Joseph P. Romano

Joseph P. Romano

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Joseph P. Romano

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Pub Categories

General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (29)
Mathematics - Statistics (11)
Statistics - Theory (11)
Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (7)
Statistics - Methodology (4)
High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (2)
Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (1)
Astrophysics (1)
Computer Science - Robotics (1)
Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (1)

Publications Authored By Joseph P. Romano

When dealing with the problem of simultaneously testing a large number of null hypotheses, a natural testing strategy is to first reduce the number of tested hypotheses by some selection (screening or filtering) process, and then to simultaneously test the selected hypotheses. The main advantage of this strategy is to greatly reduce the severe effect of high dimensions. However, the first screening or selection stage must be properly accounted for in order to maintain some type of error control. Read More

We review detection methods that are currently in use or have been proposed to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We consider both Bayesian and frequentist searches using ground-based and space-based laser interferometers, spacecraft Doppler tracking, and pulsar timing arrays; and we allow for anisotropy, non-Gaussianity, and non-standard polarization states. Our focus is on relevant data analysis issues, and not on the particular astrophysical or early Universe sources that might give rise to such backgrounds. Read More

In this paper, the problem of error control of stepwise multiple testing procedures is considered. For two-sided hypotheses, control of both type 1 and type 3 (or directional) errors is required, and thus mixed directional familywise error rate control and mixed directional false discovery rate control are each considered by incorporating both types of errors in the error rate. Mixed directional familywise error rate control of stepwise methods in multiple testing has proven to be a challenging problem, as demonstrated in Shaffer (1980). Read More

In this paper, we consider the problem of simultaneously testing many two-sided hypotheses when rejections of null hypotheses are accompanied by claims of the direction of the alternative. The fundamental goal is to construct methods that control the mixed directional familywise error rate, which is the probability of making any type 1 or type 3 (directional) error. In particular, attention is focused on cases where the hypotheses are ordered as $H_1 , \ldots, H_n$, so that $H_{i+1}$ is tested only if $H_1 , \ldots, H_i$ have all been previously rejected. Read More

This paper summarizes lessons learned from the first Amazon Picking Challenge in which 26 international teams designed robotic systems that competed to retrieve items from warehouse shelves. This task is currently performed by human workers, and there is hope that robots can someday help increase efficiency and throughput while lowering cost. We report on a 28-question survey posed to the teams to learn about each team's background, mechanism design, perception apparatus, planning and control approach. Read More

We extend our previous work on applying CMB techniques to the mapping of gravitational-wave backgrounds to backgrounds which have non-GR polarisations. Our analysis and results are presented in the context of pulsar-timing array observations, but the overarching methods are general, and can be easily applied to LIGO or eLISA observations using appropriately modified response functions. Analytic expressions for the pulsar-timing response to gravitational waves with non-GR polarisation are given for each mode of a spin-weighted spherical-harmonic decomposition of the background, which permit the signal to be mapped across the sky to any desired resolution. Read More

The purpose of this mock data and science challenge is to prepare the data analysis and science interpretation for the second generation of gravitational-wave experiments Advanced LIGO-Virgo in the search for a stochastic gravitational-wave background signal of astrophysical origin. Here we present a series of signal and data challenges, with increasing complexity, whose aim is to test the ability of current data analysis pipelines at detecting an astrophysically produced gravitational-wave background, test parameter estimation methods and interpret the results. We introduce the production of these mock data sets that includes a realistic observing scenario data set where we account for different sensitivities of the advanced detectors as they are continuously upgraded toward their design sensitivity. Read More

We discuss the detection of gravitational-wave backgrounds in the context of Bayesian inference and suggest a practical definition of what it means for a signal to be considered stochastic---namely, that the Bayesian evidence favors a stochastic signal model over a deterministic signal model. A signal can further be classified as Gaussian-stochastic if a Gaussian signal model is favored. In our analysis we use Bayesian model selection to choose between several signal and noise models for simulated data consisting of uncorrelated Gaussian detector noise plus a superposition of sinusoidal signals from an astrophysical population of gravitational-wave sources. Read More

We extend the formalisms developed in Gair et al. and Cornish and van Haasteren to create maps of gravitational-wave backgrounds using a network of ground-based laser interferometers. We show that in contrast to pulsar timing arrays, which are insensitive to half of the gravitational-wave sky (the curl modes), a network of ground-based interferometers is sensitive to both the gradient and curl components of the background. Read More

Searches for stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds using pulsar timing arrays look for correlations in the timing residuals induced by the background across the pulsars in the array. The correlation signature of an isotropic, unpolarized gravitational-wave background predicted by general relativity follows the so-called Hellings and Downs curve, which is a relatively simple function of the angle between a pair of Earth-pulsar baselines. In this paper, we give a pedagogical discussion of the Hellings and Downs curve for pulsar timing arrays, considering simpler analogous scenarios involving sound and electromagnetic waves. Read More

Supermassive black hole binaries, cosmic strings, relic gravitational waves from inflation, and first order phase transitions in the early universe are expected to contribute to a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the 10^(-9) Hz-10^(-7) Hz frequency band. Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) exploit the high precision timing of radio pulsars to detect signals at such frequencies. Here we present a time-domain implementation of the optimal cross-correlation statistic for stochastic background searches in PTA data. Read More

We describe an alternative approach to the analysis of gravitational-wave backgrounds, based on the formalism used to characterise the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background. In contrast to standard analyses, this approach makes no assumptions about the nature of the background and so has the potential to reveal much more about the physical processes that generated it. An arbitrary background can be decomposed into modes whose angular dependence on the sky is given by gradients and curls of spherical harmonics. Read More

We propose a graphical representation of detector sensitivity curves for stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds that takes into account the increase in sensitivity that comes from integrating over frequency in addition to integrating over time. This method is valid for backgrounds that have a power-law spectrum in the analysis band. We call these graphs "power-law integrated curves. Read More

We derive scaling laws for the signal-to-noise ratio of the optimal cross-correlation statistic, and show that the large power-law increase of the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of the the observation time $T$ that is usually assumed holds only at early times. After enough time has elapsed, pulsar timing arrays enter a new regime where the signal to noise only scales as $\sqrt{T}$. In addition, in this regime the quality of the pulsar timing data and the cadence become relatively un-important. Read More

We present a unified description of gravitational-wave data analysis that unites the template-based analysis used to detect deterministic signals from well-modeled sources, such as binary-black-hole mergers, with the cross-correlation analysis used to detect stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds. We also discuss the connection between template-based analyses and those that target poorly-modeled bursts of gravitational waves, and suggest a new approach for detecting burst signals. Read More

Given independent samples from P and Q, two-sample permutation tests allow one to construct exact level tests when the null hypothesis is P=Q. On the other hand, when comparing or testing particular parameters $\theta$ of P and Q, such as their means or medians, permutation tests need not be level $\alpha$, or even approximately level $\alpha$ in large samples. Under very weak assumptions for comparing estimators, we provide a general test procedure whereby the asymptotic validity of the permutation test holds while retaining the exact rejection probability $\alpha$ in finite samples when the underlying distributions are identical. Read More

In 1676 Olaus R{\o}mer presented the first observational evidence for a finite light velocity $\cem$. He formed his estimate by attributing the periodically varying discrepancy between the observed and expected occultation times of the Galilean satellite Io by its planetary host Jupiter to the time it takes light to cross Earth's orbital diameter. Given a stable celestial clock that can be observed in gravitational waves the same principle can be used to measure the propagation speed $\cgw$ of gravitational radiation. Read More

Uncertainty in the calibration of gravitational-wave (GW) detector data leads to systematic errors which must be accounted for in setting limits on the strength of GW signals. When cross-correlation measurements are made using data from a pair of instruments, as in searches for a stochastic GW background, the calibration uncertainties of the individual instruments can be combined into an uncertainty associated with the pair. With the advent of multi-baseline GW observation (e. Read More

This paper provides conditions under which subsampling and the bootstrap can be used to construct estimators of the quantiles of the distribution of a root that behave well uniformly over a large class of distributions $\mathbf{P}$. These results are then applied (i) to construct confidence regions that behave well uniformly over $\mathbf{P}$ in the sense that the coverage probability tends to at least the nominal level uniformly over $\mathbf{P}$ and (ii) to construct tests that behave well uniformly over $\mathbf{P}$ in the sense that the size tends to no greater than the nominal level uniformly over $\mathbf{P}$. Without these stronger notions of convergence, the asymptotic approximations to the coverage probability or size may be poor, even in very large samples. Read More

We present a maximum-likelihood analysis for estimating the angular distribution of power in an anisotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background using ground-based laser interferometers. The standard isotropic and gravitational-wave radiometer searches (optimal for point sources) are recovered as special limiting cases. The angular distribution can be decomposed with respect to any set of basis functions on the sky, and the single-baseline, cross-correlation analysis is easily extended to a network of three or more detectors-that is, to multiple baselines. Read More

Detection of a gravitational-wave stochastic background via ground or space-based gravitational-wave detectors requires the cross-correlation of the response of two or more independent detectors. The cross-correlation involves a frequency-dependent factor -- the so-called overlap reduction function or Hellings-Downs curve -- that depends on the relative geometry of each detector pair: i.e. Read More

Consider the problem of testing $s$ hypotheses simultaneously. The usual approach restricts attention to procedures that control the probability of even one false rejection, the familywise error rate (FWER). If $s$ is large, one might be willing to tolerate more than one false rejection, thereby increasing the ability of the procedure to correctly reject false null hypotheses. Read More

Consider the problem of testing multiple null hypotheses. A classical approach to dealing with the multiplicity problem is to restrict attention to procedures that control the familywise error rate ($FWER$), the probability of even one false rejection. However, if $s$ is large, control of the $FWER$ is so stringent that the ability of a procedure which controls the $FWER$ to detect false null hypotheses is limited. Read More

The expansion of the universe is often viewed as a uniform stretching of space that would affect compact objects, atoms and stars, as well as the separation of galaxies. One usually hears that bound systems do not take part in the general expansion, but a much more subtle question is whether bound systems expand partially. In this paper, a very definitive answer is given for a very simple system: a classical "atom" bound by electrical attraction. Read More

In this paper we consider the construction of optimal tests of equivalence hypotheses. Specifically, assume X_1,.. Read More

Consider the multiple testing problem of testing k null hypotheses, where the unknown family of distributions is assumed to satisfy a certain monotonicity assumption. Attention is restricted to procedures that control the familywise error rate in the strong sense and which satisfy a monotonicity condition. Under these assumptions, we prove certain maximin optimality results for some well-known stepdown and stepup procedures. Read More

In a previous paper (gr-qc/0105100) we derived a set of near-optimal signal detection techniques for gravitational wave detectors whose noise probability distributions contain non-Gaussian tails. The methods modify standard methods by truncating sample values which lie in those non-Gaussian tails. The methods were derived, in the frequentist framework, by minimizing false alarm probabilities at fixed false detection probability in weak signal limit. Read More

One of the types of signals for which the LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors will search is a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We review the technique of searching for a background using the optimally-filtered cross-correlation statistic, and describe the state of plans to perform such cross-correlations between the two LIGO interferometers as well as between LIGO and other gravitational-wave detectors, in particular the preparation of software to perform such data analysis. Read More

Gravitational wave detectors will need optimal signal-processing algorithms to extract weak signals from the detector noise. Most algorithms designed to date are based on the unrealistic assumption that the detector noise may be modeled as a stationary Gaussian process. However most experiments exhibit a non-Gaussian ``tail'' in the probability distribution. Read More

If $\gamma$-ray bursts (GRBs) are accompanied by gravitational wave bursts (GWBs) the correlated output of two gravitational wave detectors evaluated in the moments just prior to a GRB will differ from that evaluated at times not associated with a GRB. We can test for this difference independently of any model of the GWB signal waveform. If we invoke a model for the GRB source population and GWB radiation spectral density we can find a confidence interval or upper limit on the root-mean-square GWB signal amplitude in the detector waveband. Read More

The geometry of two infinitely long lines of mass moving in a fixed circular orbit is considered as a toy model for the inspiral of a binary system of compact objects due to gravitational radiation. The two Killing fields in the toy model are used, according to a formalism introduced by Geroch, to describe the geometry entirely in terms of a set of tensor fields on the two-manifold of Killing vector orbits. Geroch's derivation of the Einstein equations in this formalism is streamlined and generalized. Read More

We analyze the signal processing required for the optimal detection of a stochastic background of gravitational radiation using laser interferometric detectors. Starting with basic assumptions about the statistical properties of a stochastic gravity-wave background, we derive expressions for the optimal filter function and signal-to-noise ratio for the cross-correlation of the outputs of two gravity-wave detectors. Sensitivity levels required for detection are then calculated. Read More

We present an anomaly-free Dirac constraint quantization of the string-inspired dilatonic gravity (the CGHS model) in an open 2-dimensional spacetime. We show that the quantum theory has the same degrees of freedom as the classical theory; namely, all the modes of the scalar field on an auxiliary flat background, supplemented by a single additional variable corresponding to the primordial component of the black hole mass. The functional Heisenberg equations of motion for these dynamical variables and their canonical conjugates are linear, and they have exactly the same form as the corresponding classical equations. Read More

The Hamiltonian structure of spacetimes with two commuting Killing vector fields is analyzed for the purpose of addressing the various problems of time that arise in canonical gravity. Two specific models are considered: (i) cylindrically symmetric spacetimes, and (ii) toroidally symmetric spacetimes, which respectively involve open and closed universe boundary conditions. For each model canonical variables which can be used to identify points of space and instants of time, {\it i. Read More

A canonical formalism for spherical symmetry, originally developed by Kucha\v{r} to describe vacuum Schwarzschild black holes, is extended to include a spherically symmetric, massless, scalar field source. By introducing the ADM mass as a canonical coordinate on phase space, one finds that the super-Hamiltonian and supermomentum constraints for the coupled system simplify considerably. Yet, despite this simplification, it is difficult to find a functional time formalism for the theory. Read More

The coupling of gravity to dust helps to discover simple quadratic combinations of the gravitational super-Hamiltonian and supermomentum whose Poisson brackets strongly vanish. This leads to a new form of vacuum constraints which generate a true Lie algebra. We show that the coupling of gravity to a massless scalar field leads to yet another set of constraints with the same property, albeit not as simple as that based on the coupling to dust. Read More

We discuss isometric embedding diagrams for the visualization of initial data for the problem of the head-on collision of two black holes. The problem of constructing the embedding diagrams is explicitly presented for the best studied initial data, the Misner geometry. We present a partial solution of the embedding diagrams and discuss issues related to completing the solution. Read More

As shown by Ashtekar in the mid 80's, general relativity can be extended to incorporate degenerate metrics. This extension is not unique, however, as one can change the form of the hamiltonian constraints and obtain an {\it alternative} degenerate extension of general relativity that disagrees with Ashtekar's original theory when the triads vectors are degenerate. In this paper, the constraint algebra of a particular alternative theory is explicitly evaluated and compared with that of Ashtekar's original degenerate extension. Read More

The purpose of this review is to describe in some detail the mathematical relationship between geometrodynamics and connection dynamics in the context of the classical theories of 2+1 and 3+1 gravity. I analyze the standard Einstein-Hilbert theory (in any spacetime dimension), the Palatini and Chern-Simons theories in 2+1 dimensions, and the Palatini and self-dual theories in 3+1 dimensions. I also couple various matter fields to these theories and briefly describe a pure spin-connection formulation of 3+1 gravity. Read More

The propagation of scalar and spinor fields in a spacetime whose metric changes signature is analyzed. Recent work of Dray et al. on particle production from signature change for a (massless) scalar field is reviewed, and an attempt is made to extend their analysis to the case of a (massless) spin-half field. Read More

General relativity has previously been extended to incorporate degenerate metrics using Ashtekar's hamiltonian formulation of the theory. In this letter, we show that a natural alternative choice for the form of the hamiltonian constraints leads to a theory which agrees with GR for non-degenerate metrics, but differs in the degenerate sector from Ashtekar's original degenerate extension. The Poisson bracket algebra of the alternative constraints closes in the non-degenerate sector, with structure functions that involve the {\it inverse} of the spatial triad. Read More

It has recently been shown by Goldberg et al that the holonomy group of the chiral spin-connection is preserved under time evolution in vacuum general relativity. Here, the underlying reason for the time-independence of the holonomy group is traced to the self-duality of the curvature 2-form for an Einstein space. This observation reveals that the holonomy group is time-independent not only in vacuum, but also in the presence of a cosmological constant. Read More