Jr., C. Quigg, E. Ramberg, A. Ray, A. Roy, A. Ruggles, U. Sarkar, A. Saunders, A. P. Serebrov, H. M. Shimizu, R. Shrock, A. K. Sikdar, S. Sjue, S. Striganov, L. W. Townsend, R. Tschirhart, A. Vainshtein, R. Van Kooten, Z. Wang, A. R. Young

This paper summarizes the relevant theoretical developments, outlines some ideas to improve experimental searches for free neutron-antineutron oscillations, and suggests avenues for future improvement in the experimental sensitivity. Read More

We show that discovery of baryon number violation in two processes with at least one obeying the selection rule \Delta (B-L) = \pm 2 can determine the Majorana character of neutrinos. Thus observing p \to e^+ \pi^0 and n \to e^- \pi^0 decays, or p \to e^+ \pi^0 and n-nbar oscillations, or n \to e^- \pi^+ and n-nbar oscillations would establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles. We discuss this in a model-independent effective operator approach. Read More

We discuss the sparticle (and Higgs) spectrum in a class of flavor symmetry-based minimal supersymmetric standard models, referred to here as sMSSM. In this framework the SUSY breaking Lagrangian takes the most general form consistent with a grand unified symmetry such as SO(10) and a non-Abelian flavor symmetry acting on the three families with either a 2+1 or a 3 family assignment. Models based on gauged SU(2) and SO(3) flavor symmetry, as well as non-Abelian discrete symmetries such as S_3 and A_4, have been suggested which fall into this category. Read More

We present a class of supersymmetric models in which symmetry considerations alone dictate the form of the soft SUSY breaking Lagrangian. We develop a class of minimal models, denoted as sMSSM -- for flavor symmetry-based minimal supersymmetric standard model, which respect a grand unified symmetry such as SO(10) and a non-Abelian flavor symmetry H which suppresses SUSY-induced flavor violation. Explicit examples are constructed with the flavor symmetry being gauged SU(2)_H and SO(3)_H with the three families transforming as 2 + 1 and 3 representations respectively. Read More

We report systematic first principles density functional study on the electronic structure, elastic and optical properties of nitrogen based solid hydrogen storage materials LiNH$_2$, NaNH$_2$, KNH$_2$, and RbNH$_2$. The ground state structural properties are calculated by using standard density functional theory and also dispersion corrected density functional theory. We find that van der Waals interactions are dominant in LiNH$_2$ whereas they are relatively weak in other alkali metal amides. Read More

\emph{Ab-initio} calculations were performed on the scheelite type MGeO$_4$ (M = Hf, and Zr) compounds which find wide range of applications such as in x-ray imaging. We have studied the high pressure structural stability, elastic constants, electronic structure and optical properties of these compounds through density functional theory calculations. Two different density functional approaches namely plane wave pseudopotential method (PW-PP) and full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) were used for the present study. Read More

We present a simple model for a 7 keV scalar dark matter particle which also explains the recently reported anomalous peak in the galactic X-ray spectrum at 3.55 keV in terms of its two photon decay. The model is arguably the simplest extension of the Standard Model, with the addition of a real scalar gauge singlet field subject to a reflection symmetry. Read More

We present density functional theory calculations on the crystal structure, equation of state, vibrational properties and electronic structure of nitrogen-rich solid energetic material guanidinium 2-methyl-5-nitraminotetrazolate (G-MNAT). The ground state structural properties calculated with dispersion corrected density functionals are in good agreement with experiment. The computed equilibrium crystal structure is further used to calculate the equation of state and zone-center vibrational frequencies of the material. Read More

These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 2, on the Intensity Frontier, discusses the program of research with high-intensity beams and rare processes. Read More

**Authors:**J. Albrecht, M. Artuso, K. Babu, R. H. Bernstein, T. Blum, D. N. Brown, B. C. K. Casey, C. -h. Cheng, V. Cirigliano, A. Cohen, A. Deshpande, E. C. Dukes, B. Echenard, A. Gaponenko, D. Glenzinski, M. Gonzalez-Alonso, F. Grancagnolo, Y. Grossman, R. C. Group, R. Harnik, D. G. Hitlin, B. Kiburg, K. Knoepfe, K. Kumar, G. Lim, Z. -T. Lu, D. McKeen, J. P. Miller, M. Ramsey-Musolf, R. Ray, B. L. Roberts, M. Rominsky, Y. Semertzidis, D. Stoeckinger, R. Talman, R. Van De Water, P. Winter

This is the report of the Intensity Frontier Charged Lepton Working Group of the 2013 Community Summer Study "Snowmass on the Mississippi", summarizing the current status and future experimental opportunities in muon and tau lepton studies and their sensitivity to new physics. These include searches for charged lepton flavor violation, measurements of magnetic and electric dipole moments, and precision measurements of the decay spectrum and parity-violating asymmetries. Read More

**Authors:**K. S. Babu, E. Kearns, U. Al-Binni, S. Banerjee, D. V. Baxter, Z. Berezhiani, M. Bergevin, S. Bhattacharya, S. Brice, R. Brock, T. W. Burgess, L. Castellanos, S. Chattopadhyay, M-C. Chen, E. Church, C. E. Coppola, D. F. Cowen, R. Cowsik, J. A. Crabtree, H. Davoudiasl, R. Dermisek, A. Dolgov, B. Dutta, G. Dvali, P. Ferguson, P. Fileviez Perez, T. Gabriel, A. Gal, F. Gallmeier, K. S. Ganezer, I. Gogoladze, E. S. Golubeva, V. B. Graves, G. Greene, T. Handler, B. Hartfiel, A. Hawari, L. Heilbronn, J. Hill, D. Jaffe, C. Johnson, C. K. Jung, Y. Kamyshkov, B. Kerbikov, B. Z. Kopeliovich, V. B. Kopeliovich, W. Korsch, T. Lachenmaier, P. Langacker, C-Y. Liu, W. J. Marciano, M. Mocko, R. N. Mohapatra, N. Mokhov, G. Muhrer, P. Mumm, P. Nath, Y. Obayashi, L. Okun, J. C. Pati, R. W. Pattie Jr., D. G. Phillips II, C. Quigg, J. L. Raaf, S. Raby, E. Ramberg, A. Ray, A. Roy, A. Ruggles, U. Sarkar, A. Saunders, A. Serebrov, Q. Shafi, H. Shimizu, M. Shiozawa, R. Shrock, A. K. Sikdar, W. M. Snow, A. Soha, S. Spanier, G. C. Stavenga, S. Striganov, R. Svoboda, Z. Tang, Z. Tavartkiladze, L. Townsend, S. Tulin, A. Vainshtein, R. Van Kooten, C. E. M. Wagner, Z. Wang, B. Wehring, R. J. Wilson, M. Wise, M. Yokoyama, A. R. Young

This report, prepared for the Community Planning Study - Snowmass 2013 - summarizes the theoretical motivations and the experimental efforts to search for baryon number violation, focussing on nucleon decay and neutron-antineutron oscillations. Present and future nucleon decay search experiments using large underground detectors, as well as planned neutron-antineutron oscillation search experiments with free neutron beams are highlighted. Read More

In this work we present an analysis of flavor violating effects mediated by color sextet scalars, which arise naturally in left-right symmetric gauge theories based on SU(2)_L \times SU(2)_R \times SU(4)_C group. The sextets, denoted here by \Delta_{dd}, Delta_{ud} and \Delta_{uu}, couple to right--handed quarks. We delineate the constraints on these couplings arising from meson--anti-meson transitions and flavor changing weak decays. Read More

We report a detailed first principles study on the structural, elastic, vibrational and thermodynamic properties of layered structure energetic alkali metal azides KN$_3$ and RbN$_3$. All the calculations were carried out by means of plane wave pseudopotential method with and without including van der Waals interactions. The calculated ground state structural properties are improved to a greater extent by the inclusion of dispersion corrections, implies that the van der Waals interactions play a major role on the physical properties of these systems. Read More

The structural, electronic, optical and vibrational properties of LiN$_3$ under high pressure have been studied using plane wave pseudopotentials within the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange and correlation functional. The calculated lattice parameters agree quite well with experiments. The calculated bulk modulus value is found to be 23. Read More

Structural stability and vibrational properties of KN$_3$ have been studied under pressure using the first principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) as well as with semi empirical dispersion correction to the DFT to treat van der Waals interactions. The structural properties calculated through the dispersion correction are in good agreement with the experimental results when compared with the standard density functional theory. The lattice mode and the azide ion bending mode frequencies are found to be well reproduced by our calculations. Read More

We report density functional theory calculations on the crystal structure, elastic, lattice dynamics and electronic properties of iso-structural layered monoclinic alkali azides, LiN3 and NaN3. The effect of van der Waals interactions on the ground- state structural properties is studied by using various dispersion corrected density functionals. Based on the equilibrium crystal structure, the elastic constants, phonon dispersion and phonon density of states of the compounds are calculated. Read More

**Authors:**K. Babu, S. Banerjee, D. V. Baxter, Z. Berezhiani, M. Bergevin, S. Bhattacharya, S. Brice, T. W. Burgess, L. Castellanos, S. Chattopadhyay, M-C. Chen, C. E. Coppola, R. Cowsik, J. A. Crabtree, P. Das, E. B. Dees, A. Dolgov, G. Dvali, P. Ferguson, M. Frost, T. Gabriel, A. Gal, F. Gallmeier, K. Ganezer, E. Golubeva, V. B. Graves, G. Greene, T. Handler, B. Hartfiel, A. Hawari, L. Heilbronn, C. Johnson, Y. Kamyshkov, B. Kerbikov, M. Kitaguchi, B. Z. Kopeliovich, V. B. Kopeliovich, W. Korsch, V. Kuzmin, C-Y. Liu, P. McGaughey, M. Mocko, R. Mohapatra, N. Mokhov, G. Muhrer, P. Mumm, L. Okun, R. W. Pattie Jr., D. G. Phillips II, C. Quigg, E. Ramberg, A. Ray, A. Roy, A. Ruggles, U. Sarkar, A. Saunders, A. P. Serebrov, H. M. Shimizu, R. Shrock, A. K. Sikdar, S. Sjue, W. M. Snow, A. Soha, S. Spanier, S. Striganov, L. Townsend, R. Tschirhart, A. Vainshtein, R. Van Kooten, Z. Wang, B. Wehring, A. R. Young

This paper summarizes discussions of the theoretical developments and the studies performed by the NNbarX collaboration for the 2013 Snowmass Community Summer Study. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Chair

This report summarizes the findings of the DPF Theory Panel which was formed with a goal of understanding the scientific problems and opportunities of the next decade, as well as the challenges involved in sustaining a first-class program in theoretical particle physics research in the United States. Read More

**Authors:**A. de Gouvea, K. Pitts, K. Scholberg, G. P. Zeller, J. Alonso, A. Bernstein, M. Bishai, S. Elliott, K. Heeger, K. Hoffman, P. Huber, L. J. Kaufman, B. Kayser, J. Link, C. Lunardini, B. Monreal, J. G. Morfin, H. Robertson, R. Tayloe, N. Tolich, K. Abazajian, T. Akiri, C. Albright, J. Asaadi, K. S Babu, A. B. Balantekin, P. Barbeau, M. Bass, A. Blake, A. Blondel, E. Blucher, N. Bowden, S. J. Brice, A. Bross, B. Carls, F. Cavanna, B. Choudhary, P. Coloma, A. Connolly, J. Conrad, M. Convery, R. L. Cooper, D. Cowen, H. da Motta, T. de Young, F. Di Lodovico, M. Diwan, Z. Djurcic, M. Dracos, S. Dodelson, Y. Efremenko, T. Ekelof, J. L. Feng, B. Fleming, J. Formaggio, A. Friedland, G. Fuller, H. Gallagher, S. Geer, M. Gilchriese, M. Goodman, D. Grant, G. Gratta, C. Hall, F. Halzen, D. Harris, M. Heffner, R. Henning, J. L. Hewett, R. Hill, A. Himmel, G. Horton-Smith, A. Karle, T. Katori, E. Kearns, S. Kettell, J. Klein, Y. Kim, Y. K. Kim, Yu. Kolomensky, M. Kordosky, Yu. Kudenko, V. A. Kudryavtsev, K. Lande, K. Lang, R. Lanza, K. Lau, H. Lee, Z. Li, B. R. Littlejohn, C. J. Lin, D. Liu, H. Liu, K. Long, W. Louis, K. B. Luk, W. Marciano, C. Mariani, M. Marshak, C. Mauger, K. T. McDonald, K. McFarland, R. McKeown, M. Messier, S. R. Mishra, U. Mosel, P. Mumm, T. Nakaya, J. K. Nelson, D. Nygren, G. D. Orebi Gann, J. Osta, O. Palamara, J. Paley, V. Papadimitriou, S. Parke, Z. Parsa, R. Patterson, A. Piepke, R. Plunkett, A. Poon, X. Qian, J. Raaf, R. Rameika, M. Ramsey-Musolf, B. Rebel, R. Roser, J. Rosner, C. Rott, G. Rybka, H. Sahoo, S. Sangiorgio, D. Schmitz, R. Shrock, M. Shaevitz, N. Smith, M. Smy, H. Sobel, P. Sorensen, A. Sousa, J. Spitz, T. Strauss, R. Svoboda, H. A. Tanaka, J. Thomas, X. Tian, R. Tschirhart, C. Tully, K. Van Bibber, R. G. Van de Water, P. Vahle, P. Vogel, C. W. Walter, D. Wark, M. Wascko, D. Webber, H. Weerts, C. White, H. White, L. Whitehead, R. J. Wilson, L. Winslow, T Wongjirad, E. Worcester, M. Yokoyama, J. Yoo, E. D. Zimmerman

This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos. Read More

We present a simple and predictive model of radiative neutrino masses. It is a special case of the Zee model which introduces two Higgs doublets and a charged singlet. We impose a family-dependent Z_4 symmetry acting on the leptons, which reduces the number of parameters describing neutrino oscillations to four. Read More

**Authors:**Andreas S. Kronfeld

^{1}, Robert S. Tschirhart

^{2}, Usama Al-Binni, Wolfgang Altmannshofer, Charles Ankenbrandt, Kaladi Babu, Sunanda Banerjee, Matthew Bass, Brian Batell, David V. Baxter, Zurab Berezhiani, Marc Bergevin, Robert Bernstein, Sudeb Bhattacharya, Mary Bishai, Thomas Blum, S. Alex Bogacz, Stephen J. Brice, Joachim Brod, Alan Bross, Michael Buchoff, Thomas W. Burgess, Marcela Carena, Luis A. Castellanos, Subhasis Chattopadhyay, Mu-Chun Chen, Daniel Cherdack, Norman H. Christ, Tim Chupp, Vincenzo Cirigliano, Pilar Coloma, Christopher E. Coppola, Ramanath Cowsik, J. Allen Crabtree, André de Gouvêa, Jean-Pierre Delahaye, Dmitri Denisov, Patrick deNiverville, Ranjan Dharmapalan, Markus Diefenthaler, Alexander Dolgov, Georgi Dvali, Estia Eichten, Jürgen Engelfried, Phillip D. Ferguson, Tony Gabriel, Avraham Gal, Franz Gallmeier, Kenneth S. Ganezer, Susan Gardner, Douglas Glenzinski, Stephen Godfrey, Elena S. Golubeva, Stefania Gori, Van B. Graves, Geoffrey Greene, Cory L. Griffard, Ulrich Haisch, Thomas Handler, Brandon Hartfiel, Athanasios Hatzikoutelis, Ayman Hawari, Lawrence Heilbronn, James E. Hill, Patrick Huber, David E. Jaffe, Xiaodong Jiang, Christian Johnson, Yuri Kamyshkov, Daniel M. Kaplan, Boris Kerbikov, Brendan Kiburg, Harold G. Kirk, Andreas Klein, Kyle Knoepfel, Boris Kopeliovich, Vladimir Kopeliovich, Joachim Kopp, Wolfgang Korsch, Graham Kribs, Ronald Lipton, Chen-Yu Liu, Wolfgang Lorenzon, Zheng-Tian Lu, Naomi C. R. Makins, David McKeen, Geoffrey Mills, Michael Mocko, Rabindra Mohapatra, Nikolai V. Mokhov, Guenter Muhrer, Pieter Mumm, David Neuffer, Lev Okun, Mark A. Palmer, Robert Palmer, Robert W. Pattie Jr., David G. Phillips II, Kevin Pitts, Maxim Pospelov, Vitaly S. Pronskikh, Chris Quigg, Erik Ramberg, Amlan Ray, Paul E. Reimer, David G. Richards, Adam Ritz, Amit Roy, Arthur Ruggles, Robert Ryne, Utpal Sarkar, Andy Saunders, Yannis K. Semertzidis, Anatoly Serebrov, Hirohiko Shimizu, Robert Shrock, Arindam K. Sikdar, Pavel V. Snopok, William M. Snow, Aria Soha, Stefan Spanier, Sergei Striganov, Zhaowen Tang, Lawrence Townsend, Jon Urheim, Arkady Vainshtein, Richard Van de Water, Ruth S. Van de Water, Richard J. Van Kooten, Bernard Wehring, William C. Wester III, Lisa Whitehead, Robert J. Wilson, Elizabeth Worcester, Albert R. Young, Geralyn Zeller

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Editors,

^{2}Editors

Part 2 of "Project X: Accelerator Reference Design, Physics Opportunities, Broader Impacts". In this Part, we outline the particle-physics program that can be achieved with Project X, a staged superconducting linac for intensity-frontier particle physics. Topics include neutrino physics, kaon physics, muon physics, electric dipole moments, neutron-antineutron oscillations, new light particles, hadron structure, hadron spectroscopy, and lattice-QCD calculations. Read More

Several extensions of the Standard Model have light doubly-charged Higgs bosons in their particle spectrum. The supersymmetric versions of these models introduce fermionic superpartners of these doubly-charged Higgs bosons, the Higgsinos, which also remain light. In this work we analyze a new collider signal resulting from the pair production and decay of a light doubly-charged Higgsino to an even lighter doubly-charged Higgs boson. Read More

A recently proposed scenario for baryogenesis, called post--sphaleron baryogenesis (PSB) is discussed within a class of quark--lepton unified framework based on the gauge symmetry SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x SU(4)_c realized in the multi--TeV scale. The baryon asymmetry of the universe in this model is produced below the electroweak phase transition temperature after the sphalerons have decoupled from the Hubble expansion. These models embed naturally the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, and predict color-sextet scalar particles in the TeV range which may be accessible to the LHC experiments. Read More

We show that by adding a vector-like 5+5bar pair of matter fields to the spectrum of the minimal renormalizable SUSY SU(5) theory the wrong relations for fermion masses can be corrected, while being predictive and consistent with proton lifetime limits. Threshold correction from the vector-like fields improves unification of gauge couplings compared to the minimal model. It is found that for supersymmetric spectra lighter than 3 TeV, which would be testable at the LHC, at least some of the nucleon decay modes should have partial lifetimes shorter than about 2. Read More

We show that grand unified theories based on SO(10) generate quite naturally baryon number violating dimension seven operators that violate (B-L), and lead to novel nucleon decay modes such as n \to e^-K^+, e^- \pi^+ and p \to \nu \pi^+. We find that in two-step breaking schemes of non-supersymmetric SO(10), the partial lifetimes for these modes can be within reach of experiments. The interactions responsible for these decay modes also provide a new way to understand the origin of matter in the universe via the decays of GUT scale scalar bosons of SO(10). Read More

We investigate the effects of messenger-matter mixing on the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass m_h in gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking models. It is shown that with such mixings m_h can be raised to about 125 GeV, even when the superparticles have sub-TeV masses, and when the gravitino has a cosmologically preferred sub-keV mass. In minimal gauge mediation without messenger-matter mixing, realizing m_h = 125 GeV would require multi-TeV SUSY spectrum. Read More

We show that unification of the three gauge couplings can be realized consistently in a class of non-supersymmetric SO(10) models with a one-step breaking to the Standard Model if a color-sextet scalar field survives down to the TeV scale. Such scalars, which should be accessible to the LHC for direct detection, arise naturally in SO(10) as remnants of the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses. The diquark couplings of these scalars lead to \Delta B = 2 baryon number violating processes such as neutron-antineutron oscillation. Read More

**Authors:**J. L. Hewett, H. Weerts, R. Brock, J. N. Butler, B. C. K. Casey, J. Collar, A. de Gouvea, R. Essig, Y. Grossman, W. Haxton, J. A. Jaros, C. K. Jung, Z. T. Lu, K. Pitts, Z. Ligeti, J. R. Patterson, M. Ramsey-Musolf, J. L. Ritchie, A. Roodman, K. Scholberg, C. E. M. Wagner, G. P. Zeller, S. Aefsky, A. Afanasev, K. Agashe, C. Albright, J. Alonso, C. Ankenbrandt, M. Aoki, C. A. Arguelles, N. Arkani-Hamed, J. R. Armendariz, C. Armendariz-Picon, E. Arrieta Diaz, J. Asaadi, D. M. Asner, K. S. Babu, K. Bailey, O. Baker, B. Balantekin, B. Baller, M. Bass, B. Batell, J. Beacham, J. Behr, N. Berger, M. Bergevin, E. Berman, R. Bernstein, A. J. Bevan, M. Bishai, M. Blanke, S. Blessing, A. Blondel, T. Blum, G. Bock, A. Bodek, G. Bonvicini, F. Bossi, J. Boyce, R. Breedon, M. Breidenbach, S. J. Brice, R. A. Briere, S. Brodsky, C. Bromberg, A. Bross, T. E. Browder, D. A. Bryman, M. Buckley, R. Burnstein, E. Caden, P. Campana, R. Carlini, G. Carosi, C. Castromonte, R. Cenci, I. Chakaberia, M. C. Chen, C. H. Cheng, B. Choudhary, N. H. Christ, E. Christensen, M. E. Christy, T. E. Chupp, E. Church, D. B. Cline, T. E. Coan, P. Coloma, J. Comfort, L. Coney, J. Cooper, R. J. Cooper, R. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, D. Cronin-Hennessy, A. Datta, G. S. Davies, M. Demarteau, D. P. DeMille, A. Denig, R. Dermisek, A. Deshpande, M. S. Dewey, R. Dharmapalan, J. Dhooghe, M. R. Dietrich, M. Diwan, Z. Djurcic, S. Dobbs, M. Duraisamy, B. Dutta, H. Duyang, D. A. Dwyer, M. Eads, B. Echenard, S. R. Elliott, C. Escobar, J. Fajans, S. Farooq, C. Faroughy, J. E. Fast, B. Feinberg, J. Felde, G. Feldman, P. Fierlinger, P. Fileviez Perez, B. Filippone, P. Fisher, B. T. Flemming, K. T. Flood, R. Forty, M. J. Frank, A. Freyberger, A. Friedland, R. Gandhi, K. S. Ganezer, A. Garcia, F. G. Garcia, S. Gardner, L. Garrison, A. Gasparian, S. Geer, V. M. Gehman, T. Gershon, M. Gilchriese, C. Ginsberg, I. Gogoladze, M. Gonderinger, M. Goodman, H. Gould, M. Graham, P. W. Graham, R. Gran, J. Grange, G. Gratta, J. P. Green, H. Greenlee, R. C. Group, E. Guardincerri, V. Gudkov, R. Guenette, A. Haas, A. Hahn, T. Han, T. Handler, J. C. Hardy, R. Harnik, D. A. Harris, F. A. Harris, P. G. Harris, J. Hartnett, B. He, B. R. Heckel, K. M. Heeger, S. Henderson, D. Hertzog, R. Hill, E. A Hinds, D. G. Hitlin, R. J. Holt, N. Holtkamp, G. Horton-Smith, P. Huber, W. Huelsnitz, J. Imber, I. Irastorza, J. Jaeckel, I. Jaegle, C. James, A. Jawahery, D. Jensen, C. P. Jessop, B. Jones, H. Jostlein, T. Junk, A. L. Kagan, M. Kalita, Y. Kamyshkov, D. M. Kaplan, G. Karagiorgi, A. Karle, T. Katori, B. Kayser, R. Kephart, S. Kettell, Y. K. Kim, M. Kirby, K. Kirch, J. Klein, J. Kneller, A. Kobach, M. Kohl, J. Kopp, M. Kordosky, W. Korsch, I. Kourbanis, A. D. Krisch, P. Krizan, A. S. Kronfeld, S. Kulkarni, K. S. Kumar, Y. Kuno, T. Kutter, T. Lachenmaier, M. Lamm, J. Lancaster, M. Lancaster, C. Lane, K. Lang, P. Langacker, S. Lazarevic, T. Le, K. Lee, K. T. Lesko, Y. Li, M. Lindgren, A. Lindner, J. Link, D. Lissauer, L. S. Littenberg, B. Littlejohn, C. Y. Liu, W. Loinaz, W. Lorenzon, W. C. Louis, J. Lozier, L. Ludovici, L. Lueking, C. Lunardini, D. B. MacFarlane, P. A. N. Machado, P. B. Mackenzie, J. Maloney, W. J. Marciano, W. Marsh, M. Marshak, J. W. Martin, C. Mauger, K. S. McFarland, C. McGrew, G. McLaughlin, D. McKeen, R. McKeown, B. T. Meadows, R. Mehdiyev, D. Melconian, H. Merkel, M. Messier, J. P. Miller, G. Mills, U. K. Minamisono, S. R. Mishra, I. Mocioiu, S. Moed Sher, R. N. Mohapatra, B. Monreal, C. D. Moore, J. G. Morfin, J. Mousseau, L. A. Moustakas, G. Mueller, P. Mueller, M. Muether, H. P. Mumm, C. Munger, H. Murayama, P. Nath, O. Naviliat-Cuncin, J. K. Nelson, D. Neuffer, J. S. Nico, A. Norman, D. Nygren, Y. Obayashi, T. P. O'Connor, Y. Okada, J. Olsen, L. Orozco, J. L. Orrell, J. Osta, B. Pahlka, J. Paley, V. Papadimitriou, M. Papucci, S. Parke, R. H. Parker, Z. Parsa, K. Partyka, A. Patch, J. C. Pati, R. B. Patterson, Z. Pavlovic, G. Paz, G. N. Perdue, D. Perevalov, G. Perez, R. Petti, W. Pettus, A. Piepke, M. Pivovaroff, R. Plunkett, C. C. Polly, M. Pospelov, R. Povey, A. Prakesh, M. V. Purohit, S. Raby, J. L. Raaf, R. Rajendran, S. Rajendran, G. Rameika, R. Ramsey, A. Rashed, B. N. Ratcliff, B. Rebel, J. Redondo, P. Reimer, D. Reitzner, F. Ringer, A. Ringwald, S. Riordan, B. L. Roberts, D. A. Roberts, R. Robertson, F. Robicheaux, M. Rominsky, R. Roser, J. L. Rosner, C. Rott, P. Rubin, N. Saito, M. Sanchez, S. Sarkar, H. Schellman, B. Schmidt, M. Schmitt, D. W. Schmitz, J. Schneps, A. Schopper, P. Schuster, A. J. Schwartz, M. Schwarz, J. Seeman, Y. K. Semertzidis, K. K. Seth, Q. Shafi, P. Shanahan, R. Sharma, S. R. Sharpe, M. Shiozawa, V. Shiltsev, K. Sigurdson, P. Sikivie, J. Singh, D. Sivers, T. Skwarnicki, N. Smith, J. Sobczyk, H. Sobel, M. Soderberg, Y. H. Song, A. Soni, P. Souder, A. Sousa, J. Spitz, M. Stancari, G. C. Stavenga, J. H. Steffen, S. Stepanyan, D. Stoeckinger, S. Stone, J. Strait, M. Strassler, I. A. Sulai, R. Sundrum, R. Svoboda, B. Szczerbinska, A. Szelc, T. Takeuchi, P. Tanedo, S. Taneja, J. Tang, D. B. Tanner, R. Tayloe, I. Taylor, J. Thomas, C. Thorn, X. Tian, B. G. Tice, M. Tobar, N. Tolich, N. Toro, I. S. Towner, Y. Tsai, R. Tschirhart, C. D. Tunnell, M. Tzanov, A. Upadhye, J. Urheim, S. Vahsen, A. Vainshtein, E. Valencia, R. G. Van de Water, R. S. Van de Water, M. Velasco, J. Vogel, P. Vogel, W. Vogelsang, Y. W. Wah, D. Walker, N. Weiner, A. Weltman, R. Wendell, W. Wester, M. Wetstein, C. White, L. Whitehead, J. Whitmore, E. Widmann, G. Wiedemann, J. Wilkerson, G. Wilkinson, P. Wilson, R. J. Wilson, W. Winter, M. B. Wise, J. Wodin, S. Wojcicki, B. Wojtsekhowski, T. Wongjirad, E. Worcester, J. Wurtele, T. Xin, J. Xu, T. Yamanaka, Y. Yamazaki, I. Yavin, J. Yeck, M. Yeh, M. Yokoyama, J. Yoo, A. Young, E. Zimmerman, K. Zioutas, M. Zisman, J. Zupan, R. Zwaska

The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. Read More

The applications using face biometric has proved its reliability in last decade. In this paper, we propose DBC based Face Recognition using DWT (DBC- FR) model. The Poly-U Near Infra Red (NIR) database images are scanned and cropped to get only the face part in pre-processing. Read More

We show that grand unified theories based on SO(10) generate naturally the next-to-leading baryon number violating operators of dimension seven. These operators, which violate B-L, lead to unconventional decays of the nucleon such as n -> e^-K^+, e^- \pi^+ and p -> \nu \pi^+. In two-step breaking schemes of non-supersymmetric SO(10), nucleon lifetime for decays into these modes is found to be within reach of experiments. Read More

We present a new class of unified SO(10) models where the GUT symmetry breaking down to the standard model gauge group involves just one scale, in contrast to the conventional SO(10) models which require two scales. Further, the models we discuss possess a natural doublet-triplet splitting via the missing partner mechanism without fine tuning. Such models involve $560+\ov{560}$ pair of heavy Higgs fields along with a set of light fields. Read More

A new model of radiative neutrino masses generated via two-loop diagrams is proposed involving a charge 2/3 vector-like quark and a doublet of leptoquark scalars. This model predicts one of the neutrinos to be massless and admits both the normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchies with correlated predictions for l_i \rightarrow l_j + \gamma branching ratios. New contributions to CP violation in B_s-\bar{B}_s mixing arise in the model through leptoquark box diagrams, which can explain the anomalous dimuon events reported by the DO collaboration. Read More

We study perturbative unitarity constraints on general W' models by considering the high energy behavior of fermion scattering into gauge bosons. In most cases we survey, a Z' boson with a comparable mass must be present for the theory to be consistent, with fixed couplings to the standard model gauge bosons and fermions. Applying these results to a class of W' models which explains the top quark forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron, we find that a Z' must exist with a mass below 7-8 TeV and sizable coupling to the light quarks. Read More

The present study explores electronic and structural properties, ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), polarizability ({\alpha}), chemical potential (\mu), hardness ({\eta}), softness (S), band gap ({\Delta}E(HOMO-LUMO)) and spectral characteristics of beryllium hydride oligomers by quantum chemical treatment. The discrepancies in the calculated reactive descriptors of molecules are presumably due to variations in electron distribution and spin pairing near Fermi level. The molecules BeH2, Be3H5, Be5H10, Be7H14 and Be9H18 have been found to be more stable than Be2H4, Be4H8, Be6H12, Be8H16 and Be10H20. Read More