Joshua Berger - McGill Univ.

Joshua Berger
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Joshua Berger
McGill Univ.

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High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (26)
High Energy Physics - Experiment (14)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (4)
High Energy Physics - Theory (2)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (2)
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (1)
Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Joshua Berger

As a cold dark matter candidate, the QCD axion may form Bose-Einstein condensates, called axion stars, with masses around $10^{-11}\,M_{\odot}$. In this paper, we point out that a brand new astrophysical object, a Hydrogen Axion Star (HAS), may well be formed by ordinary baryonic matter becoming gravitationally bound to an axion star. We study the properties of the HAS and find that the hydrogen cloud has a high pressure and temperature in the center and is likely in the liquid metallic hydrogen state. Read More

We study an interesting region of phase space at the LHC for pair-produced stops decaying into hadronic top quarks and light neutralinos. After imposing a sizeable cut on the missing transverse energy, which is the key variable for reducing backgrounds, we have found that the two hadronic tops are likely to merge into a single fat jet. We develop a jet-substructure-based strategy to tag the two merged top-jets and utilize the MT2 variable to further reduce the backgrounds. Read More

A sector with QCD-like strong dynamics is common in models of non-standard physics. Such a model could be accessible in LHC searches if both confinement and big-quarks charged under the confining group are at the TeV scale. Big-quark masses at this scale can be explained if the new fermions are chiral under a new $U(1)^\prime$ gauge symmetry such that their bare masses are related to the $U(1)^\prime$-breaking and new confinement scales. Read More

Any neutral boson such as a dark photon or dark Higgs that is part of a non-standard sector of particles can mix with its standard model counterpart. When very weakly mixed with the Standard Model, these particles are produced in the early Universe via the freeze-in mechanism and subsequently decay back to standard model particles. In this work, we place constraints on such mediator decays by considering bounds from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background radiation. Read More

Color octet bosons are a universal prediction of models in which the 750 GeV diphoton resonance corresponds to a pion of a QCD-like composite sector. We show that the existing searches for dijet and photon plus jet resonances at the LHC constrain single productions of color octet states and can be translated into stringent limits on the 750 GeV diphoton rate. For a minimal 5 + 5bar model, the 750 GeV diphoton signal cross section at the 13 TeV LHC is constrained to be below around 5 fb. Read More

For a wide range of supersymmetric models, there is a chiral superfield whose scalar and pseudo-scalar have approximately degenerate masses and couplings to Standard Model particles. At colliders, they may show up as "superbumps": a pair of resonances with similar masses and production cross-sections. Observing the superbumps may provide evidence of supersymmetry even without seeing superpartners with a different spin. Read More

We point out a potential common origin of the recently observed 750 GeV diphoton resonance and a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) candidate. In a dark QCD sector with an unbroken dark G-parity, the diphoton resonance could be a dark G-even pion, while the WIMP could be the lightest dark G-odd pion. Both particles are Standard Model gauge singlets and have the same decay constant. Read More

We investigate the sensitivity of the next generation of flavor-based low-energy experiments to probe the supersymmetric parameter space in the context of the phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM), and examine the complementarity with direct searches for Supersymmetry at the 13 TeV LHC in a quantitative manner. To this end, we enlarge the previously studied pMSSM parameter space to include all physical non-zero CP-violating phases, namely those associated with the gaugino mass parameters, Higgsino mass parameter, and the tri-linear couplings of the top quark, bottom quark and tau lepton. We find that future electric dipole moment and flavor measurements can have a strong impact on the viability of these models even if the sparticle spectrum is out of reach of the 13 TeV LHC. Read More

Recent searches for first-generation leptoquarks and heavy right-handed $W_R$ bosons have seen excesses in final states with electrons and jets. A bizarre property of these excesses is that they appear to violate lepton universality. With these results in mind, we study the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which the Higgs arises as the sneutrino in an electron supermultiplet. Read More

Authors: Jalal Abdallah, Henrique Araujo, Alexandre Arbey, Adi Ashkenazi, Alexander Belyaev, Joshua Berger, Celine Boehm, Antonio Boveia, Amelia Brennan, Jim Brooke, Oliver Buchmueller, Matthew Buckley, Giorgio Busoni, Lorenzo Calibbi, Sushil Chauhan, Nadir Daci, Gavin Davies, Isabelle De Bruyn, Paul De Jong, Albert De Roeck, Kees de Vries, Daniele Del Re, Andrea De Simone, Andrea Di Simone, Caterina Doglioni, Matthew Dolan, Herbi K. Dreiner, John Ellis, Sarah Eno, Erez Etzion, Malcolm Fairbairn, Brian Feldstein, Henning Flaecher, Eric Feng, Patrick Fox, Marie-Hélène Genest, Loukas Gouskos, Johanna Gramling, Ulrich Haisch, Roni Harnik, Anthony Hibbs, Siewyan Hoh, Walter Hopkins, Valerio Ippolito, Thomas Jacques, Felix Kahlhoefer, Valentin V. Khoze, Russell Kirk, Andreas Korn, Khristian Kotov, Shuichi Kunori, Greg Landsberg, Sebastian Liem, Tongyan Lin, Steven Lowette, Robyn Lucas, Luca Malgeri, Sarah Malik, Christopher McCabe, Alaettin Serhan Mete, Enrico Morgante, Stephen Mrenna, Yu Nakahama, Dave Newbold, Karl Nordstrom, Priscilla Pani, Michele Papucci, Sophio Pataraia, Bjoern Penning, Deborah Pinna, Giacomo Polesello, Davide Racco, Emanuele Re, Antonio Walter Riotto, Thomas Rizzo, David Salek, Subir Sarkar, Steven Schramm, Patrick Skubic, Oren Slone, Juri Smirnov, Yotam Soreq, Timothy Sumner, Tim M. P. Tait, Marc Thomas, Ian Tomalin, Christopher Tunnell, Alessandro Vichi, Tomer Volansky, Neal Weiner, Stephen M. West, Monika Wielers, Steven Worm, Itay Yavin, Bryan Zaldivar, Ning Zhou, Kathryn Zurek

This document outlines a set of simplified models for dark matter and its interactions with Standard Model particles. It is intended to summarize the main characteristics that these simplified models have when applied to dark matter searches at the LHC, and to provide a number of useful expressions for reference. The list of models includes both s-channel and t-channel scenarios. Read More

We study novel scenarios where thermal dark matter (DM) can be efficiently captured in the Sun and annihilate into boosted dark matter. In models with semi-annihilating DM, where DM has a non-minimal stabilization symmetry, or in models with a multi-component DM sector, annihilations of DM can give rise to stable dark sector particles with moderate Lorentz boosts. We investigate both of these possibilities, presenting concrete models as proofs of concept. Read More

Recent searches for a first-generation leptoquark by the CMS collaboration have shown around 2.5 sigma deviations from Standard Model predictions in both the eejj and e nu jj channels. Furthermore, the eejj invariant mass distribution has another 2. Read More

We study a class of simplified dark matter models in which dark matter couples directly with a mediator and a charged lepton. This class of Lepton Portal dark matter models has very rich phenomenology: it has loop generated dark matter electromagnetic moments that generate a direct detection signal; it contributes to indirect detection in the cosmic positron flux via dark matter annihilation; it provides a signature of the same-flavor, opposite-sign dilepton plus missing transverse energy at colliders. We determine the current experimental constraints on the model parameter space for Dirac fermion, Majorana fermion and complex scalar dark matter cases of the Lepton Portal framework. Read More

In this Snowmass whitepaper, we describe the impact of ongoing and proposed intensity frontier experiments on the parameter space of the Minimally Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We extend a set of phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM) models to include non-zero CP-violating phases and study the sensitivity of various flavor observables in these scenarios Future electric dipole moment and rare meson decay experiments can have a strong impact on the viability of these models that is relatively independent of the detailed superpartner spectrum. In particular, we find that these experiments have the potential to probe models that are expected to escape searches at the high-luminosity LHC. Read More

We study a class of simplified dark matter models in which one dark matter particle couples with a mediator and a Standard Model fermion. In such models, collider and direct detection searches probe complimentary regions of parameter space. For Majorana dark matter, direct detection covers the region near mediator-dark matter degeneracy, while colliders probe regions with a large dark matter and mediator mass splitting. Read More

Minimal Flavor Violation in the up-type quark sector leads to particularly interesting phenomenology due to the interplay of flavor physics in the charm sector and collider physics from flavor changing processes in the top sector. We study the most general operators that can affect top quark properties and $D$ meson decays in this scenario, concentrating on two CP violating operators for detailed studies. The consequences of these effective operators on charm and top flavor changing processes are generically small, but can be enhanced if there exists a light flavor mediator that is a Standard Model gauge singlet scalar and transforms under the flavor symmetry group. Read More

The lack of observation of superpartners at the Large Hadron Collider so far has led to a renewed interest in supersymmetric models with R-parity violation (RPV). In particular, imposing the Minimal Flavor Violation (MFV) hypothesis on a general RPV model leads to a realistic and predictive framework. Naturalness suggests that stops and gluinos should appear at or below the TeV mass scale. Read More

R-parity violating supersymmetry in a Minimal Flavor Violation paradigm can produce same-sign dilepton signals via direct sbottom-LSP pair production. Such signals arise when the sbottom hadronizes and the resulting mesino oscillates into an anti-mesino. The first bounds on the sbottom mass are placed in this scenario using current LHC results. Read More

Three body decays can exhibit CP violation that arises from interfering diagrams with different orderings of the final state particles. We construct several momentum asymmetry observables that are accessible in a hadron collider environment where some of the final state particles are not reconstructed and not all the kinematic information can be extracted. We discuss the complications that arise from the different possible production mechanisms of the decaying particle. Read More

Naturalness demands that the quadratic divergence of the one-loop top contribution to the Higgs mass be cancelled at a scale below 1 TeV. This can be achieved by introducing a fermionic (spin-1/2) top partner, as in, for example, Little Higgs models. In this paper, we study the phenomenology of a simple model realizing this mechanism. Read More

Naturalness considerations, together with the non-observation of superpartners of the Standard Model particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) so far, favor supersymmetric (SUSY) models in which third generation squarks are significantly lighter than those of the first two generations. In such models, gluino pair-production is typically the dominant SUSY production process at the LHC, and it often leads to final states with multiple top quarks. Some of these top quarks may be relativistic in the lab frame, in which case their hadronic decays may produce "top jets". Read More

Authors: Daniele Alves1, Nima Arkani-Hamed2, Sanjay Arora3, Yang Bai4, Matthew Baumgart5, Joshua Berger6, Matthew Buckley7, Bart Butler8, Spencer Chang9, Hsin-Chia Cheng10, Clifford Cheung11, R. Sekhar Chivukula12, Won Sang Cho13, Randy Cotta14, Mariarosaria D'Alfonso15, Sonia El Hedri16, Rouven Essig17, Jared A. Evans18, Liam Fitzpatrick19, Patrick Fox20, Roberto Franceschini21, Ayres Freitas22, James S. Gainer23, Yuri Gershtein24, Richard Gray25, Thomas Gregoire26, Ben Gripaios27, Jack Gunion28, Tao Han29, Andy Haas30, Per Hansson31, JoAnne Hewett32, Dmitry Hits33, Jay Hubisz34, Eder Izaguirre35, Jared Kaplan36, Emanuel Katz37, Can Kilic38, Hyung-Do Kim39, Ryuichiro Kitano40, Sue Ann Koay41, Pyungwon Ko42, David Krohn43, Eric Kuflik44, Ian Lewis45, Mariangela Lisanti46, Tao Liu47, Zhen Liu48, Ran Lu49, Markus Luty50, Patrick Meade51, David Morrissey52, Stephen Mrenna53, Mihoko Nojiri54, Takemichi Okui55, Sanjay Padhi56, Michele Papucci57, Michael Park58, Myeonghun Park59, Maxim Perelstein60, Michael Peskin61, Daniel Phalen62, Keith Rehermann63, Vikram Rentala64, Tuhin Roy65, Joshua T. Ruderman66, Veronica Sanz67, Martin Schmaltz68, Stephen Schnetzer69, Philip Schuster70, Pedro Schwaller71, Matthew D. Schwartz72, Ariel Schwartzman73, Jing Shao74, Jessie Shelton75, David Shih76, Jing Shu77, Daniel Silverstein78, Elizabeth Simmons79, Sunil Somalwar80, Michael Spannowsky81, Christian Spethmann82, Matthew Strassler83, Shufang Su84, Tim Tait85, Brooks Thomas86, Scott Thomas87, Natalia Toro88, Tomer Volansky89, Jay Wacker90, Wolfgang Waltenberger, Itay Yavin, Felix Yu, Yue Zhao, Kathryn Zurek
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This document proposes a collection of simplified models relevant to the design of new-physics searches at the LHC and the characterization of their results. Both ATLAS and CMS have already presented some results in terms of simplified models, and we encourage them to continue and expand this effort, which supplements both signature-based results and benchmark model interpretations. A simplified model is defined by an effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of a small number of new particles. Read More

We study a new type of CP violating observable that arises in three body decays that are dominated by an intermediate resonance. If two interfering diagrams exist with different orderings of final state particles, the required CP-even phase arises due to the different virtualities of the resonance in each of the two diagrams. This method can be an important tool for accessing new CP phases at the LHC and future colliders. Read More

The lepton sector masses and mixing angles can be explained in models based on $A_4$ symmetry. $A_4$ is a non-Abelian discrete group. Therefore, one issue in constructing models based on it is explaining the origin of $A_4$. Read More

We present rules for determining the number of physical parameters in models with exact flavor symmetries. In such models the total number of parameters (physical and unphysical) needed to described a matrix is less than in a model without the symmetries. Several toy examples are studied in order to demonstrate the rules. Read More

Line discontinuities in cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps are a distinctive prediction of models with cosmic strings. These signatures are visible in anisotropy maps with good angular resolution and should be identifiable using edge detection algorithms. One such algorithm is the Canny algorithm. Read More